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ACCURATE ENGRAVINGS 

THE PARACHUTE 



AND THE 



1 

From Drawings made by Mr. Cooking's Permission, and under his 
awn immediate superintendence, accompanied with an authentic 
description of this novel and interesting Machine, and the fullest ac- 
count of the Ascent and Descent, will appear without extra charge, 
To-morrow, in 



The cheapest weekly miscellany of Literature, Science, and Entertainment, 
consisting of 16 quarto pages, price only Twopence. 

Published by Bergir, Holywell Street, Strand ; Pioot and Co., 59. Fleet Street, and 
Manchester; Clark, Warwick Lane, and sold, on order, by all dealers in Periodicals. 




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Mr. COCKING. 






scent of the Royal Nassau Balloon from Vauxhall } 
with the Parachute attached, 



The fatal Descent of the Parachute by which 
Mr. Cocking lost his life. 

Published by J. Thompson, 51, Gloucester Street, Oakley Street, Lambeth. 




The ascent of the Royal Nassau Balloon from Vauœhall, 
with the Parachute attached. 



The fatal Descent of the Parachute by which 
Mr. Cocking lost his life j 



Published by J. Thompson, 51, Gloucester Street, Oakley Street, Lambeth. 



— ^"^ 











: ■ -■;■-.■■. : .,W>" 



the NASSAU BALLOON Tvith 
The Rsiracluxte as it asscended . 





A-i-vOeJC- fy- W. Ci*r* 202 #u?% XtSforn,. 



M* COCKING 







the PARACHUTE; as it 

descended, "by which M 1 Cocking- 
lost his Life. July 24*1837 . 






Jh&Ushedr ty 6 TïegeccrPé. 6k^cfusi^fl(^ruZ^^ 









THE 




WONDER 






1 wonders will never cease." — Old Saying. 




No. 6.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 29, 1837. 



[Price Two Penet. 



ASCENT OF THÉ BALLOON FROM VAUXHALL, AND 
DESCENT OF THE PARACHUTE, 



Vauxhall Gardens were crowded during the whole of Monday 
afternoon by an immense assemblage of persons, drawn together 
to witness the hazardous, and, we regret to add, fatal experiment 
of Mr. Cocking, to descend from an altitude of upwards of a mile 
in a parachute of his own invention. No attempt of a similar de- 
scription has been made in London, we believe, since the experi- 
ment of Monsieur Garnerin, upwards of thirty years ago ; and 
the greatest curiosity was naturally excited as* to the result. 
Thousands of persons filled all the streets and avenues in the 
neighbourhood of Vauxhall, and a joyous crowd swarmed on every 
eminence and open spot that commanded a fair view of the 
horizon. The time fixed for the ascent of the aeronaut was five 
o'clock, but on our entering the Gardens at that hour we found 
that the process of inflation of Mr. Green's Nassau balloon was 
not yet completed. This afforded us an opportunity of inspecting 
the parachute in which Mr. Cocking contemplated his awful 
descent, and we had some conversation with the unfortunate gen- 
tleman on the principle of his contrivance, and the altitude at 
which he proposed to sever his connexion with the balloon of Mr. 
Green. 

Mr. Cocking, who was a gentlemanly man, short in stature, and 
somewhat stout, and apparently of the age of fifty-two or fifty- 
three, gave the most obliging answers to our queries, and explained 
that his parachute was constructed on a totally different plan from 
that of M. Garnerin. The latter he described as of the form of 
an umbrella, closed at the very moment of descent, but expanded 
by the atmosphere as it approached the earth, and forming a sort 
of canopy over the aeronaut. His parachute, on the contrary, 
was in the form of an umbrella reversed, the cavity containing 
the air being turned uppermost, with the view, he said, of pre- 
venting the oscillation which proved so disastrous to M. Garnerin. 
As the parachute stood upon the ground, we were unable to see 
very exactly the place to be occupied by the aeronaut, but shortlv 
afterwards it was raised to an altitude of about four feet, when we 
perceived a circular orifice of about a yard in diameter, sur- 
rounded by a hoop, to which a basket o*r car was attached by 
several cords. Mr. Cocking expressed bv words the utmost con- 
fidence in the result of his experiment, but it appeared to us that 
it was a confidence which he did not feel. His restless looks and 
nervousness of manner seemed to belie the bravery of his speech, 
h T thou » ht more than once that his minc * was ill at ease, and 
that he would willingly have postponed the attempt until a less 
hazardous trial had assured him of its safety. When questioned 
as to the danger, he remarked that none existed for him, and that 



the greatest peril, if any, would attend the balloon when suddenly 
relieved from the weight of himself and the parachute (about five 
hundred weight). ^ Notwithstanding the confidence of this asser- 
tion, an uneasy twinkle in his eye convinced us that he was not s« 
sure of this as he appeared to be. 

Towards six o'clock, Messrs. Green and Spenser entered the bal- 
loon, which was allowed to ascend to an altitude of about forty feet, 
that the parachute might be brought directly under it, and securely 
fixed. It was seven o'clock before all the preparations were com- 
pleted, at which time the whole apparatus was distinctly visible 
to every one in the gardens. Considerable impatience had bee» 
manifested at the long delay which had taken place ; but as tht 
position of the parachute became more closely defined, a general 
clapping of hands expressed the joy of the multitude. Another 
half hour passed away, during which time Mr. Cocking was en- 
gaged in earnest conversation with several of his friends. Tb« 
band of the Surrey Yeomanry suddenly struck up the national 
anthem, which being considered the signal for the cords to he 
loosened, a loud huzza proceeded from the gardens, and was re- 
echoed by the impatient mob outside. At this moment a tube or 
pipe of linen was lowered from the car of the balloon through the 
orifice in the parachute, and past the basket in which Mr. Cock- 
ing was to sit. This, we soon discovered, was for the conveyance 
of the ballast it is found necessary to discharge on the ascent of a 
balloon, and which, if it had been thrown out in the usual man- 
ner, would have lodged in the parachute. All the preparations 
having been completed, Mr. Cocking (having previously stripped 
of his coat as too cumbersome, and put on a light jacket) 
stepped into the car, amid the acclamations of the company. 
Some of his friends offered him a glass of wine, which lie 
drank, and having skaken them all cordially by the hand, 
little knowing that it would be for the last time, the cords 
were loosened, and the balloon and its attendant parachute 
mounted into the heavens amid the renewed cheering of the crowd. 
The early part of the afternoon had been remarkably fine and 
clear, but about this time (half-past seven) the sky had become 
somewhat overcast, and a breeze had sprung up. No apprehen- 
sions, however, were entertained, and the scene at that moment 
was as gay and cheerful as it is possible to imagine. Above was 
the majestic balloon, sailing rapidly aloft, its inmates waving their 
flags in triumph ; below was the gaily-dressed multitude mixing 
their acclamations with the music of the band, and clapping their 
hands to the adventurous voyagers, little dreaming that the death- 
hour of the principal actor in the scene was rapidly approaching. 
The balloon had hardly attained an altitude of two hundred feet, 



Printed and Published by Hkmkt JohkHowaeû, 137, Fleet-street, London» 




22 



THE WONDER. 



when the tube destined for the escape of the ballast from the car 
above detached itself by some means or other from the basket of 
Mr. Cocking, and floated like a ribbon in the air. The balloon 
remained in sight for about half an hour, taking a south-easterly 
direction, during which time Mr. Cocking had not made any at- 
tempt to commence his descent, and it then entered a cloud, and 
was lost to view. As there was nothing further to be seen, we 
followed the example of the crowd, and retired from the gardens. 

FURTHER PARTICULARS. 

The melancholy result of the scientific experiment projected by 
Ihis unfortunate gentleman, has created general sympathy; and 
some particulars connected with the event will, perhaps, prove of 
mterest. Of necessity, all the facts relating to the accident can 
«ever be known ; but sufficient has been collected which may be 
reiied upon, to serve as a foundation for coming to a correct con- 
tusion as to the cause of the fatal termination of the experiment. 

The machine which Mr. Cocking purposed to descend in was 
«obstructed on a new principle, and it had been inspected and ap- 
proved of by scientific men, whom Mr. Cocking had consulted on 
the subject of his experiment. Mr. Green also saw the contriv- 
ance, and he made several suggestions, which, had they been 
attended to, would, in all probability, have been the means of 
saving the life of the daring aeronaut. Mr. Green did not 
approve of the tin tubes which the parachute was fitted up with, 
jrad he suggested the probable advantage of substituting stretchers 
made of wood. Mr. Cocking, however, was of opinion that the 
lubes possessed a great advantage in point of buoyancy, and there- 
fore they were allowed to remain. The principal objections, if it 
may be so termed, of Mr. Green was, that the machine was not 
strong enough to sustain the powerful action to which it would be 
subjected when detached from the balloon, and the event, in a 
jpreat measure, showed that his judgment was correct. Indepen- 
dent of the experiment of a descent on a new construction of 
parachute, Mr. Cocking intimated his determination of trying an 
additional experiment with certain apparatus which he had pre- 
pared, and which he had proposed to take up with him in the 
parachute. This resolution was strenuously combatted by his 
friends, and it was supposed that the project was abandoned until 
tfce evening of the ascent, when it was ascertained that Mr. 
Cocking intended to persevere, and had come provided with the 
apparatus. This new experiment consisted of a certain arrange- 
ment of ropes, by which Mr. Cocking believed he should be able 
*o to regulate his descent, that, in place of falling vertically, he 
could give the descent a diagonal direction, and thus, should it be 
necessary, have the means of clearing any object, such as a tree, 
«r even a house. Whether Mr. Cocking really did put his appa- 
ratus into action or not is a matter of doubt, but strong grounds 
dxist for believing that he actually did endeavour to effect his pur- 
pose, and that in so doing he caused the parachute to swerve on 
«ne side, and ultimately to collapse. On the evening of the 
ascent, and, in fact,: during the day, Mr. Gye, jun., begged Mr. 
Cocking, if he felt the slightest doubt of the success and safety of 
his experiment, to state the fact candidly, and whatever might be 
the consequences from the disappointment of the public, even if 
Hiey went so far as to pull the gardens to pieces, he would cheer- 
fully encounter them. Mr. Cocking declared to the last that he 
had" no misgivings ; his confidence was quite unshaken, and he felt 
no doubt of the perfect success of his experiment. Mr. Green 
also spoke to him, but he repeated his declarations, and added that 
he was satisfied his calculations were founded in truth ; they had 
been seen and approved of by scientific men, and they were as 
sanguine as himself with regard to ultimate success. Mr. Cocking 
mentioned that his calculations were made not only with precision, 



but, in order to guard against accident, he had a power of 12016». 
more than was required. 

In this sanguine state of mind Mr. Cocking entered the basket 
of the parachute, and at the given signal the balloon, contain- 
ing Mr. Green and Mr. Spenser, rose with its ponderous ap- 
pendage. In order to facilitate the exclusion of the ballast, a 
pipe was so contrived as to run from the balloon through the 
parachute ; but the balloon had not risen many feet in the air 
before it was found that the contrivance was useless. As it was 
indispensable that the balloon should be lightened, Mr. Green 
and Mr. Spenser, finding it was impossible to discharge the bal- 
last in the ordinary way, without throwing the materials on the 
parachute, began instantly to cut up the ballast bags, and to 
throw out the portions of ballast as far as they were able. This 
proceeding had the desired effect, and the balloon rose steadily. 
When about 600 feet from the earth, Mr. Cocking spoke to Mir. 
Green, and inquired the height at which they then were. He 
continued to make inquiries as to the height, and, when asked by 
Mr. Green how he felt, replied that he never felt more comfort- 
able in his life ; his calculations turned out according to hi» 
expectations, and he had no doubt of accomplishing his task 
with ease and in safety. When about 5,000 feet from the earth, 
he called out to Mr. Green and Mr. Spenser that he should 
soon leave them. Mr. Green bade him good-bye, and wished 
him a safe descent. The parachute was almost immediate!? 
afterwards cut away by the unfortunate gentleman himself 
and from that period all is a matter of conjecture. Mr. Green 
and Mr. Spenser were occupied in discharging the gas on the 
instant the parachute was severed, but, notwithstanding all their 
expedition, the balloon, thus lightened, rose with fearful velo- 
city, and oscillated with such violence, that it was feared by the 
aeronauts it would turn over. The balloon rising in this 
rapid manner was impelled through the gas which was escaping, 
and the effect on the aeronauts was to deprive them of sight, 
and, for a short time, to threaten suffocation. Indeed, the 
circumstance acted in such a serious manner, that Mr. Green 
had not wholly recorered from the effects by yesterday afteT- 
noon. The parachute, as the public are already informed, feU 
"n a field near Lee-green. Hardly had it reached the ground be- 
fore numbers were on the spot ready to render assistance. The 
unfortunate gentleman was not quite dead, but in a very few mi- 
nutes life was extinct. From his position, and the position of the 
basket, together with a strong indentation on one side of the bas- 
ket, the general belief is that Mr. Cocking' reached the ground iu 
the basket ; but as he touched the earth in a slanting direction, 
corroborated by the bruise on the basket, the shock threw him 
out, and occasioned the wound on the temple, which wound ap- 
pears principally to have occasioned the speedy dissolution. Th* 
corpse was conveyed to the Tiger's Head, Lee-green, kept by T. 
Sears, and the parachute and appendages were likewise brought 
to the same place, and deposited in a room on the first floor. It 
is necessary here to take notice of a circumstance which has created 
universal disgust, and which has roused general indignation. Ob 
Tuesday morning several persons, whom the occurrence had at- 
tracted, applied to view the body and the parachute. Ticket» 
were provided at the bar, a check-taker appointed, and the ♦«*- 
tomary formalities of a Bartholomew- fair show were introduced by 
the persons connected with the public-house. The parachute wa# 
shown at 6d. per head, and the body of the unfortunate gentlem» 
was also made a public spectacle of for an additional 6d. Th» 
disgusting proceeding would have continued for some time, had nt* 
the head gardener from Vauxhall-gardens, named Steevens, lot» 
off to acquaint Mr. Gye with the occurrence. . 

The most disgraceful part of the exhibition— that of ac*»** 



THE WONDER. 



3* 



the body for money— was, however, abandoned, but the sixpences 
were demanded for inspecting the parachute up to the time when 
the constable made his appearance with instructions from the 
proper authorities to take charge of all the materials until the in- 
quest was terminated. This was a proceeding quite indispensable, 
for such was the indecent curiosity of those who came to the spec- 
tacle, that, they carried off portions of the basket work, and, had 
not a stop been put to the depredations, there is reason to believe 
the whole would have speedily disappeared. 

The balloon descended about nine o'clock, within a few miles 
of Maidstone. Mr. Green and Mr. Spenser alighted in perfect 
safety, and passed the night near the place where they descended. 
The melancholy fate of their companion did not reach them until 
yesterday morning, when they instantly set off for Lee-green, and 
there received a confirmation of the distressing event. 

ADDITIONAL AND LATEST PARTICULARS. 

The death of the unfortunate Mr. Robert Cocking, under the 
appalling circumstances detailed in our journal, has created a 
deep and painful sympathy in the minds of the public. The ca- 
Sastrophe has happily not been extended to a further loss of life, 
as was fearfully anticipated on Monday night. After the para- 
«hute was divided from the car, the balloon rose rapidly, and 
gained an altitude of more than three miles. When about five 
miles on the other side of Maidstone, Mr. Green and his com- 
panion (Mr. Spenser) effected a safe descent. From the circum- 
stance of the balloon entering "some dense clouds immediately 
after the fastenings of the parachute were loosened, neither Mr. 
Green or his friend were able to make any observations as to the 
fatal consequences that ensued, and it was not until yesterday 
morning that intelligence reached them, ^through Mr. Charles 
Gye, of the dire Calamity that had taken place, when they imme- 
diately started off for Lee, and arrived at the Tiger's Head inn 
about half-past ten o'clock yesterday afternoon. The statements 
which have appeared are in some respects incorrect. The ill- 
fated Mr. Cocking did not fall out of the basket attached to the 
parachute, but fell with the machine, and when first discovered 
was jammed in the basket, some of the wicker work being nearly 
forced through by, apparently, the knees of the sufferer. A num- 
ber of eyes were on the balloon at the moment the division took 
place between it and the parachnte, and it had not descended 
more than a few seconds, when so fearful an oscillation took 
place that the fatal result was fully anticipated. Before reach- 
ing the earth the parachute turned over several times with great 
rapidity. Those who were at the time noticing with what fright- 
ful velocity the machine came to the earth, were not aware that 
a fellow creature was about to . undergo a dreadful death. Some 
labouring men in the employ of Mr. Norman first arrived on 
tiie spot, when the sad reality was apparent. The unfortunate 
gentleman was not quite dead ; he opened his eyes and moved 
bis lips, and having drawn a deep sigh, expired. His body was 
removed to the Tiger's Head inn, where several medical gen- 
tlemen attended, but all human aid was unavailing. The me- 
lancholy result of the experiment is satisfactorily attributed, by 
Mr. Green and other competent judges, to the deceased not 
having maintained an upright position in the basket, but 
leaning on the side, caused the lower part to be suddenly raised ; 
by which the adventurous aeronaut lost his equilibrium, and 
the rapid oscillation immediately ensuing brought the machine, 
which weighed more than 500 lbs. with the most tremendous 
velocity to the earth. In the opinion of the surgeons, death 
was caused by the dreadful concussion the system met with. 
The greatest appearance of external violence is about the 
opper part of the head and chest. It is stated by Mr. 



Green, that at the time the parachute was separated from th» 
car, the altitude was about à mile; and from the time of the 
oscillation commencing, until the machine reached the earth 
not more than a minute could have elapsed. The parachute, th» 
dimensions and construction of which have been described in the 
public journals more than once, now lies in a room at the inn. It 
is in a very mutilated condition, and Mr. Gye positively assert» 
that great portions of it have been taken away. This the above 
gentleman attributes to the public being allowed to inspect it ; a 
charge of sixpence for the admission of each individual having 
been improperly made by the landlord of the house. The corps* 
of the ill-fated and lamented gentleman was also intended to be 
exhibited to public gaze, for the above-stated sum, but was pre- 
vented by some respectable influential individuals of the place- 
On the arrival of the two Mr. Gyes, they put a stop to any charge 
being made for the inspection of the parachute. 

Mr. Cocking was in his 62d year. He was an artist by p»- 
fession, and a gentleman of considerable scientific attainment!. 
He had made several ascents with Mr. Green. He placed the 
greatest reliance upon the full success of the experiment, which 
has ended so disasterously. On the evening of the fatal ascent, 
he expressed the utmost confidence to his friends ; and when it 
was suggested to him that it was not too late to retract, but give 
up the experiment, at least until a future day, he said he would not 
forego his intention for any consideration. Mr. Cocking has left 
a widow, but no family. 



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vW?, drawings made, during èke. /tT£/va,r<zZu?-ris Jût i&& Ascen,?; œ.-7h£/ <z£ ffi^e fam-e; Zke SaZùnm. ruse/rvr. i rdêws 

WITH A SKETCH OF THE FATAL DESCENT OF M* CoCK TN G.. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PARACHUTE AND CAR, AND BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE 
FATAL DESCENT OF MR. COCKING. BY AN EYE-WITNESS. 

To accompany Spooner's Sketch of the Ascent of the Vauxhall Balloon, and Mr. Caching's Parachute. 



The Parachute was thus constructed ;— Three hoops, the largest of which was 107 feet 
in circumference, were connected by ten light spars of wood, from the frame work of 
the machine. These were strengthened by a series of small liues stretching from the 
upper hoop to the lower ; and the whole was covered by a fine cloth ; the latter 
consisting of 22 gores, 59 inches at their greatest diameters, and gradually diminishing 
to 11 inches, which, when sewed together, formed a cone at an angle of 30 degrees. 

The car was of wicker, and its attachment to the lower hoop "resembled that of the 
car of a balloon, which always retains its perpendicular whatever movement there may 
take place in the machine above. A strong rope descended from the hoop underneath 
the car of the balloon, and passing through an iron ring on the top of the main 
centre cord of the parachute, ascended on the other side, to be made fast to 
the instrument commonly used by Mr. Green for liberating the balloon. From 
this a thin cord hung down to the car of the parachute, and thus gave Mr. 
Cocking the opportunity of making the separation at any moment he may have 
deemed favourable. The surface exposed to the action of the air was 124 square yards, 
and the weight of the apparatus 223 lbs. This, added to Mr. Cocking's weight, viz. 
170 lbs. gives the total of 393 lbs. without ballast, which is said to have increased the 
total to 560 lbs. The vast balloon was inflated by five o'clock, soon after which Mr. 
Green prepared to connect with it the parachute, by allowing the balloon first to ascend 
a short distance, and then bringing the parachute beneath it. After much difficulty, this 
was effected by a rope as before described, and Mr. Cocking placed himself in the car or 
basket of the parachute, the distance between which, and the car of the balloon, in which 
were Mr. Green and a Mr. Spencer, being about 50 feet. At 20 minutes before 8 o'Clock 
having shaken hands with many of his friends, the balloon and the attached parachute 
ascended majestically from the earth. Nothing could be finer than the ascent. As the 
aeronauts rose, the transparency of the outspread parachute, with its tasteful embellish- 
ments, was extremely beautiful. 



The disastrous conclusion of the experiment is thus described by an eye-witness of the 
descent ; — 

" I was looking at the balloon with the parachute, as they drifted steadily before a 
gentle wind. In an instant afterwards, I observed the balloon shooting upwards with 
great velocity, and the parachute, which had been suddenly separated from it, falling with 
great rapidity. I lost sight of the balloon, and my eye was fixed on the parachute. 

" For a few moments the parachute descended so beautifully, and preserved its position 
so steadily, notwithstanding its fearful motion, that I thought it would reach the ground 
in safety. 

" To my eye it had a round flattish shape, and at this moment it seemed to lean a little 
to one side ; it was not horizontal. It remained for a moment or two in this position. 
All the while it was descending rapidly. 

" It then fell, as it were, to the opposite side, but with a quicker motion than when it 
first lost its horizontal position. It now oscillated several times quickly. A sort of 
flapping motion was then perceptible, and the parachute appeared lessened in diameter. 
It then apparently turned over, and, to me and some others standing near, it disappeared 
for the twinkling of an eye, and in the succeeding instant it was seen to have changed 
its flattish circular form to that of a long body like an umbrella partially opened, or more 
correctly, perhaps, to a balloon very much collapsed and descending with a great velocity. 
Some trees intervening prevented my further observation. 

" I made my way through the fields in the direction in which I had seen it fallin g, and 
as I reached a spot at a little distance from where it fell, I saw the lifeless body of the 
unfortunate gentleman placed on a hurdle to be conveyed by some farm labourers to an 
inn at Lee." 





Freje?iZe*l witfv t/ Y û S. ûf the, WO H DE R, July 2$ ^JSST. 






THE CASKET 

<W mttvàtwt, &timtt, anïr ^nttvtmmmm, 



CORRECT ENGRAVING OF MR. COCKING's PARACHUTE : 

SHOWING THE MODE OF ITS ATTACHMENT TO THE BALLOON, AND THE ACTION OF 

/» , TH , E APPARATUS BY WHICH HE RELEASED HIMSELF, 

{Drawn from Actual Admeasurement for the use of the Coroner's Inquest, and engraved by permission, exclusively for this werk,( 







No. SI, —Aug. 5, 1837. 



Price Twopence^ 









. 



482 



THE CASKET OF LITERATURE, 



MR. COOKING'S PARACHUTE DESCENT. 

As the unhappy termination of this worthy and la- 
mented gentleman's experiment continues to engross 
public attention, and all information on the subject is 
still sought with avidity, we again draw on our peculiar 
resources, through which we are enabled to publish 
an engraving explaining, on a sufficiently large 
scale, the machinery by which the Parachute was at- 
tached to the balloon, and the mode in which Mr. 
Cocking detached himself. Our engraving is a copy 
of the drawings made by Mr. Cocks, the artist of 
Vauxhall, for the information of the Coroner's jury^ 
and may be therefore fully relied on as correct in every 
particular, the whole being on a scale from actual ad- 
measurement. A double rope, fixed to one side of the 
balloon, passed under the car, and reached the catch, 
or trigger, marked A B, on which it hung in a loop. 
C marks the end of the liberating line in Mr. Cooking's 
car, which reaches thence to the trigger, to which it 
is fastened. D shows a rope, suspended by a ring at 
the upper end to the ropes already described as passing 
round the car, to which the parachute is attached by 
its passing through the dome to the lower hoop, on 
which the car was hung. Mr. Cocking is represented 
in the act of pulling the line C, which causes the latch 
of the trigger, at A B, to fly up ; the rope round the 
car consequently falls down, and lets the ring slide off, 
by which the parachute is liberated. 

Mr. Cocking, as has been stated in the public papers, 
had had this project in contemplation for a great 
number of years, and it is only due to his reputation 
as a scientific man to mention that the theory has been 
tested in various ways both by himself and Mr. Green, 
and the result has always been favourable to Mr. Cook- 
ing's principle, in preference to that of Garnerin. 
As many as twenty-five years ago, about which time 
Mr. Cocking lectured on aerostation at the theatre of 
his friend, Mr. Tatham, in Dorset- street these gentle- 
men, with the co-operation of Mr. Charles Green, the 
eminent aeronaut, constructed two parachutes — one on 
each principle, and a paper balloon, of considerable 
dimensions for the purpose of giving them an equal 
trial. At the time fixed on for the experiment, cir- 
cumstances prevented Mr. Green being of the party, 
but Messrs. Cocking and Totham — who is still living 
— proceeded together, at a very early hour of the morn- 
ing, to Hampstead Heath, carrying with them, besides 
the parachute and balloon, the materials for generating 
hydrogen gas. The balloon being inflated, a stick was 
fixed across the bottom of it, and at each end was 
affixed one of the parachutes, suspended by a piece of 
touch-paper, calculated to burn for equal periods, and 
the whole was launched into the air, and acted as de- 
sired. The result was that the parachute on Garnerin's 
principle exhibited all the oscillations found so objec- 
tionable at his descent, while Cooking's was altogether 
free from them, came much more slowly to the earth, 
and travelled a greater distance in its descent. It is 
not to be wondered at, therefore, that he gathered con- 
fidence in the truth of his theory. It is, however, 
considered by scientific men that, although the theory 
is good, in practice, the increase of strength and 
weight required are so far out of proportion to the in- 
crease of capacity, that a safe descent never Can be 
accomplished in such a machine. 

It will shock every one of right feeling to hear, that 
the property of the unfortunate gentleman was most 
shamefully stolen from his person, while lying at Lee. 
Allowance may be made for the desire to possess some 
memorial of the event, and for the manner in which the 
parachute accordingly vanished piecemeal ; but what 



must be thought of those who could aggravate the woes 
of a destitute widow by stealing his purse — his watch 
— his snuff-box — his eye-glass — even his shoes, the 
buttons from his dress, his cap, and every detachable 
part of his apparel. We are happy, however, to find 
that there are benevolent individuals actively exerting 
themselves for Mr. Cocking's accomplished and amiable 
widow. Mr. Durrant, the eminent stock-broker, has 
become the treasurer of a voluntary contribution on her 
behalf; and Mr. Green has most liberally offered to 
make an ascent in the large balloon gratuitously, on 
the Vauxhall proprietors giving the use of the gardens, 
and the Gas Company supplying the gas gratuitously. 

The following letters, from gentlemen of great 
scientific attainments, have appeared in the public 
papers since our last, and will no doubt be read with 
considerable interest. 

From Mr. Faraday. 

Sir, — Though very unwilling to appear in the public jour- 
nals or intrude on your kinduess, I am induced, by what 
appears to me an unnecessary reference to my name in the late 
inquest, to ask of you the favour of publication for the present 
letter. 

I knew Mr. Cocking long ago, was a fellow member with 
him at the City Philosophical Society, and heard him deliver 
the lecture 23 years since referred to by Mr. Gye at the in- 
quest; and the recollection of his companionship, abilities, 
and kindness at that time, adds greatly to my feelings of sorrow 
for his melancholy death. I did not know that he thought of 
putting his parachute to the proof by a descent until I saw his 
intention announced in the papers, and did not see him or the 
parachute until the day of the descent. He then asked me at 
the gardens my opinion of its safety, and I said that, as to its 
capability of retarding his descent, it was purely a matter of 
calculation into which 1 could not go. He said that he had 
made both experiments and calculations, and was fully assured 
the velocity of descent would not be greater than that of a man 
falling from a height of two feet. I then remarked upon the 
weakness of the construction, especially of the upper ring, and 
asked why he had not given it a form better able to resist eol- 
lapsion ? Why it was not assisted by stretchers or bracings, 
&c, ? He gave me the same answer generally that he had 
given to Mr. Gye, that it was strong enough, and that lie ob- 
jected to more weight above. I made other objections, as for 
instance, to the opening in the middle of the parachute, the 
place of the centre of gravity, &c, but finding him perfectly 
satisfied with his preparations, and resolved to ascend (as is ' 
fully proved by the evidence on the inquest), finding, also, by 
the care of Mr. Gye that every precaution was taken to enable 
him to abandon his intention at any moment, I desisted from 
making further remarks, which might tend to disturb his pre- 
sence of mind, though they would not have prevented his 
ascent. I, however, said not a word to him to advance his 
going; but, being doubtful and anxious, had expressed myseh 
so to some on the ground, and amongst others to Mr. Green, 
who asking me whether I would rather be in his or Mr. Cock- 
ing's situation, I said in his ; and this he told to Mr. Cocking 
in my hearing. With these feelings on my mind I retired in 
part, and did not speak to Mr. Cocking for the last hour and a 
half. 

Hearing that Mr. Mason was disturbing Mr. Cocking's at- 
tention, I did venture to say to the former gentleman, that as 
Mr, Cocking was resolved to ascend, 1 thought it unwise. 
Mr. Mason told me that he had made calculations, the result 
of which was, that the descent would be a very rapid one. I 
observed that Mr. Cocking had also told me he had made ex- 
periments and calculations, the results of which were, that the 
descent would be slow. Mr. Mason's calculations and ob- 
jections, as far as I know, had no relation to the strength of 
the parachute, or to the actual cause of the failure and sad 
result. 

The opinion given by Mr. Green and Mr. Gye (who ap- 
pear to me to be the best judges under the circumstances) 
regarding the failure of the parachute, makes me glad that 
I said no more to Mr. Cocking than 1 did. The retention 
of the rope attached to the balloon at the moment of se- 
paration may have been due to some disturbance of mind 
through anxiety, thus bringing on ihe fatal termination ; 



nd even, j 7 ' tlle 
tllber % offert 

30,1 «H 

116 ^gratuitously 
%^m of g at 



peavin thepubl icjour . 
am induced, b, whtt 

, tom y name in the iai e 
dation for the pre»* 

a fellow member with 
and heard him deliver 
iy Mr. Gyeat the ia- 

mpamonship, abilities, 
to my feelings of sorrow 
now that he thought of 
descent until I saw his 
did not see him or the 
He then asked me at 
ffld I said that, as to its 
was purely a matter of 
He said that he had 
,s, and was fully assured 
eater than that of a man 
len remarked upon the 
' of the upper ring, and 
setter able lo resist col- 
stretchers or bracings, 
■ generally that he had 
ough, and that he oh- 
other objections, as for 
e of the parachute, the 
,t finding him perfectly 
solved to ascend (as is 
ipiest), finding, also, by 
ion was taken to enable 
loment, I desisted from 
tend to disturb his pre- 
not have prevented his 
to him (o advance his 
us, had expressed mjseli 
igst others to Mr. Green, 
* be in his or Mr. M- 
j he told to Mr. Cocking 
on my mind 1 retired 
,g for the last hour é 

rb ing Mr. Cocking 



ormer g 

D d 1 thought it un» 

^'palculalions,^^ 



1 be aver,-, 

gftîtftf- 

under t c me -lad that 

kn ! moment of * 

on a' |lie , ' of nui"! 
>me disturbance °î 



and I am very thankful that I, at least, was not the cause 
of any such anxiety. 

In conclusion, my sincere thanks are due to the coroner 
for his kindness and consideration. It is much to be de- 
sired, though perhaps not to be expected, that others would 
more frequently have the same thought. 

I am, sir, your obliged servant, 

Royal Institution^ July 31. M. Faraday. 



From Mr. Ottley. 

Sir,— -Being at all times unwilling to have my sentiments 
and opinions misrepresented, but more especially so in your 
paper, which deservedly commands so much more public 
confidence than any other, I am induced to trouble you with 
a few lines respecting the evidence I gave at the inquest on the 
body of Mr. Cocking. 

If the object of the remarks I then made had been merely 
the value of a few philosophical truths, or the interest they 
might have in a scientific point of view, I should not have 
troubled you with the present communication. 

My object, however, was of far greater public importance 
than this. There appears to have been an opinion entertained 
by many of those present, and which was insisted upon by 
some with a degree of zeal scarcely to be accounted for, that 
had the parachute of Mr. Cocking been strong enough to re- 
sist fracture, the result of the experiment would have been 
successful. 

My calculations were made with a view to show that this 
could not have been the case, in consequenee of the little 
resistance afforded by the air to a convex parachute. The 
results of these calculations I stated to the court, because 
I thought it of the greatest importance to deter the adven- 
turous from attempting the formation and use of other para- 
chutes on the principle of that of Mr. Cocking, and trusting 
to them in the idea that, having given them more strength, 
they might depend upon their safety. In my evidence I stated 
that my attention had been drawn to the subject bythenovelty 
and notoriety of the intended experiment, and that I had 
made calculations comparing the relative powers of convex 
and concave parachutes previous to the experiment in ques- 
tion ; and I showed that from those calculations it followed 
that a fatal result might be considered as the natural conse- 
quence of the structure of the machine, independently of its 
accidental fracture in the descent. 

The fact is, that from the inherent defects in the nature of 
the structure, any attempt to increase the strength and size of 
such a machine must increase its weight in a still greater pro- 
portion, and, consequently, it must still remain inefficient. 

On the other hand, in the concave parachute, the surface, 
and consequently the resistance and efficiency, may he in- 
creased to any extent, without augmenting the weight in a 
greater degree, and therefore the power of such a parachute 
may be increased almost without limit, setting aside the in- 
convenience of managing one of extremely large dimensions. 

Although these calculations are not of a very abstruse 
character, and may be performed by all persons competent in 
meehp ical and pneumatical science, the results are such as 
could , Werbe arrived at without the aid of such calculations; 
and cca^equently, as I have said above, I consider the pro- 
nulgat on of them at the present moment to be important, 
inasmuch as it may prevent more lives being lost in experi- 
ments, which, from the necessity of failure attendant upon 
them, can scarcely merit the name. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 
William Campbell Otxley, M.A., 
Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge. 



Calculations from the Raihvay Magazine. 
The unfortunate experiment of Mr. Cocking, in his descent 
on the 24th ult., with the parachute, has excited so painful a 
feeling in the public mind, that we shall be excused for saying 
a few words on the subject. It appears that Mr. Cocking's 
apparatus was an inverted fru.strtim of a cone, 34 feet diameter 
at the top, and three or four at the bottom, which was open. 
We are informed the upper ring was a tin tube, about two 
inches' diameter, and the lower a wooden'hoop ; the superfices 
of the cone was strong linen or canvass, and the whole, with 
the basket in which he was, weighed about 1501b. He took 
up, we are informed, 2pwi of ballast, making^with himself, a 
total of about 5cwt. We know not the proportion of the axis 



of the frustrum to either diameter of the cone ; but supposing 
the parachute a flat circle, which would have been a better 
form for resistance, of the 34 feet diameter, it would expose a 
resisting" area of little better than 900 square feet. With these 
dimensions the mass would have descended with a velocity of 
near 13 miles an hour — three times greater than safety would 
permit; but from the bad formation of the machine, and the 
great hole in the middle, the resistance must have been less, 
and the velocity greater. Could he have rid himself of the 
2cwt of ballast, he must have descended more than 10 miles 
an hour — that is, near three times as fast as he ought. In 
every way it was an ill-contrived, ill-judged experiment; the 
tube was too weak, and, we are informed, it came unsoldered 
the day before he went, up. To descend with a velocity of five 
miles an hour, rather too much for perfect safety, requires a 
resisting area of 1,000 square feet for every 1001b. ; Cocking's 
had only 900 for more than five times the weight. His distance 
was nearly 60 feet from Mr. Green, too much for easy com- 
munication. 

It has been stated, that several scientific men had approved 
of calculations of the safety of Mr. Cocking's parachute. We 
can hardly believe it; we ourselves, at 4 o'clock, gave our 
opinion against it to friends who asked us. From the height, 
5,000 feet, stated by Mr. Green, and the time of descent, 70 
seconds, or more, observed by Mr. Bishop, we perceive that 
our computation of the maximum velocity, 13 miles an hour, 
would have been very near the truth, had the parachute not 
have collapsed. 



•nation ; 



THE CASKET 

m 9Ute?sttiv*t &timtt, aniï iSntrrtaiwwem 



THE VAUXHALL BALLOON AND PARACHUTE. 

(As they appeared at the Time of Ascending.) 

FROM DRAWINGS AND SKETCHES FURNISHED EXCLUSIVELY TO THIS WORK BY THE LATE 

LAMENTED MR. COCKING. 





THE BALLOON AND PARACHUTE ASCENT, WITH 
FULL PARTICULARS OF THE FATAL RESULT 
OF THE DESCENT, WRITTEN EXCLUSIVELY 
FOR THIS WORK BY AN EYE-WITNESS. 

TO WHICH IS ADDED 

MR. GREEN'S ACCOUNT OF THE VOYAGE. 



Parachutes were first constructed and appended to a balloon 
by Mr. Blanchard, with the view that, in the event of an 
accident to the balloon itself, the parachute might present a 
means of escape from any serious consequences which there- 
upon might threaten. During one of Blanchard's aerial 
voyages in 1785, upon which occasion he < set gas' from Lisle, 
whence he sailed along for three hundred miles in the ' boundless 
skies,' without a single halt, he let down a dog when at a 
great height, in a basket attached to the parachute. The 
canine 'descendant' fell gently through the air, until he 
effected a safe landing on terra firma, without even the 



No. 30.— July 30, 1837. 



Price Twopence. 



slightest bruise. After that period other aeronauts brought 
the system more into operation, and M. Garnerin, in his own 
country, repeatedly descended from a considerable altitude by 
means of a parachute. In the year 1802 this adventurous 
Frenchman came over to England and made two fine ascent» 
in a balloon ; on the second occasion having announced it to 
be his intention to return to the earth in a parachute, leaving 
his balloon to go whither the winds might waft it. The ascent 
was singularly grand ; and at a moment when the eyes of I 
countless spectators were fixed upon his movements, and he 
was at an amazing elevation, he disengaged himself from his 
buoyant power and commenced a rapid descent. For several 
seconds the machine came down with an accelerating velocity 
frightful to behold, and but one feeling pervaded the breasts of 
those who were anxiously watching its progress.' That feeling 
was one of apprehension, reduced to almost a certainty, 
that the subject of their solicitude must of necessity be dashed 
to atoms. The parachute tossed first on one side, then on the 
other ;^e ver and anon making such wide oscillations as that 



THE CASKET OF LITERATURE, 



ike car, in which sat the aeronaut, was placed in an horizontal 
line with the parachute portion of the apparatus. At length, 
after parsing in this appalling manner over Marylebone and 
^omer's-tovvn, the parachute reached the ground in a field in 
®t. Paneras. Thousands rushed to the spot, where they dis- 
éovered poor Garnerin lying on his face, in which position he 
Kd been thrown by the violence of the shock. On a close 
examination it was discovered that several cuts were the 
extent of the injury he had sustained, from which blood flowed 
in copious streams. He appeared to be greatly agitated on 
Regaining his senses. The circumstance of his having already 
made several successful descents of course led to the suppo- 
sition that all was not as it should be with the parachute, and 
so it turned out. Upon its undergoing a thorough examination, 
one of the principal strings was found either to have been 
broken, or to have in some way become perfectly useless, 
The shape of this parachute was that of the ordinary umbrella. 
We believe this is the only instance of the descent of a human 
being by a parachute in this country, previously to the cala- 
mitous one we have to describe ; and then, as was the case in 
the previous descents on the continent, the balloon in which 
the ascent was effected, was, on tire parachute being liberated 
from it, left to 'range its distance.' Consequently, the balloon 
was manufactured of cheap materials for the occasion. 

Mr. Cocking, who was a gentleman of considerable scienti- 
fic attainments, and dedicitcd a large portion of Iris leisure 
to the study cf aerostation, connected witii which subject his 
collection of drawings, engravings, models, &c. is most inter- 
esting, and perfectly unique, happened to be among those 
who beheld Garnerin's descent. A casual inspection of the pa- 
rachute at once showed to Mr. Cocking that, yo long as the ex- 
pansion was to be dependent on the chance of inflation from 
below, there must necessarily be a risk of its upsetting, and 
further, that in the event of either of the cords snapping or be- 
coming entangled, the probability would be strongly in favour 
of a powerful oscillating motion, and a rapid and dangerous 
descent the result. 

The consequence was, that when Mr. Cocking determined 
on using a parachute, he gave a preference to the principle of 
the one that has turned out so disastrously, which, although 
generally supposed to be altogether a novelty, was well known 
to the scientific world, although, on account of certain pre ■ 
sumed inherent deficiencies, the practical cultivators of the art 
did not choose to use it. 

It was first promulgated in Paris about forty years ago, re- 
vived in England by Sir George Cayley, and published by 
him, with other notices on aerostation, in (wo believe) the 
twenty-fourth volume of Nicholson's Journal. It was subse- 
quently more fully developed and improved upon by Mr. Kerr, 
by whom it was, in several experiments, publicly illustrated. 
Its principle consists in an inversion of the preceding ones, in 
which the surface of -least resistance is made to descend fore- 
most. The shape is that of a flattened cone, to the apex of 
which is attached the car of the adventurer. The chief object 
of this arrangement is to effect the correction of the oscillatory 
motion, which to a violent extent usually accompanies the 
descent, and the insurance of the speedy action of the machine 
after its detachment. As, however, the principle adopted by 
Mr. Cocking, and Garnerin's, are both fully explained by a 
scientific correspondent in No. 26 of The Casket, in an article 
which we have illustrated with engravings of each plan, we 
need do no more here than refer our readers to that article. 

It is due to Mr. Monck Mason, who was one of Mr. Hol- 
lond's guests in his great continental balloon excursion, and 
Who has published several papers on the subject of balloon- 
ing, to state that he entertained little faith in the plan adopted 
by Mr. (locking, and conveyed his opinions on the subject to 
the editors of some of the daily journals, on the day previous 
to the experiment. 

Mr. Mason (and facts now seen to justify his conclusion) 
considers the oscillations not in any way connected with the 
form of the parachute. He tr eats them as the consequence of 
a first irregularity, impressed upon it by the unequal extension 
of its parts in the act of opening. As a proof that the aberra- 
tions in question are entirely independent of the form of the 
parachute, or indeed of any other permanent condition of the 
descent, he observes that the aberrations themselves are by no 
means permanently or invariably present, at times being much 
more strongly displayed than at others, occasionally wanting al- 
together, and almost always becoming fainter as the experi- 
flWlt draw? to a close- 



Mr. Mason, however, saw a much greater] objection to the 
scheme than its mere inadequacy to the saving of the oscilla- 
tion, in the great sacrifice which it. occasions in the resisting' 
powers of the parachute, ' to an extent, indeed, which (we 
now quote from Mr. Mason) gives us reason to entertain much 
apprehension concerning the issue of the experiment by which 
it is now about to be illustrated. By a course of calculations, 
unnecessary to be inserted here, we learn that the resistance 
exerted upon the base of a cone in passing through the air 
(supposing it a plane) is to that upon its oblique presentation 
in the proportion of unity to the sine of half the vertical angle. 
Supposing the apex of the cone, in the present instance, to be 
a right angle (from which, we believe, it is a little removed), 
this proportion would stand in numbers, "as one is to one di- 
vided by the square root of two" (algebraic expressions aveii- 
tuin nej'us'm the public prints) ; consequently, the loss of resist- 
ance occasioned by presenting such a cone point foremost, is 
equal to one-third of what it would have been hud the base 
been so disposed as to encounter the action of the. air. Owing 
to this circumstance, the power of the projected parachute, as- 
suming its radius to be 17 feet, would only avail to retand the 
fill of the individual in the same degree as an ordinary para- 
chute whose radius was 14 feet. Now, the descending velo- 
city of such a parachute, charged with a weight of 484 pounds 
(that of the whole apparatus, including the aeronaut himself, 
his ballast, and other equipments), we ascertain from Dr. 
Hutton's theorem, would be exactly 20| feet per second , and 
the force developed, the same as if the individual had fallen 
unprotectedly from an altitude of six feet and a half; very 
nearly twice as much as in these cases is generally considered 
to be the acme of human bearing.' 

Whether the loss of Mr. Cocking is the result of the accu- 
racy of the above theory, and Ins ignorance of it, or of the in- 
sufficient strength of his machine, is a point that may now 
perhaps never be determined. But. we were present during 
the whole of the preparations to the time of the ascent, and 
certainly had a strong feeling of the fr a gilc-ness of the machine. 
We know that the upper hoop, from which the canvass de- 
pended, and on which the great strain must have been, w r as 
first made of copper, which utterly collapsed on its strength 
being tested ; and, although the hoop of block tin, which was 
afterwards substituted, stood the tests that had been too 
much for the copper one, we are fully prepared for hearing 
that the pressure of the air, combined with the weight of the 
parachute and its contents, exceeded anything that had been 
calculated on, and operated in the same way on the tin as the 
pressure of weight alone had previously done on the copper 
hoop. It was suggested to Mr. Cocking to have a hoop of 
ashuwood, the material used for the hoops of balloons, but he 
declined it, on account of its increased weight. We may as 
well observe in this place that he had tried experimental 
descents with a model from the Monument, which had been 
so perfectly satisfactory, that he never wavered in his confi- 
dence of success. 

Mr. Cocking had for years contemplated a descent with a 
parachute, but till the building of the great Vauxhall balloon 
by Mr. Charles Green, there was neither a machine of sufficient 
capabilities as regards power to carry up so large an additional 
weight, nor an aeronaut who was inclined to h&zard the expe- 
riment, of so suddenly releasing his balloon from a burden 
amounting to nearly 5u0lbs. The consequence of the instan- 
taneous removal of so large a weight'may in some degree be 
imagined upon its being stated that it is no uncommon thing 
for the balloon, when a few handsful of sand are thrown over, 
to obtain an additional elevation of 300 or 400 feet, and in- 
stances have occurred when, on two or three bags of 141bs. 
each being emptied of their contents the machine has shot up 
from 800't.o 1,200 fed. 

The progress of the united machines was watched therefore 
with a double interest, on this occasion. The main 
difficulty Mr. Green anticipated was that of breathing im- 
mediately after the severance of the balloon and parachute ; 
because then, in order to counteract the immense rising power 
the balloon would acquire on being relieved of the parachute, he 
would be obliged to throw open the escape valve as widely as 
possible, which would have the effect of bringing him and his 
companion into an atmosphere of gas, as the balloon would 
continue to rise faster than the gas wculd disperse. To meet 
this difficulty, he took with him a silk bag filled with common 
air, having two mouth-pieces, one to be used by himself and 



the other by his companion, while passing through the conta- 
minated atmosphere. 

Mr. Cooking's parachute presented the figure of an inverted 
cone, being 107 feet in circumference, and 34 feet in diameter. 
The frame-work consisted of three circles of tubes, the upper 
one, as already stated, being made of block tin, the others of 
thin copper. These were fastened together by rods acting 
somewhat like the whalebones of an umbrella distended. The 
framework thus formed was covered with gores of stout fine 
linen, 21 in number, and 15 feet in length. A series of 
small cords from the upper circle of tubes was fastened 
to the bottom of the balloon, which, meeting at the bot- 
tom, were attached to a wicker-basket large enough to hold 
one person only. This basket was covered with decorative 
drapery, and a bag full of inflated bladders was affixed to the 
bottom, in order to break the fall of the aeronaut. The whole 
outside of the parachute was varnished and most tastefully 
painted by Mr. Cocks, the scenic artist of Vauxhall, withhold 
wreaths of laurel and oak-leaves, and alternate bunches of the 
rose, thistle, and shamrock. An opinion prevailed that Mr. 
Green was to cut the parachute from the balloon, and, indeed, 
the Vauxhall proprietors so advertised ; but Mr. Green, with 
perfect propriety, declined doing so. He willingly undertook 
to carry Mr. Cocking and his parachute up, but considering 
the experiment a hazardous one, he declared that the whole 
responsibility of it must rest on its projector, in which Mr. 
Cocking heartily coincided. In consequence, a rope was ad- 
justed from the parachute through a ring at the bottom of the 
balloon to the trigger used by Mr. Green for liberating his bal- 
loon from the restraining ropes, by pulling which Mr. Cocking 
was enabled to descend at his own time. 

We shall now copy the account of the ascent from the Times 
newspaper, which we find to be as accurate as any, and as we 
cannot, of course, personally guarantee any of|tfre various ac- 
counts of the melancholy termination of the adventure, we will 
give them all, as far as they contradict each other, that our 
readers may have all the information we can collect on this 
painfully interesting subject ; previous to doing which, the 
writer may he pardoned for stating that he was on terms of 
intimacy with all the three parties to this experiment, and that 
he shook hands with Mr. Cocking, on his taking his place in 
his little car, not with much apprehension, certainly, for he 
thought all the arrangements had been too well considered to 
be likely to miscarry, but with a deep anxiety for the gentle- 
man now unhappily no more, participated' in, in a degree, 
doubtless, by all who beheld his unostentatious firmness, but. 
sure to be felt, to a painful extent, by those who, like him- 
self, had often experienced the benefit of his courteous con- 
duct and unaffected kindness of heart, and had met him in his 
domestic circle, where his virtues as a man and a husband 
commanded the devoted affection of his family and the respect 
of all who knew him, 

(From the Times.) 
We regret to have to state that the experiment of the descent 
of the parachute has terminated fatally to Mr. Cocking. In 
consequence of the announcement that he was to ascend in his 
parachute suspended to the great Nassau Balloon, a great 
number of persons, amongst whom were many of the first 
nobility of the country, assembled in the gardens to witness the 
experiment. Without the gardens, upon Vauxhall-bridge, 
and upon Millbank, the crowd was immense. The shape, 
dimensions, and construction of the parachute have been 
already described ; it may therefore be sufficient to say, that it 
was in shape an inverted cone, not very unlike an umbrella 
turned upside down. Jt was in circumference 107 feet four 
inches. From the bottom of this machine, which was con- 
structed of fine Irish linen, a basket of wicker was suspended, 
in which Mr. Cocking placed himself. The distance between 
this basket and the car, in which were Mr. Green and Mr. 
Spencer, was between forty and fifty feet. The ascent of the 
balloon took place about twenty minutes before eight o'clock. 
When Mr. Cocking entered the basket of the parachute he 
was perfectly collected, and exhibited no appearance of want 
of nerve, or indecision. 

Mr. F. Gye, who was particularly anxious in his attention to 
all the arrangements of the experiment, and who is entitled to 
every praise for the manner in winch he exerted himself to pre- 
vent the possibility of accident, continually in the course of the 
day, and up to the very moment of the ascent of the balloon, 
advised Mr. Cocking, if he felt the least timidity, to relinquish 
his attempt, and undertook to allay any ill-feeling that might 



SCIENCE AND ENTERTAINMENT. 



467 



arise amongst the public at the disappointment. Mr. Cock- 
ing, however, professed himself most anxious to carry his 
announcement into execution ; and after thanking Mr. F. Gye 
for his kindness and solicitude, professed himself most eager 
to ascend, At twenty minutes to eight o'clock, every thing 
being in readiness and the parachute attached to the car of the 
balloon, the ascent took place. Nothing could be more ma- 
jestic. The weight and great extent of the parachute appa- 
rently rendered the motion of the balloon more steady than on 
any former ascent, and the almost total absence of" wind as- 
sisted in keeping the balloon in a perpendicular position. 
There was not the slightest oscillation ; the balloon and para- 
chute sailed through the air with a grandeur which exceeded 
anything of the kind ever before witnessed, and continued in 
sight for about ten minutes. A good deal of ballast was dis- 
charged almost immediately over the enclosure, after which 
the huge machine rose rapidly, but not so suddenly as to break 
the even current of its course. It was expected by those in 
the gardens that Mr. Cocking would have descended so near 
Vauxhall as to have afforded them a view of his descent. This 
was not the case. He was lost in the clouds, and the company 
were for some time left in conjecture, but certainly not in an- 
ticipation of the result of the experiment. A son of Mr. Gye • 
was the first person who announced to our informant the fatal 
catastrophe. This gentleman followed on horseback, and 
arrived in a field, near Lee, in Kent, just in time to learn that 
the parachute had descended with such violence that Mr. 
, Cocking had lost his life in his experiment. The intelligence 
was not suffered to transpire for some time, in hopes that the . 
account might be incorrect, and that Mr. Cocking might have 
only been stunned, or have fainted, it being remembered that 
something of this sort occurred on the descent of M. Garnerin 
some years ago. It was, however, very shortly ascertained 
that the intelligence was too true. It appears that the descent 
of the parachute was made over a field close to Lee, that on 
approaching the ground the parachute, from some cause or 
other, most probably from the hoop which distended the ex- 
ternal circumference being composed of a hollow tube of tin 
having collapsed, and consequently opposed no resistance 
whatever to the atmosphere, but turned over and over in the 
air, and came down with a frightful velocity. Mr. Cocking 
was not, as we are informed at present, thrown out of the 
basket, but he received a dreadful wound on the right, temple, 
and had his ancle dislocated. He moved his hand once after 
his fall, but exhibited no other signs of life. Several country 
people, who were close by, procured a wattled hurdle, placed 
him upon it, and conveyed him without delay to the Tiger's 
Head Inn, at Lee. He was immediately attended by Dr. 
Chowne, who was on the spot ; but all medical assistance was ! 
unavailable. The arteries of his arms were opened, but it was I 
to no purpose, life had fled. It is but justice to say, that this 
fatal result is attributable in no manner to any person con- 
nected with Vauxhall or the balloon. 

( From a Correspondent.) 

Lee, 10 o'Clock, Monday Evening. 

As much public anxiety must be produced by the deplora- 
ble accident which happened near this place an hour or two 
ago, I beg leave to state a few particulars which I witnessed ' 
concen.!. ; . ; t. 

I was looking at the balloon with the parachute as it drifted 
steadily before a gentle wind and rose very slowly. After it 
was first pointed out to me, the parachute seemed to float 
without oscillation, and to hang perpendicularly under the 
balloon. Shortly afterwards the balloon itself was slightly 
agitated, and was inclined considerably more to one side than 
when I first saw it, and the parachute did not appear to hang 
so perpendicularly as at first. While I was referring this to 
the balloon rising perhaps into a stratum of air with à some- 
what greater velocity than the one it was leaving, the balloon 
and parachute adjusted themselves into their first position, and 
floated with as steady and as gentle a motion as before. 

In an instant afterwards, I observed the balloon shooting 
upwards with great velocity, and the parachute, which had 
been suddenly separated from it, falling with great rapidity. I 
lost sight of the balloon, and my eye was fixed on the para- 
chute Knowing the use and object of a parachute, 1 was 
struck with the great velocity of its descent, from the instant 
of its liberation: 



THE CASKET OF LITERATURE, 



The sky was serene ; the. beams of the setting sun fell on the 
parachute,_and every part was distinctly visible; the breeze in 
the region in which it was descending was so gentle as scarcely 
to exert any perceptible influence in turning it from its perpen- 
dicular direction, and where I stood, perhaps about 600 yards 
from where it alighted, the air did not move the leaves of an 
elm-tree. For a few moments the parachute descended so 
beautifully, and preserved its position so steadily, notwith- 
standing its fearful motion, that I thought it would reach the 
ground in safety, and I felt relieved from an intense momentary 
excitement, from an apprehension flashing across my mind 
that perhaps some human being was periling life itself in the 
experiment. 

m Being ignorant of the real form of the parachute, I speak of 
it as it appeared from a distance. To my eye it had a round 
flattish shape, and at this moment it seemed to lean a little to 
one side ; it was not horizontal. It remained for a moment 
or two m this position. All the while it was descending 
rapidly. b 

It then fell, as it were, to the opposite side, but with a 
quicker motion than when it first lost its horizontal position. 
It now oscillated several times quickly. A sort of flapping 
motion was then perceptible, and the parachute appeared 
lessened m diameter. It then apparently turned over, and at 
this moment something fell out of it at a great height, which, 
for the instant I could keep it in sight, did not fall much 
faster than the parachute. The parachute again turned over, 
and, to me and some others standing near, it disappeared for 
the twinkling of an eye, and in the succeeding instant it was 
seen to have changed its flattish circular form to that of a long 
body, like an umbrella partially opened, or more correctly, 
perhaps, to a balloon very much collapsed and descending 
with a great velocity. Some trees intervening prevented my 
further observation. 

I made my way through the fields in the direction in which 
1 had seen it falling, and as I reached a spot at a little dis- 
tance from where it fell, I saw the lifeless body of the unfor- 
tunate gentleman placed on a hurdle to be conveyed by some 
farm labourers to an inn at Lee. 

(Another Account.) 

* I lament to describe what I was an eye-witness of :— The 
noise produced, I suppose, from the breaking of the supports, 
was astounding; it indeed seemed impossible that an individual 
could live in such a situation. He reached the earth alive 
but quite insensible. He was alive for ten minutes after he 
came on the earth, but it was apparent that all was hopeless 
from the great wound on his temple. The place where he fell 
is called the Six Acre-field, belonging to Mr. Norman, Lee 
Kent. He was conveyed to the Tiger's Head public-house! 
kept by Mr. Thomas Seares. 

Previous to the falling of the parachute, something de- 
scended from the car of the balloon, to all appearance like a 
large black handkerchief. 

MR. GREEN'S ACCOUNT OF THE ASCENT AND 
DESCENT. 

In consequence of the sad and fatal catastrophe which has 
befallen the late Mr. Cocking, I feel myself called upon to 
communicate to the public the whole of the particclars of my 
ascent with the Vauxhall Balloon, taking up with me Mr. 
Cocking in his parachute. The inflation commenced about 
12, under the able direction of Mr. Hutchinson, the engineer 
to the London Gas Company, and was completed by 5 o'clock. 
Prior to the parachute being attached to the balloon, I caused a 
trial to be made with the view of ascertaining whether the 
buoyancy of the latter was sufficient to carry up the former 
with safety. The result of this trial was, after some arrange- 
ments with respect to the ballast, of which I was compelled to 
give out about 650lb.sin weight, had been effected, satisfac- 
tory. The abandonment of this large quantity of ballast I 
found to be absolutely requisite in order with safety to com- 
mence the ascent. The balloon was then allowed gently to 
rise a sufficient height to be conveyed over the parachute ; but 
in consequence of the great and unavoidable delay which was 
necessarily caused in affixing the two machines, the gas in the 
former became very considerably condensed, from a reduction 
of its temperature. It thereupon became a matter of compul- 
sion that I should get rid of lOOlbs. more of ballast, which I 



emptied out of the bags through a tube, constructed of canvass, 
and about 50 feet in length. The object in having this tube 
was, that any ballast I might deem it advisable to throw out 
during our voyage should take such a course as would entirely 
clear the broadest expanse of the parachute. The connexion 
between the balloon and the parachute was at length completed 
by the rope of the latter being made fast to the liberating iron 
by which Mr. Cocking was to free himself from the balloon. 

It is but justice to myself I should here state, that I had 
on several occasions expressed my determination not to libe- 
rate the parachute from the balloon, upon the ground, setting 
aside any other considerations, that I might select a moment 
for the severance when Mr. Cocking was not altogether pre- 
pared or ready for his descent, and therefore if any accident 
were to accrue to him, that I of course should be regarded as 
the responsible party, and the one to whom blame would na- 
turally attach. 

Mr. F. Gye, every thing being in readiness, about 25 mi- 
nutes to 8 o'clock, gave the signal for the whole of the appa- 
ratus to be released from its trammels, and we instantly rose 
very steadily, taking an easterly course. 

' Mr. Cocking had always desired that we should ascend 
to an elevation of 8,000 feet, about one mile and a quarter, at 
which height he proposed to detach himself from the balloon, 
and to commence his descent. Finding, therefore, that our 
upward progress was very slow, I requested Mr. Spencer to 
discharge some more ballast, and he accordingly threw the 
contents of a bag weighing 20lb. through the tube already 
named. This proving of little avail, I directed a second and 
then a third bagful to be got rid of by the same means. 

' At this period we were floating nearly over the Surrey 
Zoological-gardens, at an elevation of about 2,000 feet. It 
was at this moment that a portion of the lower end of the 
ballast-tube became detached, a circumstance which was 
caused by the occasional swinging to and fro of the parachute. 
This accident led to the inconvenience which I had foreseen 
some days before the ascent, and which led to the adoption of 
the tube, and of that of rendering it extremely difficult for us 
to discharge the ballast without its falling into the parachute. 

' Our inability to this as we were then situated I commu- 
nicated to Mr. Cocking, adding that under the circumstances 
it was impossible for us to rise any higher unless we were to 
attempt to throw the ballast in bags beyond the outer spread 
of his machine, a course of procedure which we considered to 
be attended with much danger to any persons who might 
chance to be beneath, but that we would, if he wished it, make 
the experiment as soon as we had cleared the houses.' Mr 
Cocking replied, " Very well, it is of no consequence ; if you* 
think I have time to rise as high as I want, and to descend be- 
fore dark." I remarked, « I think you have ; and you will then 
also have a more open country for the descent." We now 
continued to glide along, guided by the pleasure of the wind 
but nearly the same elevation until we had cleared all the 
buildings. During this time Mr. Spencer and myself were 
busily engaged in dividing our ballast into small parcels so 
that we might be able to throw them over without iniury to 
the parachute. J 

As soon as we found that we had arrived over the fields 
and presuming that no danger could arise from the falling of 
the ballast, we quickly began to relieve ourselves of that essen- 
tial commodity. In doing this our anxiety respecting any of 
it lodging in the parachute was much relieved by finding that 
hat machine continually swung backwards and forwards, evi- 
dently occasioned by the operation of the currents through 
which we passed, so that we were enabled withoutheny diffi- 
culty to cast away the bags without damage to tge vehicle 

immediately below us. We continued to discharge ballast 
until we had lessened our quality by 50lb., in addition to that 
already sent over. The balloon now began to rise, and soon 
entered a tier of clouds, when we lost sight of the earth. So 
great, however, was the resistance offered by the parachute to 
this densor atmosphere that we were again obliged, in order to 
attain the elevation Mr. Cocking pressed for (that gentleman 
considering that the greater the distance he had to fall the 
greater would be the atmospheric pressure under the parachute 
and therefore the easier his descent) to rid ourselves of 4001b* 
more ballast, and even then, we only arrived at the height of 
5,000 feet, which is a trifle less than a mile. 

< We were still 3,000 feet lower than Mr. Cooking's desired 
elevation. ° 

* Whilst these operations were going on, Mr, Spencer and 



?j& 



idof Canvass, 
«stub 

Jhrow out 
,uld entirely 

1 annexion 
«completed 

1 balloon. 
th at I had 
10t to libe. 
,und » setting 
ct a foment 
ogether pre . 

ail y aident 
re garded as 

le would Da . 

*«** 

3f ">eapp a . 
nstantl ytose 

|"»14 vceod 
1 a quarter, at 
1 *e balloon. 
°rc, that our 
k Spencer to 
ity threw the 
tube already 
a second and 
leans. 

r the Surrey 
)00 feet. It 
2r end of the 
which was 
he parachute, 
had foreseen 
3 adoption of 
ifficult for us 
; parachute, 
d I commu- 
:ircumstances 
ss we were to 
outer spread 
considered to 
i who might 
shed it, make 
houses. Mr. 
lence; if you 
) descend be- 
. you will then 
;." We now 
! of the wind 
leared all the 
. myself were 
all parcels, so 
hout inim 



SCIENCE, AND ENTERTAINMENT. 



469 



s 

p 

fc 

rrents throngn 
houthenyo* 
to tge vehicle 

charge ballast 
idition to that 

ise, and soon 
he earth, w" 
parachute to 
:d,ia order to 

hat gentleman 
d to fall, the 

the parachute, 
Ives of 4001b; 
the height of 



myself held a conversation with our appended neighbour and 
friend, which was entirely confined to the progress we were 
making upwards, Mr. Cocking manifesting much anxiety, 
and wishing to be informed how we were rising, requesting to 
know when every additional elevation of 500 feet was accom- 
plished. 

'As soon as we had attained the height of 5,000 feet I told 
him that it would be impossible for us to get up as high as he 
desired in sufficient time for him to descend by the li^ht of 
day. Upon this Mr. Cocking said, "Then I shall very soon 
leave you, but tell me whereabouts I am ?" Mr. Spencer, 
who had a few minutes before caught a glimpse of the earth, 
answered, " We appear to be on a level with Greenwich." I 
then asked him if he felt himself quite comfortable, and whe- 
the r he found thaUhe practical trial bore out the calculations 
«8 liâd made ? Mr. Cocking repiiêaT^lTësy I never felt more 
comfortable or more delighted in my life." Shortly afterwards 
Mr. Cocking said, « Well, now I think I shall leave you." I 
answered, " I wish you a very good night and a safe descent, 
if you are determined to make it, and not to use the tackle." 

'I should here observe, that with an anxiety to prevent any 
accident arising in the event of the violence of the wind ren- 
dering it impossible for a descent to be attempted, an appara- 
tus had been constructed under the direction of Mr. F. Gye, 
to afford us the facility of assisting Mr. Cocking to haul him- 
self up into the car of the balloon, and this is the tackle to 
which I thus alluded. 

£ * Mr. Cocking to this question made no other reply than 
* Good night, Spencer; good night, Green.' 

' At this instant I desired Mr. Spencer to take fast hold of 
the ropes, and like myself to crouch down in the car. In 
consequence of being compelled to keep hold of the valve line, 
of course Ï had but one hand which was available for the pur- 
poses of safety. With that hand, fortunately, in the perilous 
situation into which we were speedily thrown, I was able to 
maintain my position. 

« Scarcely were these words uttered before we felt a slight 
jerk upon the liberating iron, but quickly discovered, from 
not haying changed our elevation, that Mr. Cocking had 
failed in his attempt to free himself. Another but more 
powerful jerk ensued, and in an instant the balloon shot up- 
wards with the velocity .of a skyrocket. 

' The effect upon us at this moment is almost beyond de- 
scription. The immense machine which suspended us be- 
tween "heaven and earth," whilst it appeared to be forced 
upwards with terrific violence and rapidity through unknown 
and untravelled regions, amidst the bowlings of a fearful hur- 
ricane, rolled about as though revelling in a freedom for 
which it had long struggled, but of which, until that moment, 
it had been kept in absolute ignorance. It at length, as if 
somewhat fatigued by its exertions, gradually assumed the 
motions of a snake working its way with astonishing speed 
towards a given object. During this frightful operation, the 
gas was rushing hi torrents from the upper and lower valves, 
but more particularly from the latter, as the density of the 
atmosphere through which we were forcing our progress pressed 
so heavily on the valve at the top of the balloon as to admit of 
comparatively but a small escape by that aperture. 

* At this juncture, had it not°oeen for the application to our 
mouths of two pipes leading into an air bag with which we had 
furnished ourselves previous to starting, we must within a 
minute have been suffocated, and so, but by different means, 
have shared the melancholy fate of our friend. 

'This bag was formed of silk, sufficiently capacious to con- 
tain 100 gallons of atmospheric air. Prior to our ascent the 
bag was inflated, with the assistance of a pair of bellows, with 
50 gallons of air, so allowing for any expansion which might 
be produced in the upper regions. Into one end of this bag 
were introduced two flexible tubes, and the moment we felt 
ourselves to be going up, in the manner just described, Mr. 
Spencer, as well as myself, placed either of them in our 
mouths. By this simple contrivance we preserved ourselves 
from instantaneous suffocation, a result which must have en- 
sued from the apparently endless volume of gas with which 
the car was enveloped. The gas, notwithstanding all our pre- 
cautions, from the violence of its operation on the human 
frame, almost immediately deprived us of sight, and we were 
both, as far as our visionary powers were concerned, in a state 
of total darkness for between four and five minutes. 

' As soon asjwe had partially regained the use of our eyes, 
and bad somewhat recovered from the effects of the awful 



scene into which, from the circumstances, we had been 
plunged, our first attention was directed to the barometer. I 
soon discovered that my powers had not sufficiently returned 
to enable me to see the mercury, but Mr. Spencer found that 
it stood at 13-20, giving an elevation of 23,384 feet, or about 
4 miles and a quarter. 

♦ I do not conceive, from the length of time I had been 
liberating the gas, that this was anything like our greatest alti- 
tude, for we were evidently effecting a rapid descent. This 
impression is corroborated by a rough calculation, which 
leads me to believe, knowing the customary rate at which the 
gas makes its escape, taken in consideration in conjunction 
with the length of time I had been pulling the valve-line, that 
we had lost at least 30,000 feet of gas, or 180,000 gallons, a 
total of 5,000 feet more that my own balloon will contain. 

'It may be regarded as somewhat surprising that not a larger 
quantity had evaporated, especially when the size of the valves 
are considered, that at the top being nearly three feet in dia- 
meter, whilst the one at the neck of the balloon is upwards of 
two feet. The reason, however, is easily pointed out. The 
extreme rapidity with which'we ascended, coupled with the 
consequent pressure of the atmosphere on the upper part of 
the machine, necessarily prevented much escape from the top 
valve. The same cause also forced an extraordinary emission 
from the opening at the neck, and I am decidedly of opinion, 
had it not fortuitously happened that the proprietors permitted 
this latter valve to be increased from 18 to 25 inches in dia- 
meter, that the balloon must have burst and my companion as 
well as myself been hurled headlong into eternity. 

'As I have stated, we were now rapidly on the descent^ 
having got lid of all the unusual annoyances to which I have 
referred; and finding that we were proceeding downwards 
with the ordinary calmness and steadiness, although with 
much speed, we hastened to empty two tin vessels of water 
which we had taken up for the purpose, and to charge them 
with the atmospheric air through which we were then descend- 
ing. Our desire was to effect this object at our greatest alti- 
tude but from the circumstances which I have detailed we 
were unable to accomplish that end, and when the vessels 
were filled the mercury in the barometer had ascended to 
17-50, or an elevation of 16,632 feet, about three miles. 

'When we had accomplished this matter, finding ourselves 
suffering severely from cold, we referred to the thermometer, 
which stood at 28, four degrees below the freezing point. 

' We were at this period apparently about two miles and 
a-half above a dense mountain of clouds, which presented the 
appearance of impenetrable masses of dark marble, whilst al! 
around us was shed the brilliant rays of the setting sun. We 
continued to descend with great rapidity, and* as we ap- 
proached the clouds that velocity considerably increased. At 
this time so large had been our loss of gas that the balloon, 
instead of presenting to our sight its customary rotund and* 
widely-expanded form, now merely looked like a compara- 
tively small parachute, or half dome, without any aperture in 
its centre. We had parted with at least one-third of our gas 
and were as far beneath the balloon itself as 50 or 60 feet. * 
' Recollecting the late hour at which we quitted Vauxhall 
I now began to be anxious about the time, and on applying to 
Mr. Spencer, ascertained that it wanted not more than a quar- 
ter to nine o'clock. From this I was aware, notwithstanding 
in our then posinon we were blessed with a magnificent light 
that on emerging below from the clouds darkness would 
have assumed her sable hue over the earth, and that we should 
have much difficulty, therefore, in ascertaining the nature and 
character of the country, supposing us to be over the land, on 
which we must effect our final descent. I, consequently, be- 
came extremely anxious to make our way through the clouds 
as quickly as possible, which having done we proceeded 
until we had reached within some 300 feet of the ground* 
when we found it requisite, from our inability to ascertain the 
nature of the ground, the whole country beneath us offering 
the appearance of thick woods, to cast out every article of 
ballast and moveable matters, even to ropes and empty bal- 
last-bags, in order to prevent us from coming in contact with 
what was supposed to be trees. After calling out for some 
time, and hanging out the grapnel, we heard voices in reply, 
and the parties speedily drew us to a safe place of landing* 
which proved to be close to the village of Offham, near Town 
Mailing, seven miles west of Maidstone, and 28 from London. 
«The balloon was packed, and conveyed in a cart to Town 
Mailing, where we were most hospitably treated and provided 



. 



470 



THE CASKET 01 



with beds by the 'Rev. Mr. Money, who, singular to relate, 
informed me that he is the son of Major Money, the aeronaut, 
who, on the 23rd of July, 1785, ascended from Norwich, and 
fell into the sea twenty miles off LowestofF. 

'At half-past ten o'clock this morning we quitted Town 
Mailing, and it was not until our arrival at Wrotham, at 
which place I inquired whether they had heard where Mr. 
Cocking had descended, that I became acquainted with the 
unexpected and melancholy result of his experiment. 

'I trust it is needless for me to say, how deeply the feelings 
of Mr. Spencer and myself were harrowed up by the sad in- 
telligence thus conveyed to us. 

'It is only due to the late Mr. Cocking I should add, that 
throughout the whole of our voyage, up to the moment when 
he released himself from the balloon, he displayed the greatest 
courage and fortitude, and the expression of his features, and 
the light and joyous, although earnest way, in which he made 
his inquiries and conversed with us, manifested his great satis- 
faction that at length a theory to which he had devoted the 
last 25 years of his life was about to be triumphantly put to 
the test. 

'We were up about one hour and 20 minutes. 
' ' Individually my opinion was, that having withstood the 
difficulties and severe pressure of the atmosphere in its ascent, 
Mr. Cooking's parachute would accomplish its descent with 
perfect safety.' 

To the Editor. 
Sir, — .Perhaps the following particulars which I witnessed 

, ot the parachute descent of the unfortunate Mr. Cocking may 
fee worth notice. The situation from which I viewed the 
ascent of the balloon and parachute was on Sydenham Com- 
mon. At twenty-three minutes to eight o'clock the balloon 
and parachute ascended steady and majestically from the 
gardens, appearing to pass along without the least oscilla- 
tion of either balloon or parachute. Mr. Cocking appeared 
distant from the car of the balloon about three-fourths 
the height of the balloon and car. The parachute in form 
was that of an inverted cone, with its sides from the apex 
to the base slightly convex 5 at seven minutes and a-half to 
eight, o'clock, when it was detached from the balloon, its sides 
from the apex to the base then appeared slightly concave, 
descending very steadily for about ten seconds, when it ap- 
peared to enter a cloud, and I lost sight of it about eight or 
ten seconds ; it then emerged from beneath the cloud, and 
continued to descend as steadily as when first separated from 
the balloon for about 40 or 45 seconds, its distance then being, 
I should judge, from the earth, by the elevation of my tele- 
scope, to be about one mile, when the upper rim of the para- 
chute suddenly collapsed, and its descent instantly became 
more rapid, and descended with such accelerated" velocity 
that I did not keep it in sight more than five or six seconds. 
The whole time elapsed in its descent from its separation from 
the balloon to the time I lost sight of it was one minute and 
ten seconds. At the time it was detached from the balloon I 
should judge it was full one mile and a quarter from the earth, 
' Your's, respectfully, ' T. Bishop. 

'• ' 3, Poland Street, July 25/ 



Independent of the experiment of a descent on a new con- 
struction of parachute, Mr. Cocking intimated his determina- 
tion of trying an additional experiment with certain apparatus 
which he had prepared, and which he proposed to take up 
with him in the parachute. This resolution wa&strennuously 
combatted by his friends, and it was supposed that the project 
was abandoued until the evening of the ascent, when it was as- 
certained that Mr. Cocking intended to persevere, and had 
come provided with the aparatus. This new experiment con- 
sisted of a certain arrangement of rope by which Mr. Cocking 
believed he should be able so to regulate his descent, that in 
place of falling vertically, he could give the descent a diagona 
direction, and thus, should it be necessary, have the means ot 
clearing any object, such as a tree or even a house. Whether 
Mr. Cocking really did put his apparatus into action or not is 
a matter of doubt, but strong grounds exist for believing that 
he actually did endeavour to effect his purpose, and that in so 
doing he caused the parachute to swerve on one side, and ul- 
timately to collapse. 

Ï > evident from the marks in the basket., in whid* Mr< 



The Parachute Experiment. — The fol- 
lowing particulars relative to the late Mr Cook- 
ing's projected experiment, which terminated so 
fatally, were gleaned from the various state- 
ments that have been published, and from the 
evidence adduced at the inquest. It appears that 
the parachute was constructed on a new princi- 
ple, and that it had been inspected and approved 
of by several scientific men. Mr Green, how- 
ever, did not approve of the tin tubes which it 
was fitted up with, and he suggested the proba- 
ble advantage of substituting stretchers made of 
wood ; but Mr Cocking being of opinion that 
the tubes possessed great advantage in point of 
buoyancy, they were allowed to remain. Up to 
the last minute Mr Cocking declared that he 
had no misgivings ; he felt satisfied that his cal- 
culations were made not only with precision, 
but, in order to guard against accident, he had 
a power of 120 pounds more than was required. 
In order to facilitate the exclusion of the ballast, 
a pipe was so contrived as to run from the bal- 
loon through the parachute, but the balloon had 
not risen many feet in the air before it was found 
that the contrivance was useless. As it was 
indispensable that the balloon should be light- 
ened, MrJ Green, and Mr Spenser, his companion, 
finding it was impossible to discharge the ballast 
in the ordinary way, without throwing the mate- 
rials on the parachute, began instantly to cut up 
the ballast bags, and to throw out the portions 
of ballast as far as they were able. This pro- 
ceeding had the desired effect, and the balloon 
rose steadily. When about 600 feet from the 
earth, Mr Cocking inquired the height at which 
they then were. He continued to make inqui- 
ries as to the height, and, in answer to Mr 
Green, he said his calculations turned out ac- 
cording to his expectations, and he had no 
doubt of accomplishing his task with ease and 
in safety. When about 5,000 feet from the 
earth, he took his leave of his companions, 
and out away the parachute himself. From 
that period all is a matter of conjecture. 
Mr Green and Mr Spenser were occupied in dis- 
charging the gas on the instant the parachute was 
severed, but, notwithstanding all their expedition, 
the balloon thus lightened, rose,with fearful velo- 
city, to an altitude of nearly four miles, and 
oscillated with such violence, that it was feared 
by the aeronauts it would turn over. The bal- 
loon rising in this rapid manner was impelled 
through the gas which was escaping, and the 
effect on the aeronauts was to deprive them of 
sight, and, for a short time, to threaten suffoca- 
tion. Mr Green says, " The effect upon us at 
this moment is almost beyond description. The 
immense machine which suspended us between 
• heaven and earth,' whilst it appeared to be 
forced upwards with terrific violence and rapidity 
through unknown and untravelled regions, amidst 
the howlings of a fearful hurricane, rolled about 
as though revelling in a freedom for which it had 
long struggled, but of which, until that moment, 
it had been kept in absolute ignorance. It at 
length, as if somewhat fatigued by its exertions, 
gradually assumed the motions of a snake work- 
ing its way with astonishing speed towards a 
given object. During this frightful operation 
the gas was rushing in torrents from the upper 
and lower valves, but more particularly from the 
latter, as the density of the atmosphere through 
which we were forcing our progress pressed so 
heavily on the valve at the top of the balloon as to 
admit of comparatively but a small escape by that 
aperture." The parachute fell in a field near Lee. 
Hardly had it reached the ground before num- 
bers were on the spot ready to render assistance. 
The unfortunate gentleman was not quite dead, 
but in a very few minutes life was extinct. 
He did not fall out of the basket attached to the 
parachute, but fell with the machine, and when 
first discovered was jammed in the basket, some 
of the wicker work being nearly forced through. 
Before reaching the earth the para chute turned 
over several times with great rapidity, and it wa s 
evident to all who «witnessed the descent, that his 
death was inevitable. His body was removed to 
the Tiger's Head, at Lee, where several medical 
gentlemen attended, but all human aid was un- 
availing. In the opinion of the surgeon, death 
was caused by, the dreadful concussion the sys- 
tem met with. It is stated by Mr Green that at 
the time the parachute was separated from the 
car the altitude was about a mile; and from the 
time of the oscillation commencing until the 
machine reached the earth, not more than a 
minute could have elapsed. Mr Green and his' 
companion descended in the balloon at the village 
of OfFenham, near Maidstone, where they were 
hospitably treated by the Rev. Mr Money, who 
informed Mr Green that he was the son of 
Major Money, the aeronaut, who, on the 23d of 
July, 1785, ascended from Norwich, and fell into 
the sea 20 miles off LowestofF. The unfortunate 
Mr Cocking was in his 62d year. He was an 
artist by profession, and a gentleman of consi- 
derable scientific attainments. He had made 
several ascents with Mr Green. On the evening 
of the fatal ascent, he expressed the utmost con- 
fidence to his friends ; and when it was suggested 
to him that it was not too late to retract, but 
give up the experiment, at least until a future 
day, he said he would not forego his intention for 
any consideration. Ju^, 2-f. /t/>37 






* he Particulars of the 




nar 



OF THE 




At this enlightened age inventions & improve-" 
merits are daily seen, it is now many years since 
lite invention of this wonderful Machine, It was 
first constructed by Dr. BJack v of .Edinburgh, in 

17C>7, and improved by Messrs Stephen & Joseph 
Moiitgolfier* Paper Manufacturers at Annonay, 
where they ruade the .firsfascent at Avignon in 
J782, it measured 117 feet in cjrcunference, was 
capable of lifting 5cwt, it was 74 feet high and 
weighedlOOOlbs since then improvements have 
daily increased. 

This day every avenue leading I© the Gardens were crowded to excess by the dense 
multitude of people who were waiting to gain admittance it being announced this Season 
for the nev stupendous Balloon, the Gardens looked like a moving Papora-no bv the 
immense number of spectators who were present, codd not be less°than from fifteen to 
twenty thousand, and among them were seen several of High Rank of Nobility The 
fcreat skerk of Muscat having arrived but a few days from India w s present on this 
occasion with all his attendants. 

The balloon having commenced in flation, the visitors had a fine opportunity of wit 
nessiog t he manner a thin- of this kind was done. The Brahâmian Brothers weat thro' 
their astonishing exercises peculiar to the nature of their own Country. The fillin» 
having bée„comp!e.èd, it was announced by the firing of a signal gun when préparatifs 
hav.ng bee» made for ascenchng and the Acroants having seated themselves in 'the Ca 
a few moments elapsed when the S %«al gnn was fired k the bounding Cords which kent 
«his monster ball™ to the earth having been let loose, it rose majestic throng the au- 
peering ,u course with rapidity until it was lost to the views of t liousaada of gazing 

We understand a dreadful accident oecured to the priai voyaçew bv the downfall of 
he monster, we can rely on the authenticacy as we had it from our reporte, it sUI Irnus 
be m memory or ^very person oi the htal acculent ofMc Coskiog who osi i I if Té 
neailv proved fatal to those in the Car. ° m 

Further particules will be known and published as early as posible 
C*rpue, Cheap edpler, 28, Fashion sir. Soitalfi «hi 



Royal Gardens, Taiixlia 11. 

ASCENT 



OF 



THE ROYAL 



NASSAU BALLOON 



FOR THE 



Benefit of the Widow 



OF 



The late Mr. COCKING, 

NEXT WEDNESDAY, 



9th AUGUST, 1837. 



The Friends and Relations of Mrs. Cocking most 
respectfully acquaint the Nobility, Gentry, and 
Public, that the Proprietors of Vauxhall having 
most kindly granted the Gardens and the use of 
their Royal Nassau Balloon for the above purpose, 
and Mr. Green having, also, most generously offered 
his valuable services, an Ascent will take place Next 
Wednesday, August 9, when all the Proceeds will 
be appropriated to the relief of the unfortunate 
Widow, who is entirely left without the means of 

support. 






Seats in the Car may be secured on application at the Gardens; 

Gentlemen, £21.— Ladies, £10 : 10s. 

$^ Doors open at HALF-PAST TWO. Balloon to start at SIX. 

Admission, HALF-A-CBOWN. 

Balne, Printer, 38, Gracechurch Street. 



J**~6, /œ?J7 



L 



5 



S= 



AMENTABLE PARACHUTE AGCI- 

DENT.— A few gentlemen having investigated the circum- 
stances of Mr. Cooking's Widow, andhnding that she is left in a 
state of utter destitution, are most anxious to promote a Subscrip- 
tion for her relief, and they respectrully solicit the aid of the public 
in furtherance of this object. The smallest sums will be thank- 
fully acknowledged, and properly applied, by J. Durrant, Esq., 
Royal Exchange. Subscriptions" will also be received at the 
banking-houses of Messrs. Smith, Pavne, and Smith, and Sir J. 
Lubbock, Bart, & Co. ; and by the Proprietors of Vauxhall Gar- 
dens, either at Yauxhall, or at 141. Fleet-str eet. 



BALLOON ASCBNT FOR THR BENEFIT OF MRS. 

The proprietors of Vauxhall having given up the free ose of 
the Royal Garden» for the above laucUble purpose, as also of 
the grand Nassau balloon, Mr. Green followed up the " good 
work" by making a gratuitous ascent yesterday afternoon. The 
entire receipts are very properly to be appropriated for the be- 
nefit of the widow and family of the late Mr. Cocking, whose 
lamentable death it is unnecessary more than to advert to, the 
occurrence of it being too fresh and of too painful a character 
to be easily forgotten. Though the gardens were, we regret to 
state, far from full, the company was highly respectable and 
genteel, which is saying much in the present deserted state of 
the metropolis. Mr. Green, accompanied by six male com- 
panions, one of whom, Mr. Campbell, came purposely, it is 
said, from Plumstead, near Norwich, to make the, ascent, 
which took place a little before seven o'clock. The huge 
and handsome monster rose, as usual, majestically ab«ve 
the trees, remained for some minutes in sight, and then taking ' 
an almost northerly course, inclining a li : tie to the west, left 
the spectators to conjecture its probably ultimate destination. 
The receipts it is hoped will be something handsome, and they 
certainly would have been much more so, if the gentry congre- 
gating around the vicinity id their carriages, and on horseback, 
had charitably contributed their donations, for a sight which 
they crowded in sueh apparent anxiety to see for nothing. 
Besides the receipts at the doors and to the enclosure, arrange- 
ments were made for the collection of subscriptions, a table 
with writing apparatus being placed in front of the orchestra 
for that purpose ; and we trust that the munificent example of 
her Majesty, who had previously forwarded to the widow 50/, 
will ciuse this subscription, aided by the receipt of the evening, 
to amount to a sum sufficient to place Mrs. Cocking in com- 
fortable circumstances. The Mazoni and Surrey Yeomanry 
band, were in attendance, and the company was permitted to 
remain for the evening performances. 



On Wednesday the Proprietors of Vauxhall Gardens gave a 
benefit to the widow of the unfortunate Mr. Cocking, and an ascent 
of the great Nassau Balloon was deemed the most attractive, if not 
the most appropriate, feature of the entertainments. We regret to 
learn that the vicinity of the Gardens outside was thronged with 
spectators (many in their own carriages !) who preferred to save 
in their own pockets the half-crown which, as an admission fee 
was expected to swell the subscription for the poor and aged widow. 
We do not envy the taste of these outside spectators, but we 
are happy to add that better feelings crowded the Gardens, and 
that in addition to the receipts at the door many subscriptions 
were collected witUio, The kindness aad good spirit of the pro-., 
prietors dTd all that could be Sone to forward the humane object of 
the evening. Mr. Green ascended in the balloon at twenty 
minutes betore seven, accompanied by six adventurous amateurs, 
one of whom had come from Norwich for the express purpose of 
accompanying the aeronaut. The ascent was unusually stately 
and magnificent, and the balloon, soaring to its loftiest height, 
crossed and recrossed the Thames in the sight of multitudes, and 
at length, bearing away before the southern breeze, descended in 
a meadow at Leylam, in Surrey, twenty-two miles from London. 
Mr. Green and his companions having packed up the balloon 
returned to the Gardens about midnight, and the joy at their pre- 
sence added, in the eye of the satisfied spectator, to the brilliancy of 
the fireworks. 

Her Majesty has expressed through Sir Henry Wheatly her 
sympathy in the afflictions of Mrs, Cocking 1 , and presented her 
with fifty pounds. 



Balloon ascent for the Benefit of Mrs. 

Descent of two Parachutes— On Tuesday evening Mrs. 
Graham made an ascent from the gardens of the Mermaid 
Tavern, Hackney, in her Royal Victoria balleen, for the benefit 
ef the widow of the late Mr. Cocking. Attached to the balloon 
w?ra two parachutes, which were exact models of those used by 
M. Garneria awd Mr. Cocking, the descent of which was in- 
tended to shew the comparative safety of their particular struc- 
ture". The parachutes were made of eotten, the framework of 
cane. la an apartment of the tavern were exhibited the model 
of Mr. Coeking's parachute, manufactured by himself; likewise 
several models of balloens, and ether things connected with 
&er.statian, also the work of that unfortunate gentleman. In 
one corner of the* room were placed the remains of the parachute 
with which Mr. Cocking made his rash experiment. In conse- 
quence of the unfavourable state ©f the weather the gardens were 
not well attended, there mot being more than eight hundred 
people present, and that nuiaber, we should thkak, scarcely suf- 
ficient to pay the expenses incurred ; therefore, as far as benefit 
is concerned, it must be considered a total failure. About a 
quarter past six the inflation qt the balleon being esnipktad, a 
bar ef wood was placed across the car, along the up&er surface 
of whieh ran a cord, passing through holes at each' extremity. 
To the ends of the cord were attached the respective parachutes; 
so that by catting the cord ia the centre, they would' descend at 
the same moment. All lus arrangements being complewd, Mrs. 
Graham entered the car aeeompanied by a Mr. John Adams, 
and the balloon ascended in very beautiful style. Having at- 
tained aa altitude of six or seven hundred feet, Mrs. Graham 
cut the cord which supported the parachutes, and they descended 
at the sarae moment. It was some seconds before the model 
of M. Garnerin's paraehute epened, and when it did, the 
oscillation eemplained of on the ©ceasion of the actual descent J 
of that gentleman took place ; that of Mr. Cocking was some- I 
what »l0wer in its deseent, and very steady. The parachutes J 
fell in the grounds of a gentleman very near the plaee of ascent, 
and were shortly after brought back to the gardens. I. 

j~ ■ 



- Mor^tU- /c££ f /- /lAjr 

Mrs. Cocking.— Notwithstanding the great efforts which 
have been made by the friends of this unfortunate lady, we un- 
derstand that the sum already received on her behalf has not 
by any means realised the anticipations of those parties who 
have interested themselves in her favour; nor is it, indeed, 
equal to the very pressing exigencies of the case. The noble 
example of her Majesty, in her munificent gift (50 guineas), 
has not been followed up by the public in the way that it might 
be expected from the peculiar and painful situation in which 
Mrs. Cocking has been left, in consequence of the rash and fatal 
experiment of her ill-fated husband. The attendance at the 
benefit given by the proprietors of the royal gardens, Vauxhall, 
was not so great as might be expected on such an occasion ; 
and a loss of nearly 20/ was sustained (in consequence of the 
unfavourable state of the weather) in the attempt to get up a 
benefit at the Mermaid Tavern, Hackney, on Tuesday last. 

We have been requested to contradict that part of the state- 
ment in Wednesday's paper, which described the parachute in 
which Mr. Cocking unfortunately lost his life, as having been 
exhibited at the Mermaid Tavern, i Hackney, on the occasion 
of the aicent of Mrs. Graham. The dilapidated parachute is 
in (he possesion of the constable at Lea, it having been for- 
feited as a deodand. 



The proprietors of Vauxhall give proceeds of " Royal Property" 
Wednesday night in aid of subscription raising for widow of the 
late Mr. Cocking, who lost his life by descent in a parachute — 
Mr. Green makes gratuitous ascent in 'great Nassau Balloon, and 
Gas Company inflate it free of charge — understood that lier Ma- 
jesty, sympathising in deep affliction under which Mrs. Cocking 
labours for loss of her husband, has, in humane and beneficent 
spirit which distinguishes all acts of her reien. sent bereaved 
widow 50/. 




- --«■ — - ' 



THE .fEERI.£E SHIP! 








An Interesting Account of the above Sfttl 



)5 



Which is shortly to ascend fVom IIexsixgtox, witîi 1» Persons, and sail thro' 

the Air from £okdos to Paris, and bach again. 



1 T may he in «lie reetdlet tio» of onr -rendors, that 
■*" in August 1834, tie public pnpers gave an 
account of tlie Aerial Ship intending to sail from 
Paris to Hyde-Park Come/ j but unfortunately, 
jest at the moment of its expected ascent, it sud- 
denly turned topsy-turvy, Hnd burst with a loud 
explosion ! The Parisians being thus disappointed 
of beholding the long-promised spectacle, outra- 
geously rushed upon the taflen balloon, and in-, 
stantly tore it in piece», anrf carried it off in por- 
tions, which were exhibited aud sold in Paris, iu 
the course of the afternoon. 

Count de Lenox (the ingenious projector of the 
Aerial Ship) although thus defeated was not dis- 
mayed, and resolved to try hi* fortune on English 
ground. Accordingly in March last, he arrived in 
London, and engaged a spacious piece of ground 
in Victoria Placr, Kensington, where lie is now 
exhibiting his stupendous machine. As the Count 
de Lenox is a man of talent and enterprise, and 
profoundly skilled in the science of aerology, no 
doubt can be entertained of his accomplishing hia 
herculean task. 

This Balloon is intended to leave London for 
Pans in August next, which it is expected to be 
accomplished in six hours. It is 160 feet long, 
00 feet high, and 40 feet wide, and to be manned 
by a créw of 17 persons. The purpose for which 
it is constructed, is to establish a direct commu- 
nication between the several Capitals of Europe. 

The ordinary balloon is, from its shape, wholly 
at the mercy of the winds, as a tub is of the 
waves; the Aerial Ship is capable of direction, 
although like its namesake of the deep, must de- 
pend for it* velocity upon the wind. Its inventor, 
wisely turning to nature for a model, found one 
in the fish ; and, in fact, the work should be called 
the Aerial Leviathan, or the great Air Serpent. 
It will be seen the body is oblong, and at either 



end it runs off to a point. This vast reservoir of 
" gas is made of cotton fabric, thoroughly varnished 
so as to be air-tight. -'Suppose it to ascend into 
the. air, being filled with gas, and specifically 
tigbtet than the atmosphere, it would naturally 
lie lengthwise in the direction of the wind, its 
greater lateral surface yielding until its end should 
Tie before the wind's eye. As long as the wind 
remained in the same quarter, it would move on 
without turning, or winding round. If the wind 
should prove only slii^.try contrary, the inventors 
of this machine 'hope to keep their course by 
menus of two fins or wings near each end of the 
mnchine, of broad inrfitog and light constrnction, 
and also by means of a fan-tail or rudder, intend- 
ing to act after the manner of a fish. This tail is 
fastened not to the baltoon itself, but to the car 
in which the voyagers take their places, and 
which being made "of network and as little solid 
material as possible, is suspended beneath. It is 
long and narrow, and in the mid-way is the cabin 
for holding the machinery for moving the wings 
or fins. But should the wind prove contrary, and 
there can be no doubt now that the atmospheric 
currents are frequent aad fitful, then nothing is 
left the voyagers but to descend towards the 
earth. It may f>e remarked, that by a partial de- 
scent an unfavourable may be changed for a fa- 
vorable current. One of the most satisfactory of 
the whole machine, is that which renders ascent 
or descent perfectly easy Here again the econo- 
my of the fish's construction is had recourse to. 
Within the balloon is a smaller air-balloon, to cor- 
respond with the air-bla4der of fishes. This can 
be filled or exhausted at pleasure by very simple 
means. If it be filled with atmospheric air the 
gas in the cylindar mtif be compressed to such a 
degree, that" what with the ballast in the car, the 
whole machine becomes specifically heavier than 



the air around it* and. it descends accordingly. 
Should they wish to ascend, the small air balloon 
is exhausted — the gas expands — the cylinder is of 
less specific gravity than the air, and rises. The 
result of the whole experiment seems to us to 
amount to this. The Aerial Ship will, with a fair 
wind, go rapidly any distance its crew desire — 
but it is liable to frequent delays. In either case 
it. is safe. It cannot be turned to any very useful 
purpose, inasmuch as vast as is its bulk, it can 
but accommodate some twenty persons — one half 
crew and one half passengers. The passengers 
can never pay for the expenses of the immense 
quantity of gas which is requisite to fill the cylin- 
dar. Thus, uncertainty — great, but not so great 
as that in a common balloon — and expense must, 
upon a general calculation, countervail the advant- 
ages of its occasional, velocity. Exhibition be- 
fore, and at starting, may contribute to its out- 
lay, but that only while it is a novelty. Count 
de Lenox calculates on being ready for the voy- 
age the latter end of this month, or beginning of 
next. They are but making an experiment, in 
which they deserve encouragement. Some three 
years ago, they made the first trial in a smaller 
machine, and sailed ftrony Paris, 127 miles across 
France. 

It is intended to make similar trips to Brussels, 
Amsterdam, Berlin, Munich, Madrid, &c. till 
the practicability of establishing an aerial com- 
munication between London and the other capitals 
of Europe is fully and incoutrovertibly demon- 
strated. 

In 1796, Mons. Carapenos proposed the con- 
struction of a similar balloon, for Buonaparte, in 
which he intended to hover over the English 
fleets, and throwing downwards firebrands made 
of a substance which would kindle only by coming 
in contact with the ships, and so destroy them. 






\ Explanation of the References' in the Engraving. 

1. The body of the balloon, or cylindar, containing a smaller air-balloon, and the gas. 

2. The fan-tail, or rudder, to steer with, made of cane, and covered with lawn. 

3/3, 3, Wings, made of lawn, aud netted over i they, as also the rudder, are worked by machinery enclosed in the cabin. 

4. -rThe cabin, which contains the machinery. 

5. The 6tdes of the ear, seeored with lattice-work for the protection of the voyagers, while perambulating or making of observations. 



Sncwton, Printer, 74, Toolty Street. 






■ 










The Wonder of the World- 



Oh, have you heard the news, 

Sure wonders never ceases. 
And as we older grow, 

Fine wonders more increases. 
The. Aerial ship they say, 

Will leave Old England's shore, sir, 
Well rigged, besides a crew 

To join the Spanish war, sir. 

Cho) This Aerial ship they say 
Will make you ail to stare, sir, 

Well rigged, besides a crew, 
For sailing through the air, sir. 

The Aerial ship they say, 

Will go by wind and steam sir, 

With paddles and her wings, 
■ How funny that will seem, sir. 

And a crew of seventeen, 

No other ship will catch her ; 

The Captain might do well 
To be a body snatcher. 

An old Sailor went to see 

The aerial ship a lying ; 
He says it seems to me, 

A d — d rum thing for flying. 
Three lushy dames outside, 

They bawl'd as they did in pop, 
I say, my jolly Tar, 

'Twould make a slashing gin-shop. 

A covey he was there, 

And said it was a whale, sir ; 
But his lady did declare 

She could not see his tail, sir. 
One of the crew came up, 

Delivering of a message, 
He said — marm, here's the tail. 

And he showed a German sausage. 



The Greenwich College men, oh law. 

Have all subscribed, oh fegs sir, 
They'll send to the Spanish war 

Ten thousand wooden legs, sir;. 
Besides some three cockt hats, 

And cloaks to keep them warm sir. 
Five hundred wooden heads, 

Glass eyes and iron arms sir;- 

Some say the serial ship 

Will never rise at all sir, 
Its done for the sake of cash,- 

And then deceive you all, sir. 
And others say twill go 

To Holland, without swimming, 
And smuggle lots of gin, 

For the poor old drunken women. 

In August oft' she starts, 

To Paris she'll be bound, sir, 
But before she goes away, 

She'll sail o'er London town, sir.. 
And when that she goes up, 

The people how they'll stare, sir, 
They'll think it is St. Paul's 

A cutting through tbe air, sir. 

What do you think of steam ? 

Its got to great perfection, 
Here's machinery and steam 

In every direction. 
For some by steam they swim, 

And now they've steam for flying,. 
The next there will be steam 

To keep us all from dying. 
Geo. Brown. 

Printed at TAYLORS Universal Song Mart, 
14, Waterloo road. Lambeth. Country Orders 
punctually attended to. Sold by MARTIN, 
Little Prescott-street Minories. 



By Authority \ 




A FULL AND 



CORRECT DESCRIPTION" 



EXTRAORDINARY MACHINE, 



THE FIRST 

AERIAL SHIP, 

THE EAGLE. 



This stupendous Machine is 160 feet lony, 50 high, and 40 wide, constructed 

for establishing a direct communication between the Capitals of Europe. 

The first experiment of this new system of Aerial Navigation will 

be made from Loudon to Paris, and back again, early in 

August. 



, , _ _ 

fLONDON: 
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY J. THOMPSON, 

6, GLOUCESTER Sl'liEKT, LAMBETH. 

183a. 



LONDON AND PARIS. 



We perceive that the grand aerial project which occupied so much of 
the attention of the Parisian quidnuncs about this time last year, is 
revived — with this difference only, that the scene of operation, or to 
speak mure properly, perhaps, the starting-post, has been shifted from 
Paris to London. The projectors who have now taken unto themselves 
the style and title of the "European Aeronautical Society," announce 
in (he newspapers that their .*' first aerial ship, the Eagle, 160 feet long, 
50 fe .-thigh, and 40 feet wide," and which is to be (?) " manned by a 
crew of seventeen persons" may be inspected at a certain dock in the 
neighbourhood of Kensington, previous to making its first trip " from 
London to Paris and back again;" after which it is to make similar trips 
to Brussels, Amsterdam, Berlin, Munich, Madrid, &c. till the practica- 
bility of establishing an aerial communication between London and the 
other capitals of Europe is fully and incontrovertibly demonstrated? The 
scheme is, after all, only a copy, and that but an indifferent one, of a 
plan that was proposed as far back as 1796, by an engineer, of the name 
of Campenas, and not only entertained by the French government, but 
sanctioned by that select body of savans, the French Institute. Campenas 
wrote a long letter to Bonaparte, then General-in-Chief of the army 
of Italy, from which 1 we extract a paragraph or two. "General Citizen,— 
The artist who addresses you, filled with the most lively gratitude, will 
erect, if the means of execution be afforded him, a vast edifice, whence, 
at the conclusion of his labours, there will issue an Aerial Vessel, capable 
of carrying up with you more than 200 persons, and which may be 
directed to any point of the compass. I, myself, will be your pilot. You 
can thus, without any danger, hover above the fleets of enemies jealous 
of our happiness, and thunder against them like anew Jupiter, merely by 
throwing perpendicularly downwards firebrands made of a substance 
which will kindle only by the contact and percussion at the end of its 
fall, but which it will be impossible to extinguish; or perhaps you may 
think it more prudent to begin at once, by forcing the British cabinet 
to capitulate, which you may easily do, as you will have it in your power 
to set fire to the city of London, or to any of the maritime towns of 
England. From the calculations I have made, J am convinced, that with 
this machine you may go from Paris to London, and return back again 
to Paris in twenty-four hours, without descending. The object I propose 



h to es'ablish in the great ocean of the atmosphere a general navigation, 
infinitely more certain and more advantageous than maritime navigation, 
which has ever disturbed the tranquility of mankind — to restore the 
perfect liberty of commerce, and to give peace and happiness to all the 
nations of the universe, and unite theta as one family. By great labour 
] have surmounted the multiplied obstacles which presented themselves 
before me ; and my progressive discoveries are developed in a work which 
1 have prepared, consisting of about 400 pages, and divided into five 
parts." How lucky for England that the "new Jupiter" had other 
things on hand, to divert his attention from this most appalling (though 
not more appalling than sensible) scheme of national destruction! — Me- 
chanics' Magazine- 



Extract from the Morning Advertise}* 

Sir, — It gives me great satisfaction to find that the scheme for conduct- 
ing air ballons, suggested by me in your paper, meets the approbation of 
so experienced a gentleman as Mr. F. Stanhope appears to be. I will now, 
with your permission, offer a few remarks on the aerial ship which at pre- 
sent occupies so considerable a share of the public attention. 

The propelling of a ballon by means of artificial wings, bears a close 
analogy to the rowing of a boat with oars. Now, in order to acquire a 
power equal to the stroke of an oar, the aerial ship would require a pair of 
wings, each of them measuring at least one hundred feet in length. Such 
a pair of wings would he a mere incumbrance— they could never be worked 
effectively. Want of length cannot be compensated by extending the 
lateral surface, because the propelling power is required almost wholly by 
the length and quickness of the stroke." Even with wings of this extrava- 
gant length, and assuming that they could be worked, the effect would fall 
very much short of that of a pair of oars upon a Thames wherry. The 
boat skims upon the surface of the water, amd in making the back stroke 
the oar is lifted out, whereas the balloon is wholly immersed in the fluid 
through which it has to be propelled, and in the returning strokethe wings 
cannot be lifted out like the oars, so that the backstroke of one wing will 
in a great measure neutralise the effect produced by the forward stroke of 
another. This disadvantage seems to have been entirely overlooked in 
constructing the wings, or rather fins, of the aerial ship. They ought to 
have been made capable of being folded like the wing of a bird, or a lady's 
fan; or perhaps it might answer equally well, and would be easier in prac- 
tice, to have had them made upon the principle of the Venetion blind, so 
that in making the back stroke the wing would pass through them. 

The Aerial Ship can never be propelled by such wings as she has now 
got. The Morning Herald says they are imitations of the fins of the 
dolphin. If tlie gentlemen of the " European Aeronautical Society " will 
step down to the side of the river, they may see every day fifty working 
models that would suit there purpose a great deal better than the dolphin. 
Let them take away those ridiculous flaps; or dolphin fins, and substitute a 
pair of light paddle-wheels similar in form os thoseof a steam vessel. No- 
thing can be more simple to work; they could be fixed upon one spindle 
cranked in the middle, to form a handle, and turned by the persons standing 



6 

or sitting in the car. Ten or twelve men would produce more effect in this 
way than thirty or forty with wings or flaps, and that without any com- 
plication of machinery whatever. But it should be observed that the pad- 
dle-boards must be made in the Venetian-blind fashion, so that the air may 
passTreely through the upper part of the wheel. It appears to me that 
this is the best, and indeed almost the only mode in which any good can be 
done with a balloon by manual power, because the paddle-wheel gives a 
continuous propelling power. But after all, this is only " making a toil 
of a pleasure." 

Nothing whatever can be done with sails in directing the course of a 
balloon ; put up a sail in whatever way you will, it will only cause the 
balloon to whirl round till it adjusts itself to the current ; it will then 
proceed in the same direction that it did before the sail was put up. The 
large rudder or sail of the aerial ship will have an effect exactly the same 
as the tail of the weathercock, in whatever direction the wind may blow 
the rudder will be sure to go foremost ; it ought to have been made so 
that it might be folded up or extended as occasion might require. 

I did not " recommend the employment of pigeons for the conductors 
of the aerial ship to Paris," as your correspondent " Fog" asserts (some 
relative of " Frosly-faced Fogo," I presume). 1 am aware that it would 
require a very great number of pigeons to produce any effect upon a 
machine so vast and unwei'ldly as the aerial ship; but I must take the 
liberty to say, that even geese would be more serviceable to the conduc- 
tor than those foolish flaps that «,' Fog" has honoured with the appellation 
of " mechanical wings." I do not propose to build an aerial ship large 
enough to earry a garrison for the purpose of compelling cabinets to sub- 
mit to the fiat of a " new Jupiter." My designs are much more modest. 
What I propose is, to construct a balloon large enough to carry one, or 
at most two persons, and to attach it to forty, sixty, or even one hundred 
pigeons, if necessary, and in this manner I am satisfied, from experi- 
ments that I have made upon a small scale, that I should be enabled to 
conduct the balloon in any direction I pleased, provided the weather was 
moderately calm. 

Bishop Burnett said, "the time would come, when there would be no 
more surprise felt at a gentleman calling for his wings to take a flight, than 
if he called for his boots to take a walk." I will not go the whole length of 
the bishop. I will leave the "mechanical wings" for others to manage; 
I have a much higher opinion of the natural wing. However, I will 
venture to give this opion, that, in no very great length of time, it will 
be nothing uncommon for a gentleman to call for his balloon and his 
birds as he now calls for his carriage and horses. Yours, &c. 

T, S. MACKINTOSH. 






/ 



Société aéronautique. 



'REMIERE ASCENSION 

ET MANOEUVRES 



DU 

alios 

(L'AIGLE), 

U CHAMP-DE-MAR$/ 



] ^c 



à i heures. 




■ 



PRIX D'ENTRÉE ; 1 FRANC PAR PERSONNE. 

Stalles numérotées et gardées jusqu'après l'ascension, 

(près le Ballon-Navire) 10 fi\ 

Places assises dans la seconde enceinte 5 

S'adresser pour la location des places et les coupons de stalles : 

Chez MM. Galignani, rue Vivienne, n. 18. 

Au bureau de Y advertiser-, rue Neuve-St-Augustin, 
11. 55. 

Au Café de Paris, boulevartdes Italiens. 

Au Café Tortoni, boulevart des Italiens. 

Au Café de Foy, Palais-Royal. 

An Café Desmares, rue de l'Université, n, a5. 

Et aux ateliers de la Société, Champs-Elysées, Cours- 
la-Reine, en face du pont suspendu des Invalides, 



Société aéronautique* 



ET MANOEUVRES 



DU 




55. 



(L'AIGLE), 

Dimanche prochain 17 Août, 
AU CHAMP-DE-MARS, 

à 2 heures. 
PRIX D'ENTRÉE : 1 FRANC PAR PERSONNE. 
Stalles numérotées et gardées jusqu'après l'ascensipn, 

(près le Ballon-Navire). 1Q fr - 

Places assises dans la seconde enceinte • \sh 

S'adresser pour la location des places et tes coupons de stalles : 

Chez MM. Galignani, rue Vivienne, n. 1 8. 

Au bureau de Yddvertisev, rue IN e -St- Augustin, 

Au Café de Paris, boulevart des Italiens. 

Au Café Tortoni, boulevart des Italiens. 

Au Cafë de Foy, Palais-Ro^aj. 

Au Café Desmares., rue de l'Université, n. a5. 

Lutton, imprimeur-gr., passage du Saumon, n.26. 

Et aux ateliers de la Société,Champs-Elysées,Cours- 
la-Remé, en face du pont suspendu des Invalides. 

Toutes \es personnes qui prendraient d'avance, à l'adminis- 
tration ou dans les dépôts, des billets de stalles gardées, pour 
le jour de l'ascension^du ballon, ont droit à leurs entrées tous les 
jours aux ateliers et seront admises à voir gratuitement, en 
présentant leurs billets, toutes les expériences préparatoires 
que le peu d'étendue du terrain ne permet pas de faire en pré- 
sence du public. 

On trouvera au Champ-de-Mars des glaces et toutes espèces 
de raffraichissemens en abondance. M. Desmares, glacier-limo- 
nadier, me de l'Université, n° 25, est chargé de ce service. 






SOCIÉTÉ AÉRONAUTIQUE. 




MONTÉ PAR 

un équipage de 17 personnes 

ET DESTINA A DES 

VOYAGES DE LONG COURS. 



En même temps qu'il est un sujet d'étude digne d'un 

SSdJKS? c " objet d ' art ' nouveau *Siȣ 

acle le ffiSW »***»* offre au public le spec- 
tacle le pus intéressant, par ses proportions inusitées 
par 1 ongmalité de sa construction /et le mécani me uS 
pieux qui sert à le diriger. & 

. ENTRÉE: 
lous les jours de la semaine. .... i f r 
Le Vendredi. . . c ' . 
• 3 • . a fr. 

. ^^ -Ballon-navire est exposé. 

A^Tt'r b T leS du mati " ^»» 9 heures du soir 

rvH? 0?ln d »Aw»«J passent devant la Porte 

SMSSSfÇp* ^ ] '« et toutes,^; 
teâS ^'^te Auteuil, Sèvres. St-Cloud, 

fesg^ k Champ . de . Mars 

N. B Sur la demande d'un grand nnmU a 
l'exposition dans les atelier, ri, n °° lbre de personnes, 




PROGRAMME. 

Ascension, Manœuvres et Description du Navire aérien nommé 
l'Aigle, de 150 pieds de longueur sur M de hauteur, qui partira 
des Champs-Elysées pour descendre au Champ-de-Mars, et de là 
partir pour Londres, 98 lieues de Paris, en deux heures. — Les 
noms des personnes composant l'équipage , parmi lesquelles se 
trouvent deux dames accompagnant leurs maris. 



Paris et Londres, villes renommées par 
leur commerce et leur industrie, qui long- 
temps furent divisées par la politique, et 
aujourd'hui agissant d'unité pour l'intérêt 
des peuples, sont les seules villes propre- 
ment dites qui offrent un concours perpé- 
tuel de nouveautés et inventions faites 
pour fixer l'attention des amateurs. Ici 
c'est un chemin de fer imposant par 6a 
construction ; là Une voiture ou bateau à 
vapeau, et mille autres choses utiles dont il 
faudrait des volumes entiers pour en rendre 
compte. Des hommes adroits et intelligens 
viennent depuis peu d'offrir aux regards du 
public parisien un omnibus allant à Lyon 
et d'une dimension tout-à-fait extraordi- 
naire. Aujourd'hui la scène change ï au lieu 
de voyager sur la terre et sur l'onde , c'est 
dorénavant les airs que nous devons ex- 
ploiter. En cela nous ressemblerons à l'hi- 



rondelle voyageuse qui s'élève au prin- 
temps dans la couche d'air qui se meut vers 
le nord , et portée sur l'aile des vents , elle 
arrive dans nos climats après avoir fait 
sans fatigue souvent plus de quarante 
lieues à l'heure. Ainsi , à bien considérer , 
ce procédé ne peut être que très-avanta- 
geux, puisqu'une seule journée suffira pour 
porcourir une partie du globe. 

Tous ces jours derniers de nombreux 
visiteurs sont venus voir le ballon navire 
nommé V Aigle. Cet immense aérostat , 
étendu sur la pelouse , ressemblait au pre- 
mier aspect à un monstre marin. Sa lon- 
gueur est de i5o pieds sur 45 de hauteur. 
Le tissu qui le compose est en soie et coton, 
recouvert d'un enduit gommeux ou caout- 
chouc ; un second ballon en calicot gommé 
doit être introduit dans le premier, 
comme mesure de prévoyance et de sûreté 



BimiLSSttïh eonstructbn cl le depart du nouveau navire aérien L'AIGLE. Les noms despers 

qui doivent partir à la première ascension. , 



on nés 




Le nouveau ballon navire a i5o pieds de long sur 34 de hauteur 5 sa capacité est trois t'ois plus 
f/c-flsidérahîeque celle des plus forts ballons dont il a été l'ait l'essai jusqu'à ce jour. Il offre à peu 
près la forme d'une vessie natatoire de poisson, un peu grosse du milieu et terminée à chaque ex- 
trémité par un cône aigu ; cette forme a , dit-ron, l'avantage de rencontrer dans l'air une résistance 
six fois moindre qu'un ballon shérique. 

Le ballon en construction est destiné à enlever un poids de 6,5oo livres; la nacelle sera placée 
immédia lenient au-dessous de l'appareil auquel elle sera adhérente , à la différence des nacelles dont 
oa a'fait usage jusqu'à ce jour, qui, étant suspendues sous le ballon , sont entièrement soumises à 
son impulsion, sans pouvoir lui imprimer aucun mouvement. 

Le ballon nouveau est contenu dans un immense filet .don tj tous les fils aboutissent à l'endroit où 
se trouve placée la nacelle. Tout mouvement de la nacells peut dès lors sc'coinmuniquer au bolton, 
et'Ve répartir immédiatement sur toute sa surface. 

-Sur le filet qui contient le ballon sont placées des échelles de cordes , qui permettent d'aller visi- 
ter toutes les parties extérieurs, et d'y faire , au besoin , des réparatioiss, 

La nacelle a 66 pieds de long.; elle esl construite en osier* en ternie .die galerie, et pourrait con- 
tenir 00 personnes. 

Le ballon est construit ail moyen d'une toile préparée de manière à contenir le gaz pendant près 
<!e 10 jour-;. L'on sail que. jusqu'à présent, les tissus q.ui ont été empilés oUYaienile grave incon- 
vénient de laisser échapper le «raz' r et. par suite, de mettre les aoYonautcs clans la nécessité de pien- 
drfrlerre plus tôt qu'ils ne voulaient, souvent dans des endroits dangereux. 

11 y a un gouvernail en a\ uni de la nacelle et un en arrière; et de chaque côté deux roues armées- 
de rames en toile, construit à l'imitation des roues dos bateaux à vapeur. 

Chaque gouvernail et r.Wjae roue, pourra frapper l'air tantôt d'une manicrc permanente aux M* 




pour l'équipage composé de dix-sept per- 
sonnes. 

La nacelle est en osier parfaitement 
tressé , garnie de petits bancs pour les 
voyageurs, et porte sur ses parties laté- 
rales les appareils de direction. A chaque 
extrémité est une roue dont les ailes pren- 
nent l'allure que les navigateurs veulent 
lui donner. Ces roues pourront s'élever ou 
servir à descendre de même qu'un bateau 
s'élève ou s'enfonce suivant l'effort que la 
rame reçoit ; cependant le principal appa- 
reil sera au centre du navire et consistera 
tout simplement dans une pompe qui com- 
primera plus ou moins l'air. 

L'ascension publique, d'abord annoncée 
pour le jour de l'Assomption , d'après la 
décision de la société a été remise par de 
nouvelles affiches pour le dimanche 17. 
Les aéronautes s'élèveront d'abord du lieu 
actuel, c'est-à-dire des Champs-Elysées 
pour aller descendre au Champ-de-Mars , 
où aura lieu le grand départ à deux heures. 

La destination est l'Angleterre, et le 
point de descente à quelques milles de 
Londres. Deux dames en compagnies de 
leurs maris font partie de cette expédition 
aérienne , ce sont M mes Lenox et Edan. Les 
autres personnes sont MM. Lenox, Ajas- 
son de Grandsagne , Laurens , Edan , etc. 
Hier samedi 16 les curieux en très-grand 



nombre ont continué d'être admis à visiter 
ce gigantesque appareil au Cours la Reine. 
Il y a deux ans M. Lenox, un des savans 
à qui nous devons cette entreprise hardie , 
avait construit dans les carrières de Mont- 
martre un vaste aérostat qu'il cachait à tous 
les yeux et qu'il enleva un soir pour étu- 
dier, sans curieux, la portée de ses calculs; 
mais les résultats ne répondirent point à 
son attente. 

Aujourd'hui cet artiste , ayant conservé à 
son ballon sa forme allongée à l'imitation 
de celle d'un poisson, a placé dans l'in- 
térieur de cette immense machine une 
sorte de vessie natatoire qu'il remplit ou 
vide d'air , suivant qu'il veut descendre 
ou monter; il peut ainsi, sans perdre ni 
son lest ni son gaz, se placer dans la couche 
d'air qui lui paraît la plus propre à le faire 
arriver à son but. 

Enfin ce sera au milieu d'un concours 
immense de spectateurs réunis au Champ- 
de-Mars que M. Lenox, son épouse et 
quinze autres personnes, s'élèveront dans 
les airs : outre cela le ballon sera chargé 
de provisions, de nombreux instrumens 
de physique, de deux pompes de compres- 
sion et de tout l'attirail nécessaire aux ma- 
noeuvres du navire : avec un vent favorable, 
deux heures lui serviront pour se rendre à 
Londres , qui est à 98 lieues de Paris. 



Nota. Le Ballon parcourra d'abord le dimanche les boulevards , quelques com- 
munes environnantes, et le lundi partira pour son voyage de long cours à Londres. 



PARIS. — IMPRIMERIE LE NORMANT, RUE DE SEINE, N a 



F. S. G. 



«&?;clc nnvûèreialkr ?«cçe?--*v;nvr.t 1 on sSti.aftWgfeitâ W ^UsWJrjsïnc pour produire IVffu $« gaaverrfwh 
Yoici comment les no-t>ye'a«*^WWltoOM V -"&«&* $ c W^ $ q&ccrtire leur baUou sans jelcr de \c-A éî 
«aitsnerd.-cdcgaz. Dès ijrSp, le baron Srollei M. MeuvuVr de l'académie des sconce?, araitfrrt ôBsfii vu que là ves- 
sie natatoire, qui se rrotve tirais !c corps des poissons, avah ni h propice de tour berraetire de descendre au fond 
de l'eau o« de s'élever à so simacs, selon qn'ih la cnniprlmr.-ii ou <<nVîs ia laisse ni so dilater ; c'est une conséV 



ont imaginé d'introduire dans leur grand 
£1 



fluer.ee de ce fait qne l'air comprimé est p'ns lourd que l'air dilate. 

Par imitation jfe ce phvuoruene, les nouveaux aeronaut*^ 
ballmi parrticulicr, qui, selon la quantité d',ur extérieur qu'on y introduira , produira sur la pesa n* 
leur du grand ballon une fnfHrîc&n>:c de trente livras en plus ou moins. Or, pour qu'un baiion s'en- 
lève, il suffit qu'il pèse une demi livre de moins que s'il était rempli d'air atmosphérique, 

La faculté de donner au ballon un poi is de trente livres en plus ou en moins est donc un im* 
wense moyen mis à la disposition des nouveaux aéronautes pour s'élever ou s'abaisser à volonté 
dans la couche d'air qu'il leur conviendra de choisir. 

Ils ont en outre la prétention de pouvoir influer sur le mouvement a cendant ou descendant de 




Dans ce système, le navire aérien louvoirait pardes rnouvemens inclines alternalimcnt de liant ea 
bas, tandis que les vaisseaux louvoient par des rnouvemens horizontaux de droite à gauche , et if* 

ciproqu.em.ent. ■ \ '■ 

La possibilité de s'élever et de s'abaisser a volonté dans rair respttable étant admise, oft pourrait 
dès lors choisir la couche d'air la plus favorable à la roule que l'on voudrai .suivre. 

Les nouveaux aéronautes prétendent que , dans les ascensions qu'ils ont fades, ils ont remarque 
que dans l'air respirable, qui comprend une espace de 5 ,000 a 5,5oo toises , il; -y presque toujours 
deux ou trois courans d'air se dirigeant dans des sens diiïér.ens Le môme phénomène aurait été ob- 
servé pour le courant d'eau^ lors ût$ essais de navigation sous marine qui ont été laits dans ces der- 
niers temps. • -, , • , . , 

Si tout s lescouohes d'air leur étaient contraires, ifs se placeraient alors entre deux couches op* 
posés ou ils prétendent qu'ils trouveraient un air a l'état de remous , dans lequel ils pourraient na- 
viguer avec une vitesse de 2 a 5 lieues a l'heure, a l'aide des roues adaptées a leur nacelle. 

Il parait qu'outre le moyeu de direction que nous venons d'indiquer, ils en auront encore nu 
dont ils .conservent le secret, mais quï~ 5 d'après le peu qu'ils en ont dit, me paraît consister à créer 
à l'aide de soufflets de leur invention , des courans d'air- assez rapides pour taire des points d'appui 
à chaque rouo et à chaque gouvernail. 

S'ils ponvateot ss placer entre deux vents de directions différentes, fis avanceraient avec une vitesse de 2 a 3\ 
lieues a l'heure, ou ils resteraient sédentaires, attendant, un vent favorable; ou bien encore, s'ils ne trouvaient 




son départ. . 

Les nouveaux aéronautes emporteront avec eux unebousseoie, un linronu'îr" ? un elrcî.ometre, un ther i;oinén<v 
et uu instrument remplaçant le loch <|es navires, cmt leur servira à mesurer ia vitesse verticale et h v.'es,se hori- 
zontale. . ' 

Ils se pourvoiront aussi d'une lampe à la Davy, et nne lanterne sourd? phosphorique , qui , sans p r© >e nier 1-e 
danger de mettre le feu au, ballon, leur donneront une clarté suffisante pour lire et écrire, 

Ainsi voici en deux mots quels seraient leurs moyens de direct on : ils chercheraient une couche 
d'air qui les porterait où ils voudrait se diriger , et s'ils la trouvaient , ils pourraient s'y rendre avtc 
une Vitesse moyenne de 10 à \i lieues à l'heure et souvent avec une vitessse de 35 à 4o lieues a 
l'heure. Dans les Antilles, il y a des courans d'air d'une vitesse de cent lieues à 1 heure. 

Parmi les personnes qui doivent prendre part à la première ascension , on cite les personnes sui- 
vantes M. de Lannox, ancien officier supérieur : M. Orsi, jeune italien 3 M. Guilbcrl, inventeur da 
tissus imperméables que le gouvernement emploie a l'usage de l'armée; M. Ajasson de Grandsagne, 
professeur de physique dans un collège royal j M. Laurent, jeune physicien , attaché a l'instruction 
publipuo; M.Édan,homme de lettres. Mmes de Lannox et Edan accompagnent leurs maris dans 

oe périlleux voyage. 

Imprimerie de Appert et Bacquenou, rue Christine , 1$. a. 





°dÛï< 

of title 



r//o? S/MMONS 



M/?ck/f/rosH. 




a., a. Bûdy ûftàe 2ïa.lloo7i/ — à J&tdder—C Cœr__ d.d. Jîird-/Ç-a,?n-e- — e.e. Fra??i& ûftkedïaZlûo?i'—ffJdigrg?jis) vftâe Rudder _ 

_ . ■ < < - «- * .> i ^ ■ 

<zS0Z y . <l /flÙKt^xU&z&ïf'^ Àt^^a^-^ d^ fre^-^^^d'^ tddœdi^^j d&4^&. ,_?^^>to<?d d- r^z*s£i& 

-dd^ $%t>td<?^?e ^^t^ey -dey <5*>^<r > .6£43>&!3d / ^&»t •-•' a>^y^ œ^ï^-^dk^L. d£dd^w de^dt^td^ 

d d tf&ÏMorx* u â!d*er&*<>.c dv-ly 3 Y y ?/.3 ^' . " 

P/dZ-Med /ïr&dhp'\?sf,?rM 



jSenefâderixn. Brass,. JhlborT/^a-TSsZondon,. 



dxft^StoJi-Eed: 




AN EXACT REPRESENTATION OF THE 



Fin 




SHIP, 



NOW EXHIBITING IN THE GROUNDS OF THE 



fdictoria Road, facing Kensington Gardens. 

XB3B& 




E 



C 



E 



ill vj 

This sMmendons Machine is 100 feet long-, 50 high, and -10 wide, constructed for establ ; sh'ng a direct Communication between Ù 
of Europe. The first experiment of this new system of Aerial Navigation will be made from London to Paris, and buck again, early in 
A The Body of the Vessel, in the construction of which upwards of 2100 yards of lawn has heen consumed, and is 
capable of containing 2700 cubic feet of gas. There are four wings on each side marked B, made with moveable 
flaps, with nett work on one side to support them whilst propelling the Vessel. 
C The Cabin which contains the machinery for working the wings. 
D The Rudder 

E The extremities of the Car, which is made of wood, and is 75 feet long, and six w'de, strongly secured on all sides 
by netting. 



Asa*: 



;e Capital 
August, 



ROYAL ST\\I>\IM> 



TAfEIN 



AND 



PLEASURE 
GROUNDS. 




SHEPHERDESS 
WALK, 



CITY ROAD. 



licensed pursuant to Act of Parliament of the &5th of Ming €*eorge the Second. 

H. BEADING, PROPRIETOR. 



Extraordinary Attraction ! 



FOR THE 




The Nocturnal iEronaut, who will make 








AM EQU 

BALLOON ASCENT 



Ou MOW&AY, Sept. 2nd, 188». 

This will be the First Equestrian Flight this Ten Years, and positively the Last Ascent that will take place at these Grounds this Season. 

The Arrangements under the Superintendence of Mr. G-REEHT. 






HAD KINDLY OFFERED THE USE OF HIS 

CELEBRATED PONY, " FIRE-FLY," 

But in consequence of an accident, the above Arabian has been procured for the purpose. 



H. B. respectfully informs his numerous Visitors, that, at the solicitation of some of his most intimate Friends, the Balloon on this occasion, will be inflated 

in the Gardens, in order that the Company may have an opportunity of witnessing the same. 






Durina- the Inflation there will be a succession of Amusement ; and in the course of the Evening the following Entertainments : 



Overture— €ruu JMannering. 

Opening Chorus— The Chough and Crow By the Company I 



Song— Pretty Mocking Bird Miss Stansbury 

Song, Irish— Paddy Carey Mr. Starmer 

Song— Calais Shrimp Girl Mr3. Andrews 

Song— The Cottage Maid Mr. Plumpton 

Song— I should very much like to know Mrs. Fitzgerald 



JBu tUe MfanéL 

Song— Sich a gitting up Stairs Mr. Smith, the English Jim Crow 

Song— The Sapling Oak Mr. Fortescue 

Song— Auld Robin Gray Miss Stansbury 

Song, Comic— The Air Balloon Mr. T. Jones 

Glee— The Curfew Bell . . Miss Stansbury, Mrs. Fitzgerald, and Mr. Fortescue 



Classical Tableaux, or Gymnastic Feats - by the Brothers Laurent. 
Comic Clog Wanee - . JfMr. JLJK*J»MJEW£t, 

Highland Vling ... 






IATHAI. 



BURIED AND 



After which, (for the second time here,) the laughable Entertainment, entitled 




BURIED 



«t% a 4*fiost in spite of MSimself. 

Mr. Nicodemus, Mr. TAYLOR. Captain Vauntington, Mr. PLUMPTON. Squire Aid winkle, Mr. STARMER. 

Dickory - Mr. T. JONES. Paul - Mr. SMITH. Servants, Messrs. GARDNER & CLEMENTS. 

Miss Aldwinkle - Mrs. ANDREWS. Lavinia (her Cousin,) Mrs. TAYLOR. 



Overture— OTancreai. JBu the JBanO, 

Glee— Ye Banks and Braes . . Miss Stansbury, Mrs. Fitzgerald, & Mr. Fortescue I Song, Comic— Irish Schoolmaster Mr. Starmer 

Song— Mary, Mr. Plumpton Song— To the gay Tournament Mrs. Fitzgerald 

Nigger Song— Jim Brown Mr. Smith, the English Jim Crow Song, Comic— Billy Crow and Miss Watsso Mr. T. Jones 

Song— The Vine Feast Miss Stansbury | Duet— All's well Mr. Fortescue and Mr. Plumpton 



To which will be added, the much-admired Pantomimic Spectacle, entitled the 



RED INDIAN : or, THE DOG OF THE WRECK. 

In which Mr. AJSFimEWjrg Celebrated »©$?, VICTOK, will appear. 

Lieutenant Morton - Mr. TAYLOR. Jack Jib, - Mr. T. JONES. 

Pattipaw, (the Red Indian,) Mr. ANDREWS. 
Paraboo - ABDEL LAURENT. Chuckawa, - ALTO LAURENT. Whiskewara, - HENRI LAURENT. 
Sam Spritsaii, Mr. PLUMPTON. Jack Hallyard, Mr. CLEMENTS. 
Lilla (Mortons Wife,) Mil e. HENRI LAURENT. Child - Miss NATHAN. 



Terrific Combat by Pattipaw and Morton, Combat of Four» 



The whole will conclude with a most 






UPttdHMIBIIB IBIISIPILA'y ©W WWËM o W® M 

BY THAT CELEBRATED ARTIST, DARBY. 

The Gardens will be brilliantly Illuminated with various Coloured Lamps. 



Doors Open at ONE o'Clock. 
Admission to the whole, One Shilling. 



Balloon Ascent at FIVE. 
After the Ascent, ilXPEWCE. 



PARSONAGE, PriDter 1, Wilderness How, Goswell Street. 



-■*.-. -■■«•«-' .nr ■ 



«OTIL 

STANDARD 

Tavern and Pleasure Grounds, 

SHEPHERDESS WALK, 

CITY ROAD. 

Licensed pursuant to Act of Parliament of the 26tk 

of King George the Second. 

H. BBÂDI1G, Proprietor. 

EXTRAORDINARY 

ATTRACTIONS 

Mr. GYPSON, 

The Nocturnal JEronaut, will make a 




ON 



On Monday, Sept. ». J^j 



This will be the First Equestrian Flight this Ten 
Years, and positively the Last Ascent that will take 
place at these Grounds this Season. 

The Arrangements under the Superintendence of 

Mr. «MEEar. 

MR. DUCROW 

Had kindly offered the use of his 

«'FIRE -FLY," 

But in consequence of an Accident, the above 
Arabian has been procured for the purpose. 

H. B. respectfully informs his numerous Visitors, 
that, at the solicitation of some of his most intimate 
Friends, the Balloon on this occasion, will be 
inflated in the Gardens, in order that the Company 
may have an opportunity of witnessing the same. 

During the Inflation there will be a succession of 
A musement ; and in the course of the Evening the 
following Entertainments : 

COHCERT 

Of Vocal and Instrumental Music. 

NEW VAUDEVILLE. 

CLASSICAL TABLEAUX. 

The Celebrated English 




The Laughable Ballet of Action, 

WWP versus §\$}®\j$ 

A VARIETY QF 

DANCING. 

4-c. 4-c. * 

To Conclude with a 

OF 

FIRE-WORKS ! 

The whole under the Direction of Ittr. T. Jones, 

The Gardens will be brilliantly Illuminated with 
various Coloured Lamps. 



Doors open at ONE — Balloon Ascent at FIVE. 

*1 tlmission to tUe trhole, 1$. 
Or after tUe JLscent, %a\ 

FOR PARTICULARS SEE BILLS OF THE DAY. 

FmoMge, Prime* , l, WMoraeee Ifcw, GwmeH-et. 



STANDARD 

Tavern and Pleasure Grounds, 
SHEPHERDESS WALK, 

Licensed pursuant to Act of Parliament Of the 

25th of King George the Second. 

H. BRAJDItfG, PROPRIETOR. 



Extraordinary ATTRACTION I 




mm. «ip§»ar, 

The Nocturnal JEronaut, will make a 

iALLOOM 



©m Monday, Sent, f&.l&fp- 

This will be the First Equestrian Flight this Ten 
Years, and positively the Last Ascent that will 
take place in these Grounds this Season. 

The Arrangements under the Superintendence of 

Mr* 



Had kindly offered the use of his 

"FIRE-FLY," 

But in consequence of an Accident, the above Arabia?i 
has been procured for the purpose. 

H. B. respectfully informs his numerous Visitors, that, at 
the solicitation of some of his most intimate Friends, the 
Balloon, on this occasion, will be Inflated in the Gardens. 
in order that the Company may have an opportunity of 
witnessing the same. 

During the Inflution there will be a succession of Amusement ; 
and in the courte of the Evening the following Entertainments. 

GRAND 

CONCERT 

Of Vocal and Instrumental Music. 

NEW VAUDEVILLE. 

Classical Tableaux of the First Fratricide ! 

Surpashing any thing of the kind ever attempted. 
The Celebrated English 



The admired Ballet, of 

THE RED INDIAN, 

In which, the 

Celebrated J*og, Victor, 

Will appear.—to the astonishment of every Beholder, 
protecting his Master in Four different Scenes. 

A Variety of Dancing, fyc. $c. 

^^ To conclude with a Grand Display of 

FIRE-WORKSÎ 

The whole under the Direction of Mr. T. Jones 

The Gardens will be brilliantly Illuminated with 
various Colored Lamps. 



Doors open at ONE— Balloon Ascent at FIVE. . 

Aamission to tUe tvHoie, Xs. 
Or after me «Zscent, 6a. 

F0R PARTICULARS SEE BILLS OF THE DAY. 






•arsonage, Prwter, *, Wilderness How, Goswell-St. 








OF THE 





WILL MAKE A 

In his Splendid 





ASCEMT !! 




BALLOON ASCENT 
Nocturnal 




FROM THE 



Yard of the Gas Works, 

•flit Two o^Clock, on Tuesday, September 17, 1839. 



»»««$Q9@(g>@®®®eeee 



This extraordinary Balloon Cwith which Mr. 
Gypson made his Night Voyage on June 3,) is 
composed of 1800 Yards of the Richest Silk, in 
alternate Colours of Crimson and Gold, is 70 ft. 
high, 40£t. diameter, and contains 30,000 cubic 
feet of Gas: its size and appearance when fully 
inflated must astonish every Spectator. 

AN EXCELLENT BAND WILL BE PROVIDED FOR THE OCCASMN. 

DOORS OPEN AT TWELVE, ASCENT AT TWO. 

Admission, ls.—Chitdren under 1£ Years, Half Price. 



PENN, Printer, High Street, Barking. 



Balloon Ascent. — Tuesday night being appointed for 
lighting the town of Barking, Essex, for the first time with 
gas, the day was spent with much festivity by its inhabi- 
tants. For some days previously large handbills were 
posted about the place, announcing that Mr. Gibson 
would make his ascent on that evening in his " grand 
balloon,"- and all doubts on this head were removed by se- 
veral witnessing the process of inflation at the works 
lately built by the Barking Gas and Coke Commny. 
Notwithstanding the unfavourable state of the weather, 
vast crowds of persons assembled in the course 
of the afternoon to witness a scene to that 
part of the country perfectly novel. The work of in- 
flation being completed, at four o'clock Mr. Gibson, a 
friend, and a Mr. Plows, a respectable tradesman in the 
place, got into the car. As the ponderous machine was 
gently swinging about, one of its sides struck against one 
of the poles fixed alongside and slightly damaged it. Mr: 
Plows perceiving this very prudently made the best of his ' 
way out, while Mr. Gibson and his companion called out 
to let the balloon go ; and, their wishes being complied 
with, the machine ascended, but not to any great alti- 
tude. It proceeded for about half a mile, when it ap- 
peared evident to the spectators that the gas was fast 
escaping. On approaching the earth it became considerably 
collapsed, and ultimately fell with great velocity. The ! 
balloon fortunately fell in a turnip field belonging* to Mr. 1 
Hunsdon, at Uphall, and the aeronauts managed to escape 
unhurt. _ /f /&)&*&*. /fff 



THE BALLOO N ASCENT AT BARKING. 

-We insert, at the request of Mr. Gypson, the following ac- 
count of his recent balloon ascent at Barking, as he complains of 
several inaccuracies in the paragraph copied from a country paner 
last week :— - J r * 

" The injury the balloon received by being blown against a 
pole, being below the equator, I had still sufficient ascending 
I power to make a perpendicular ascent of at least half a mile, and 
having long entertained an opinion that it was possible to convert 
the balloon into a parachute in case of emergency, I determined 
to avail myself of the existing opportunity, knowing as I did 
that my friends in Barking had expressed a wish to be gratified 
with a sight of the descent. Accordingly, I made myself master 
of the upper valve line while I unconnected the lines of the 
safety valve, and immediately threw all the uninflated silk of the 
lower hemisphere into the upper hemisphere, forming a stupen- 
dous convexity above my head, with which myself and my com- 
panion commenced a somewhat rapid but perfectly safe descent. 
Finding that I was approaching a fine crop of turnips, I threw 
out a considerable quantity of sand, and gently skimmed into a 
field adjoining without the least injury being done ; remaining 
firm in my opinion that it is perfectly practical to combine the 
balloon with the parachute without the use or weight of the lat- 
ter, in the event of approaching the sea, a wood, or buildings of 
any description, inasmuch as the uninflated portion of the silk 
forms a considerable convexity, while the inflated adds much to 
| the success of the experiment, and checks a violent descent of 
| the whole apparatus." J+JJ-. 2/. M3c 



BY PERMISSION, 

AND UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF 

THE MOST WORSHIPFUL & 




BY PERMISSION, 

And under the Patronage of tW 
Most Worshipful the Mayor. 








GRAN» 



BALLOON 




ASCENT! ASCESTT! 



From the Yard of the 

BEDFORD 

GAS COMPANY, 

Will make his Sixteenth Ascent 

IN H]S 

MAGNIFICENT 

NOCTURNAL 




From the Grounds of the 

BEDFORD 

AS COMPANY, 

r. ChrpsoN 

Will make bis Seventeenth Ascent 
in his 

MAGNIFICENT 

NOCTURNAL 




On FRIDAY Afternoon Next, 
May the 1st, 1 840, at 4 o'clock. 

This extraordinary Machine, in which Mr. 
G. made his Nocturnal Voyage, on June 3rd, 
1839, is composed of 1800 yards of the richest 
Silk, in alternate colors of Crimson and Gold. 
It stands 60-feet high, is 36- feet in diameter, 
and contains 20,000 cubic feet of Gas, — and 
is calculated to excite the astonishment of 
every beholder ! 

$g° An excellent Band is engaged for the 
occasion, and the Police will be in attendance. 





* # * Admission to witness the Inflation and Ascent 

On the Elevated Stage, 2s. 6d. 

Fore Ground, 2s. Back Ground, Is. 

Tickets for the Elevated Stage may be 
obtained at the Printers. 

The Balloon, partly inflated with Atmos- 
pheric Air, will be exhibited at Mr. King's 
Long Room, New Inn, Tavistock Street, on 
Wednesday and Thursday next, together with 
the Car and Appendages. A Glass will be 
inserted to exhibit the Interior of the Balloon. 
Admission 6d. each. Children Half-price. 



Hill & Son, Printers, Silver- street, Bedford. 



>n SATURDA Y Afternoon Next, 
May the 9th,' IUO, 
■ota ©pen a* Three, Ascent at Fire o'clock* 
Lady and Two Gentlemen will accompany Mr. G. 

i MW 

This extraordinary Machine, in which Mr. 
». made his Nocturnal Voyage, on June 3rd, 
1839, is composed of 1800 yards of the richest 
Silk, in alternate colors of Crimson and Gold. 
It stands 60-feet hisrh, is 36- feet in diameter» 
and contains 20,000 cubic feet of Gas,— and 
is calculated to excite the astonishment of 
every beholder ! 

«»> An excellent Band is engaged for the 
occasion, and the Police will be in atten dance. 

Admission to witness the Inflation and Assent, 2* 
Reserved Seats for Ladies. 

Tickets may be obtained at the Printers, 
And at the Bar of the following Inns,--the 
Swan, George, Red Lion, Rose, New Inn, 
Kings-Arms, Horse-and- Jockey, & Hop-Pole. 




/8w0 



UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF THE MAYOR. 



M R. G Y P S O N, 
AS the honour to announce that lie will make his se- 
cond ascent with his magnificent Balloon from (lie 
grounds of the Bedford Gas Company, THIS DAY, SA - 
TUkOAY, May 9, at 5 o'clock in the afternoon, precisely, 
accompanied by a Lady and two Gentlemen of Bedford, 
it bein<> hisse'venteenth aerial voyage. Doors open at three 
— asc mt at 5 o'clock. An excellent band is engaged for 
the a çasiitn ; and the police will be in attendance. 

Ad ,-iissiou to witness the inflation and ascent 2s, Re 
served seats for ladies. 

Tun Balloon Ascent. — Another ascent ot LUr. Gyp- 
son's balloon is advertised to take place this day, which 
we hop© will be well patronised. We liuve received an 
account of the aerial voyage from the aoronaut, Mr. Gyp- 
son, which we give in his own words : — 

"All our preparations for the voyage being completed, 
I entered the car (accompanied by my friend, Mr. VV. 
Adams,) for the purpose of trying the ascending power of 
the balloon, and finding the car somewhat too heavily 
laden- I put out nearly 40 lbs. of ballast, and gave the 
word to let go; upon which the machine immediately 
darted upwards, but being acted on at the moment of 
starting by a brisk breeze from the N. E., her course was 
more inclined to the horizontal than the | erpendicular di- 
rection, passing over the beautiful and highly cultivated 
grounds of Dr. Brereton, and bearing in the direction of 
Kempston, it was very evident that the lower eurrent 
would have carried the balloon to Newport Pagnell, but 
wishing to attain a higher elevation, I relieved the machine 
of another bag of ballast, and she winged her way aloft in 
the grandest style imaginable. From the position of the 
Gas Works, I perceived that we were now changing our 
course, in fact, the wind above was full east, and we wore 
driven in a direct line towards the setting sun with sin- 
gular exactness, for as the car revolved round in the vast 
element in which it was floating, it invariably presented a 
straight line with the great luminary of the nniveise. 15 
minutes had now elapsed in attaching the grappling iron 
and cable, and arranging the safety valve, to be prepared 
for the expansion of the gas ; the view at this period was 
beautiful beyond description, and defies all the language 
of man to convey the least idea of its perfect sublimity — 
and equally with the tongue of man must fail that silent 
utterer of sounds, the pen, or that effective sketcher of 
scenes, the pencil, all aie in fact unequal to the task 
where— /*,<^6>* /faxr**^?. S>t~? ?. /%, 

' We gaze, and turn away, and know not where : ^û 
Dazzled and drunk with beauty, till the heart 
Reels with its fulness.' 
We were now over Olney, in Buckinghamshire, the balloon 
still ascending, and gainining additional power, in conse- 
quence of following the coursa of the sun, which caused a 
great expansion of the gas. Our voyage was perfectly 
cloudless, and to the very verge of the horizon the same 
undiminished beauty and magnificence prevailed, and that 
with all the sensations of ease and safety ; for it is in the 
car of the balloon alone, entirely isolated, that all symp- 
toms of giddiness disappear, for a single rope connecting 
the balloon with the earth would case the same sensations 
as are felt from church steeples and other high eminences. 
We had now the elevation of two miles, and I began to 
think of effecting a descent, but the country throughout 
our voyage was very woody and unfavourable. I had up 
to this time, 7 o'clock, pai'ted with seven or eight hundred 
feet of gas, in order to check the expansion. Our voyage 
had now lasted 35 minutes, and the dew was falling heavily 
about the balloon, car, and cordage, so much so, that we 
could wipe it off in a stream ; my friend, Mr. Adams, in 
the hurry of the moment, left his «oat behind him, and felt 
the cold considerably. The balloon, which had been 
swelled to its utmost extent by the expansion, now became 
suddenly condensed, and gave us what is termed a de- 
scending power, during which Lord Northampton's seat, 
at Castle Ashby, was »een very plain in its circle of beau- 
tiful lofty trees. We now lowered the irons to effect a 
descent, which took hold in the eentre of a large meadow 
this side of Little Houghton, in Northamptonshire, but the 
persons in the meadow being very timid, allowed us to 
drift several meadows further, in one of which I crippled 
the power of the balloon by opening the valve, and reached 
the earth in perfect safety on the farm of Mr. Ttllent, at 
Little-Houghton, by whom we were most hospit- 
ably entertained, and reached Bedford at 12 o'clock 
the same night, when Bedford had resumed its accustomed 
quietness, and the thousands of individuals that cheered 
our ascent had retired tu repose. — I beg to state no fault 
can rest with either the engineer or company in conse- 
quence of the balloon not being full, for had I commenced 
three hours earlier the inflation would have been a full 
compliment, which I intend to be the case this day, and 
ascend at 5 o'clock nreoiselv " 



Positively the Last Aacea&s 
from BEDFORD. 

Under the Patronage of the Most 
Worshipful the Mayor. 




MR. GYPSON 

Will make his THIRD 

BALLOON 

ASCENT 

From the Grounds of the 

BEDFORD 

GAS COMPANY, 

On SATURDAY Afternoon Next, 
May the 16//*, 1840, 

AT FIVE O'CLOCK PRECISELY. 

When the Balloon has attained a considerable 
elevation 

Madame Grimalkin 

Will descend in a 

PARACHUTE. 



As Two Ladies and Four Gentlemen have 
expressed anxiety to accompany Mr. G., an early 
application for Seats in the CAR is necessary. 

Admission to witness the Inflation and Ascent 
ONE Shilling' each. 

Mr. G. trusts that the muster of his 
Friends on this occasion will com- 
pensate him for the extremely low 
price of admission. 



At the particular request of some of 
the Members of the Town Council, 
(two of whom accompanied Mr. Gyp- 
son in his last Ascent,) he is induced 
to announce one more 




jSSÈmw « 



mSSsw //// / 




ASCENT 

From the Grounds of the 

BEDFORD 

GAS COMPANY, 

On SATURDAY Afternoon Next, 
May the 23rd, 1840, 

AT FIVE O'CLOCK PRECISELY, 

in order to gratify as many Gentle- 
men of the Town Council with a 
Voyage as the Balloon will possibly 
carry, and positively the last from 
Bedford. Mr. G. is only induced to 
make another Ascent in order to gra- 
tify the Gentlemen above mentioned. 

In consequence of the universal ap- 
probation expressed at the descent 
of the 

PARACHUTE 

that experiment will be again 
repeated. 

Admission to witness the Inflation and Ascent 
ONE Shilling- each. 

An excellent Band is engaged for the Occasion. 

Mr. G. trusts the low price of admis- 
sion will give him a bumper at his 
farewell Ascent from Bedford. 



UNDER THE PATRONAGE 

OF THE MAGISTRATES, 

And a Committee of Gentlemen. 



BY PARTICULAR DESIRE. 




HiLL& Son, Printeiis, Silver-street, Bedfor», 



GRAND 

BALLOON 

ASCENT Z 

MR. GYPSON, 

Who has given such genera] satisfaction by his Four 
Ascents from Bedford. 

Will make his Nineteenth Ascent 

From a spacious ground at the back of the Hind Hotel 

WELLINGBORO.' 

On Thursday afternoon 

JUNE 11th 1840, 

WITH HIS 

MAGNIFICENT 

NOCTURNAL 

BALLOON 

At a great elevation Mr. G. will detatch 
a Parachute containing a living animal . 
Doors open at Two, Asceut at Five o'clock. 
Admittance to witness the inflation &c. Is. 

This extraordinary Machine, in which Mr. 
G. made his Nocturnal Voyage, on June 3rd 
1839, is composed of 1800 yards of the rich- 
est Silk, in alternate colors of Crimson and 
Gold. It stands 60-feet high, is 36-feet in 
diameter, and contains 20,000 cubic-feet of 
Gas, — and is calculated to excite the aston- 
ishment of every beholder! 

«§* An excellent Band is engaged for th« 
occasion, and the Police will be in attend- 
ance. 

Admission during Wednesday to witnes* 
the process of inflation, and inspect the Car, 
appendages and apparatus, 6d. each. 

Reserved seats for Ladies 2s. each. Ticket 
for which can only be obtained at Mr. Whit- 
ten's Printing Office. 

Terms for seats in the car to be had of Mr. 
Gypson on the ground. 




«ILL& Son, Printers, Silver- street, Bedford. 



SECOND 

And positively the last GRAND 

BALLOON 

ASCENT! 

ImrgypsonT 

Who has given such general satisfaction by his Four 
Ascents from Bedford. 

Will make his Twentieth Ascent 

From a spacious ground at the back of thef Hind Hottl 

WELLINGBORO.' 

On Wednesday evening 

JUNE 17th 1840, 

WITH HIS 

MAGNIFICENT 

NOCTURNAL 

BALLOON, 

At a great elevation Mr. G. will detach 
a Parachute containing a living animal . 
Dojrà open at Two, Ascent at Five o'clock. 
Admittance to witness the inflation &c. Is. 

This extraordinary Machine, in which Mr. 
G. ma Je his Nocturnal Voyage, on June 3rd 
1839, is composed of 1800 yards of the rich- 
est Silk, in alternate colors of Crimson and 
Gold. It stands 60-feet high, is 36-feet in 
diameter, and contains 20,000 cubic-feet of 
Q\ as? — and is calculated to excite the aston- 
ishment of every beholder! 

K^ An excellent Band is engaged for the 
occasion, and the Police will be in attend- 
Admission during Tuesday to witness 
the process of inflation, and inspect the Car, 
appendages and apparatus, 6d. each. 

Reserved seats for Ladies 2s. each. Ticket 
for which can only be obtained at Mr. Whit- 
ten's Printing Office. 

Terms for seats in the car to be had ot Mr 
Gypson on the ground. 

WHITTKW, FBINTKTU 



By Permission and under the Patronage of 
• the most Worshipful 

THE MAYOR, 

And a Committee of Gentlemen. 



GRAND 

BALLOON 



T T 

il a 



MR. GYPSON, 

Who has given such gênerai satisfaction by his Ascents 
from Bedford, and neighbourhood. 

Will make his Twentieth Jl scent 

From the premises of the GAS WORKS 

NORTHAMPTON 

On Thursday Afternoon, 

JULY 16th, 1840, 

WITH HIS 

MAGNIFICENT 

NOCTURNAL 

BAjl-IiOON. 

At a great elevation Mr. G. will detach 
a Parachute containing a living animal. 

Doors open at Two, Ascent at Five o'Clock. 

Admittance to witness the inflation $c. Is. 



This extraordinary Machine, in which Mr.. 
G.- made his Nocturnal Voyage, on June 3d 
1839, is composed of 1800 yards of the rich- 
est Silk, in alternate colours of Crimson and 
Gold. It stands 60-feet high, is 36-feet in 
diameter, and contains 20,000 cubic feet of 
Gas ; and is calculated to excite the aston- 
ishment of every beholder ! 

{Kf* An excellent Band will be provided 
and the Police will be in attendance. 

Reserved Seats for Ladies 2s. each. Tic- 
kets can be obtained at all the Booksellers. 

It is requested that Tickets will be pro- 
cured previous to the day of Ascent» 

Terms for seats in the car to be had of Mr. 
Gypson on the ground. Mr. G. has had 
the honor of conyeying 16 gentlemen safely 
on terra-firma, which removes any fear that 
might be entertained of a safe descent. 

Cordeux, Printer. 



~- - — 



By Permission and under the Patronage at 
the most Worshipful The Mayor, and 

a Committee of Gentlemen. 




SECOND 

BALIOOI 

ASCENT ! 

FROM 

N ORTHAMPTO N . 
MR. GYPSON, 

Wbo has given such general satisfaction by his Ascent» 
from Bedford, and neighbourhood. 

Will make his Twenty-first Ascent, 

from the premises of the GAS WORKS, 

On Thursday Afternoon» 

JULY 23d, 1840, 

■WITH HI8 

MAGNIFICENT 

NOCTURNAL 

BALLOON. 

At a great elevation Mr. G. will detach 

a Parachute containing a living animal 

Doors open at Two, Ascent at Five o'Clock. 

Admission to witness the inflation &c. is. 

This extraordinary Machine, in which Mr. 
G. made his Nocturnal Voyage, on June 3d, 
1839, is composed of 1800 yards of th« rich- • 
est Silk, in alternate colors, of Crimson and 
Gold. It stands 60 feet high, is 36-feet in 
diameter, and contains 20,000 cubic feet of 
Gas; and is calculated to excite the aston- 
ishment of every beholder ! 

fcf* An excellent Band will be provided, 
and the Police will be in attendance. 

Reserved Sents for Ladies, 2s. each. 
Tickets may be obtained at all the Book- 
sellers. 

Terms for Seafcin the car, to be had of Mr. G. on the 
.round.— Mr. G. has had the honor of conveying 
' 18 Gentlemen safely on terra firm», which removes any 
fear that might be entertained of a safe descent. 



By Permission and under the Patron- 

the most Worshipful The Mayor. 




THIRD 

BALLO'OI 

ASCENT ! 

FROM 

NORTHAMPTON. 
MR. GYPSON, 

Who has given such geueral satisfaction by his Ascents 
from Bedford, and neighbourhood, at the particular re- 
quest of several Gentlemen, two of whom will accotn- 
pany him, is induced to make his TWENTY-SE- 
COND ASCENT, from the premises of the GAS 
WORKS, 

On Saturday Afternoon, 

AUGUST 1st, 1840, 

WITH HIS 

MAGNIFICENT 

SILK 

BALLOON, 

Being the last from Northampton. 
At a great elevation Mr. G. will detach 

a Parachute containing a living animal 
For the convenience of Gentlemen attending the mai 

ket, the Ascent will take place" at 4 for 5 precisely 

Admission to witness the inflation &e. is. 

This extraordinary Machine, in which Mr. 
G. made his Nocturnal Voyage, on June 3d, 
1839, is composed of 1800 yards f the rich- 
est Silk, in alternate colors, of Crimson and 
Gold. It stands 60 feet high, is 36-feet in 
diameter, and contains 20,000 cubic feet of 
Gas; and is calculated to excite the aston- 
ishment of every beholder ! 

SJ* An excellent Band will be provided', 
'and the Police will be in attendance. 

Terms for Seats in the car, to be had of Mr. G. on tut 
ground. — Mr. G. has had the honor of conveying 
20 Gentlemen safely to terra firma, which remove* any 
tear that might be entertained of a safe descent. 



By Permission and under the Patronage of 
the most Worshipful The Mayor, and 

a Committee of Gentlemen. 




GRAND 

HALLOO Y 

ASCENT ! 
MR. GYPSON, 

Who has given such general satisfaction by his Ascents 
from Bedford, and neighbourhood. 

Will make his Twentieth Ascent, 

from the premises of the GAS WORKS, 

NORTHAMPTON, 

On Thursday Afternoon, 

JULY 16th, 1840, 

WITH HIS 

MAGNIFICENT 

.NOCTURNAL 

BALLOON. 

At a great elevation Mr. G. will detach 

a Parachute containing a living animal 

Doors open at Two, Ascent at Five o'Clock. 

Admission to witness the inflation &c. Is. 

This extraordinary Machine, in which Mr. 
G. made his Nocturnal Voyage, on Jnne 3d, 
1839, is- composed of 1800 yards of the rich- 
est Silk, in alternate colors, of /Crimson and 
Gold. It. stands 60 feet high, is 36-ieet in 
diameter, and contains 20,000 cubic feet of 
Gas; and is calculated to excite the aston- 
ishment of every beholder ! 

C^r" An excellent Band will be .provided, 
and the Police will be in attendance. 

Reserved Seats for Ladies, 2s. each. 
Tickets may be obtained at all the Book- 
sellers. 

Terms for Seats in the car, to be had of Mr. G. on the 
around— Mr. G. has had the honor of conveying 
16 Gentlemen safely on terra firma, which removes any 
fear that might be enlertained^of a safe descent. 



-4 /£. . #4* 



Balloon Ascent. — On Thursday last a vast concourse of 
persons assembled in the streets and fields adjoining the gas works 
in. this town, to witness the ascent of Mr. Gypson's Balloon. 
The operation of filling was completed about seven o'clock, 
when the party engaged in the expedition, consisting of (besides 
Mr. Gypson himself) Mr. Dickens, of the Black Boy Inn, and 
Mr. Elkington, of the Northamptonshire Banking Company, 
entered the car, and the huge machine released from the cords 
which had hitherto detained it bounded upwards almost perpen- 
dicularly, to the appropriate air, played by a very efficient brass 
band, of " Sifcoh a getting up stairs," and' the National Anthem. 
We never saw a more perfect and beautiful ascent. The aeronauts' 
acknowledged the shouts of the friends they left behind them, by 
a waving of handkerchiefs arid bouquets until they were no loagCT 
visible. In a, few minutes afterwards a small parachute, contain- 
ing a young rabbit was set adrift; it descended very easily and 
was never lost sight of by thousands who pursued it to the spot 
where it fell, at Little Houghton. The balloon itself pursued its 
steady but rapid way in an. easterly direction, and ultimately de- 
scended at Radwell, Beds. Mr. Gypson having favoured us with 
an account of his trip we shall give it in Ids own words : — 

" In consequence of the ■ excellent arrangements at the gas 
works, by which a most ample supply of gas was ensured, there 
was no necessity for commencing the inflation till two in the after- 
noon, and the uniform pressure continued from that time com- 
pleted the filling of the balloon by giving me a beautiful ascending 
power. Everything being ready my companions of the voyage, 
Mr. Dickins,'of the Black Boy Inn, and Mr. Elkington stept 
into the car, amidst the shouts of the company, and the word 



„..panstoii pi, tine gas i parcea wioi tne paracrtuie and 

Msket, .containing a beautiful little milk-white rabbit, which de- 
scended very steadily at Little, .Houghton. We were very soon 
over the delightful seat of the Marquis of Northampton, at Castle 
Ashby, and my. companions were in raptures at the beauty 
of the highly cultivated grounds, and the prospects of the ad- 
joining neighbourhood. The balloon rapidly ascending quickly 
gave us an elevation of two miles, the clouds rolling beneath us ; 
but my companions not wishing to lose the beauty of the pros- 
pects I opened the valve, and quickly left the clouds _ above- 
Pursuing a very steady and beautiful course for G3 minutes we 
commenced the descent and ended with perfect safety on Mr. 
Swannell's farm, at Radwell, Beds, by whom we were most hos- 
pitably entertained, and where I had the pleasure of gratifying 
several of Mr. Swannell's family with a partial ascent while the 
machine was confined by the length of the cable. Both Mr. 
Dickins and Mr. Elkington displayed the highest courage during 
the voyage and descent. The distance completed in Go minutes 
was 2(5 miles. . I beg to return, my sincere thanks to his worship 
the Mayor, and the other gentlemen by whom I have been most 
handsomely assisted." B» Gypson. 

It will be seen by an advertisement in another column that 
Mr. Gypson will make a second ascent on Thursday next, from 
the same spot. 

Aeronautics.— Mr. Gypson, the aeronaut, who last sea- 
son ascended several times in the vicinity of London, in an 
exceedingly handsome balloon, constructed expressly for him, 
made his twentv-sixth ascent last Monday evming from 
Diventry, in Northamptonshire. The principal attraction 
on this occasion to scientific persons interested in such 
matters, and many of whom went from London to witness its 
effect, was the trial of a new valve placed externally on the 
top of the balloon, by means of which it was calculated the 
machine, on reaching terra firma, mi^ht he almost instantly 
emptied of its contents, and rendered stationary. On a late 
occasion, it may be remembered, Mr. Green and a fellow 
traveller descending in boisterous weather were dragged along 
for nearly half an hour, tearing their way through hedges, 
banks and other obstructions; and not long since, Mr. Gyp- 
son was exposed to similar perils. He states, however that 
with the new valve, which although still susceptible of 
improvement, answered the purpose for which he designed it, 
he was enabled to exhaust the balloon completely, and render 
it motionless in 40 seconds, so that he aud his friends stepped 
out of the car at once with perfect ease^ 




By Permission, and under the Patronage of the Worshipful 

the Mayor and a Committee of Gentlemen. 

MR. GYPSON 

WILL make his TWENTY-FIRST ASCENT with his 
Magnificent Silk BALLOON, from a spacious Ground 
near the Gas Works, NORTHAMPTON, on Thursday 
next, the 23d of July, at Five o'clock. /^Aa 
Admittance to the Ground Is. each. . . 
When the BaUoon has reached a considerable height, a Living 
Animal, from the BaUoon, will descend in a Parachute. 



Aeronautics. — Mr. Gypson, the aeronaut, who last 
season ascended several times in the vicinity of London 
with an exceedingly handseme balloon constructed expressly 
for him, made his 26th ascent last Monday evening from 
Daventry, in Northamptonshire. The principal attraction 
on this occasion to scientific persons interested in such 
matters, and many of whom went from London to witness 
its effect, was the trial of a new valve placed externally 
on the top of the balloon, by means of which it was calcu- 
lated the machine on reaching terra firma might be almost 
instantly emptied of its contents, and rendered stationary, 
thus enabling th« occupants of the car to land without any 
ef those risks arising from the rebounding of the machine, 
or dragging along the ground. The valve hitherto used 
opened internally, and its action being of course impeded 
by the upward pressure of the gas, the exhausting of the 
balloon occupied a considerable time. Mr. Gypson states, 
that with his new valve, which, although still susceptible 
of improvement, answered the purpose for which he had 
designed it, he was enabled ta exhaust the balloon completely, 
and render it motionless, in 40 seconds, so that he and his 
friends stepped out of the car with perfect ease. 






Most positively the Last 
Ascent. 



By Permission and under the Patronage of 
the most Worshipful THE MAYOR, 




FOURTH AND LAST 

BA1LOOI 

ASCENT ! 

FROM 

N ORTHAMPTON . 
MR. GYPSON, 

Who was induced to make a Third Ascent for 
the gratification of the Gentlemen, has the 
honour to announce that he has been prevailed 
upon by several Ladies, (two of whom will 
accompany him), to make a Fourth Ascent) 
from the Grounds of the Gas Works, 

On Saturday Afternoon» 

AUGUST 8th, 1840, 

WITH HI? 

MAGNIFICENT 

SILK 

BALLOON. 

At a great elevation Mr. G. will detach 
a Parachute containing a living animal 

For the convenience of Gehtlemen attending the mar- 
ket, the Ascent will take place at 5 precisely. 

Admission to witness the inflation &c. 18„ 

This extraordinary Machine, in which Mr. 
G. made his Noctunml Voyage, on June 3d, 
1839, is composed of 1800 yards vf the rich- 
est Silk, in alternate colors, of Crimson and 
Gold. It stands 60 fret high, is 36-teet in 
diameter, and contains 20,000 cubic feet of 
Gas; and is calculated to excite the aston- 
ishment of every beholder ! 

{Cr* An excellent Band will be provided, 
and the Police will be in attendance. 

Terms for Seats in the car, to be had of Mr. G, on the 
ground. — Mr. G has had the honor of conveying 
22 Gentlemen safely to terra firma, which remove» any 
fear that might be entertained of a safe descent. 



The balloon, after having attained a considerable altitude, 
! reached terra firma in a meadow belonging to a gentleman 
named Bennett, two milei beyosd Eppinr, on the Newmarket 
road. Mr. Gypson was accompanied by Mr. Brading, the pro. 
prietor of the garden», and it was almost half- past two yester- 
day morning before the descent took place. The atmosphere j 
was intensely damp and dense, and on their descending no soul : 
was visible at that early hour of the morning. They succeeded, . 
however, in awakening the landlord of a house some little dis- 
tance from the spot, by whom they were treated with kindness. 
Mr. Gypson and his companion reached town about half-pass : 
five yesterday morning, and on the whole had a most agreeable 



'•/: 



r/te^rr* 



/S3$ 






Apollo Saloon, 

YORKSHIRE STINGO. 



THE JEB.ON.AUT, 

Will make his First Ascent from the Grounds of this Establishment, 

On Tuesday, June 18th, 

In a New Magnificent Gigantic Balloon, 

TO BE ENTITLED 



O 







mmm 



To commemorate the numerous Victories achieved by the Veteran 
Soldier, His Grace the Duke of Wellington. 



A MILITARY 

THE ANGLO BEDOUIN ARABS!!! 
A VARIETY OF ENTERTAINMENTS, 

Grand Display of Fireworks. 



Admission to the Ground, Is. 

Grounds open at 2 o'clock. Balloon Ascent at 6 precisely. 

Mu-Uin, Printer, 2, Circus Street, New R-ckuL 




:i 



ROYAL STANDARD 

And Pleasure Grounds, 

SHEPHERDESS WALK, CITY R3A2. 



Licensed pursuant to Act of Parliament of the 25f& 
of King George the Second. 

H. BRADINC, PROPRIETOR. 




NIGHT BALLOON! 

The unireisal satisfaction expressed by the immense 
numb-rot i ailits anil (•enilemen who witnessed 'be last 
Right Ascent at these Gardens, has induced the » ropiietor 
to make .arrangements for another grand Ascent with 

Mr. GYJPHOX-s 

ROYAL STANDARD 

Which will take place on 

MONDAY, July 22. 

AT TEN O'CLOCK AT NIGHT, «^ 

Tlits whole und« 1 the Direction of that celebrated .Aeronaut, 

Mv. OII1IEI, 

Who will discharge a maonificent Display of Fire- 
W or lis from the Car. 

THE ENTERTAIvMtNrS WILL CONSIST OF A 

«BAND CONCEIT 



On (he COKDE VOLANTE! 

Surrounded h if Fire- Works, 

ENGLISH JIM CROW! 



Wonder/ul Feats of the 

JL^MJMtlïJVV MTA.MMJLVÎ 

Old-English Morris Dance. 
Dance of all Nations, Mrs* Andrews 

The much admired Ballet of Action, 

Or, ilie Spanish Libertine, 
Hon Juan Mr. TAYLOB, 

Scaramouch, Abdel Laurent. Don Guzman, Mr, Stsnoeft» 

IN TEE COURSE OF THE JUU.ST THE TABLEAUX Of 

ÏHS BXURDSXl OF DON GU3&9K&ST. 

Storm at Sea and Shipwreck, 
INFERNAL R KG IONS. 

DGITBIJCTIOl' OP BOX «HJAHT 

In Showers of Real hire. 

The whole under the Direction of Mr. T. Jones» 

( The célébrât- d Comic Sin erutid Coitudiun j 
To C-^CLUOK WITH A CHAM» OISPLaY OF 

FIRE-WORKS! 

The Gardens will be brilliantly /Humiliated with 
various ( o/oured Lamps. 

Admission, #kk> &3*iEBiiig > , 

Doors open at FIVE — commence at ^1X. 
Parsonage* tnuivi, », W;:c#Zites* Kow, v wmei*-*<>. 



Balloon Exhibition at the Birmingham Fbsti- [ 
val.-Ou Tues Jay evening,, in the interval between the musical 
performances, Mr. Gypson, the aeronaut, ascerided with his ! 
handsome balloon from the grounds of the Crown Inn, Birming- 
ham, in the presence of a large concourse of spectators. On this 
occasion he brought into operation his new safety valve, of which 
a description was lately given, so placed at the top of the balloon 
that on nearing the earth after an ascent the machine can be at 
once exhausted of the gas and rendered stationary, without the 
risk of rebounding or dragging along the ground, as formerly. 
Some improvements had rendered the valve perfect since its pre- 
vious exhibition, and the aeronaut so confidently relied upon it 
that considering the grappling-iron and cable unnecessary in-'; 
cumbrances, he ascended without them, taking instead an addi- ' 
Uonal quantity of ballast. Alter a pleasant voyage he, and a fel- ! 

flow traveller from Birmingham, arrived over Martocke-park and ! 
by means of the new valve were enabled with the utmost facility ' 

; to descend, from an elevation of half a mile, within 60 yards of] 
Martocke Castle, where they alighted with perfect safety, much 
to the gratification of the owner, the Hon. Captain Dilk, and a 
party of the nobility and gentry who had just returned from the 

[ musical festival. The travellers were most hospitably enter- 
tamed at the castle, and afterwards returned to Birmingham 



s 



%ty Mixxoi 

OF 

LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION. 



No. 894.J 



SATURDAY, MAY 26, 1838. 



[Prick 2rf. 




THE NEW GREAT MONTGOLFIER, OR SMOKE BALLOON, 

SURREY ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS. 

Vol. xxxi. Z 



THE PENNY MECHANIC, 

A1TD THE CHEMIST. 

Nos. LXXXVI. & LXXXVIL] MAY 26, 1838. [Vol. iTlT 

THE GREAT MONTGOLFIER,' OR, FIRE BALLOON. 




Vol, III,-Nos. LXXXVI. & LXXXVIL ■ ' Hoiiow ay v™-. % A . ' 5 ZZZS 



338 



THE MIRROR. 



THE NEW GREAT MONTGOLFIER 
BALLOON. 

Every one at, all acquainted with the history 
of Aeronautics must remember the well- 
earned celebrity of the Montgolfière, about 
half a century since. Balloons constructed 
upon the principle first experimented by 
these ingenious persons, are called Montgol- 
fière from the toy balloon which we are 
accustomed to start for the delight of our 
family at home to the stupendous machine 
destined to amuse many thousands of " chil- 
dren of a larger growth." 

The Montgolfier? may, however, be more 
properly called "Smoke Balloons'," for 
they are filled with white smoke, found by 
computation to be, at least, one third speci- 
fically lighter than the common air. This 
purer sort of smoke is scarcely any thing but 
air itself charged with vapour, being pro- 
duced, (by the inventors) by the burning of 
chopped straw or vine twigs, in a brazier, 
under the orifice of the bag.' It would have 
required no fewer than 150 degrees of heat 
alone to cause the same extent of rarefac- 
tion. As this process is carried on while the 
balloon is in the air, its management must 
require the most careful superintendence; 
since the proximity of a lighted furnace to 
many hundred yards of varnished linen, the 
escape of sparks, &c, are somewhat fearful 
to contemplate. In the fabrication of the 
Montgolfier about to be described, the 
above point has been strictly attended to ; 
and, in the construction of the furnace lies 
the main improvement upon the inventor's 
original plan. The practicability of the 
ascent has likewise been tested by experi- 
ments already made in Essex ; so that there 
is nothing to cause apprehension from inex- 
perience on the part of the aeronauts or 
manipulators. 

We have often had occasion Jo notice novel- 
ties in nature, science, or art, as first intro- 
duced to the public at " the Surrey Zoologi- 
cal Gardens ;" but never one more extraordi- 
nary than the immense aerostatic machine 
bearing the above cognomen, which is to 
make its first ascent from these excellently 
adapted grounds on Thursday next. Since 
the first discovery of balloons by Stephen and 
Joseph Montgolfier in 1782, there has not 
been an ascent of so extraordinary a nature, 
or which has excited so intense and general 
an interest. It is the first that has ever taken 
place in England with an aerostat on this 
beautifully simple, but seldom used plan. 
The balloon has been constructed by a party 
of gentlemen, interested in the art of aeros- 
tation ; and its fabrication has occupied 
many months of uninterrupted labour, during 
some period of which upwards of 100 women 
have been engaged in sewing the seams of 
the vast machine together. 

The New Montgolfier is the largest and 
most powerful aerial machine ever built in 



this country, being 130 feet from the bottom 
of the~ car to the upper rim of the balloon 
and 200 feet at its greatest circumference! 
Itis, therefore, the height of the York Column ; 
and its circumference is nearly half that of the 
dome of St. Paul's Cathedral. It contains 
when fully inflated, 170,000 cubic feet of air! 
The car is fifteen feet by eight, gorgeously 
ornamented, and made of cane : it has an 
aperture in the bottom, through which part 
of the furnace drops. The furnace is of very 
ingenious and peculiar construction. The 
chimney from it is placed in the lower aper- 
ture of the balloon, while the aeronauts are 
able, with the most perfect convenience, to 
regulate the quantity of fuel. The degree of 
heat can be raised to 200 of Fahrenheit in 
three minutes, aud depressed to that of the 
surrounding atmosphere almost as quickly 
and the balloon can be fully inflated by the 
great power of this furnace in eight minutes. 
When in that state it presents the peculiar 
egg shape represented in our Engraving, be- 
ing cut off quite abruptly at the bottom, and 
there leaving an aperture of 46 feet in circum- 
ference. This is formed of rope bound with 
basil, and lies as flat as any other part of the 
machine, until the inflation takes place. To 
this another very strong hoop, formed of ash 
bound with cane, is suspended, and on it 
depends the weight of the car and its appur. 
tenances. There is no net-work, as in the 
gas balloons ; but its absence is supplied by 
a line being sewn down each of the 58 gores 
with the material, and terminating in the 
neck-rope before described. 

The grapnel is the invention of the con- 
structor of the balloon, and is very powerful : 
it weighs 85 lbs., and is so made, that in case 
of any single fluke, of which there are six, 
being broken off, it can be easily replaced by 
means of a nut and screw. Having a swivel 
head, there is also less danger of breaking 
the cable attached to it. The fuel consists of 
small bundles of wood prepared in a particu- 
lar manner, chopped straw, and willow rinds ; 
many hundred pounds of which materials will 
be taken up. The machine has an ascending 
power equal to the weight of fifteen or twenty 
persons. The fabric is lawn, covered with a 
peculiar varnish, and thus made impermeable. 
It is extremely light. The apparatus for in- 
flating it is very extensive ; a large platform 
being raised about twelve feet above the Lake 
in the Gardens, with an aperture from which 
the heated air ascends into the balloon. It 
is necessary to elevate the crown of the bal- 
loon to about half its height before the infla- 
tion is commenced ; and for this purpose two, 
large, stout spars, of about ninety feet in 
height, will be raised ; and by means of a rope 
passing through blocks, the machine will be 
hauled up, until it gains sufficient ascensive 
power to sustain its own weight. 

Of the ascent we hope to present satisfac- 
tory details in our ensuing Number. 



42 



THE PENNY MECHANIC. 



7 



THE GREAT MONTGOLFIER; 
OR, FIRE BALLOON. 

Nearly two-thirds the height of the Monument, and 
oontaining, ivhen inflated, 170,000 cubic feet of air. 

The scheme of the Montgolfier is again 
to be put to the test on Thursday next, the 
birthday of her Majesty, at the Surry Zoo- 
logical Gardens, when several gentlemen, 
(who have for a long time been engaged 
in the construction of an immense balloon, 
measuring 130 feet in height, and 200 feet 
in circumference) will make their ascent. 
Its ascending power is calculated at 
2,400 lbs., and it would consequently carry 
up from fifteen to twenty persons. Its 
fabric is a peculiar kind of lawn, prepared 
with a sort of varnish, which combines 
extreme lightness with great durability 
and strength. The par is fifteen feet long, 
and eight feet wide, and is made of wicker 
work, ornamented most gorgeously. 

The necessity for netting is obviated by 
an ingenious plan of fastening a line down 
each gore or seam, the whole of the seams 
terminating in a stout hoop made of 
several thicknesses of cane bound together, 
and forming an aperture of forty-six feet 
in circumference. 

Another striking peculiarity is the close 
approximation of the car to the aperture 
or neck of the balloon, and the consequent 
shortness of the suspending cords. This 
is done for the purpose of introducing the 
furnace-chimney into the neck of the bal- 
loon, at the same time that the aeronauts 
in the car have a perfect command over 
the radiation of heat, which can be raised 
or depressed in an incredible short space 
of time. 

The chief improvement on the original 
machines of Montgolfier, is in the con- 
struction of the furnace. The first aero- 
nauts, as Pilati, Rozier, and others, who 
ascended in France, used merely an open 
brazier, which was of course attended with 
great danger ; but by this invention that 
danger is entirely avoided ; for although 
the air can be rarefied to 200 degrees, uo 
fire or sparks ascend into, or can come in 
contact with the balloon. The fuel with 
which the furnace is supplied, consists of 
straw, wool, and small faggots of brush- 
wood, prepared in a particular manner. 
The grapnel is a very powerful instru- 
ment, and is also of peculiar construction. 
It weighs eighty-five pounds. 

Although this kind of aerostat appears 
at first sight to labour under many disad- 
vantages, it will be found, upon considera- 
tion, that there are facilities which render 
it equal, or in some respects superior, to a 
gas-balloon. For instance, there is no 
danger, as in the case with the latter, of 
bursting the machine, by the sudden rare. 



faction of the gas, by the sun's rays, when 
rising suddenly above a cloud, or throwing 
out a large quantity of ballast at one time; 
because it would be impossible to heat the 
air contained in the balloon by the action 
of the rays of the sun, to a greater degree 
than is done by the fire in the car, before 
the ascending power is gained. The de- 
scent is also expected to be much more 
easy than with a common balloon, on ac- 
count of the great size of the aperture at 
the bottom, discharging all its contents 
almost immediately. 

A contemporary journal, says " It is 
surprising that no' one has thought of re- 
turning to the original plan of filling with 
heated air. The idea, however, does not 
seem to have struck any one until last 
autumn, when a number of scientific gen- 
tlemen determined to try what could be 
done in the way of improving the con- 
struction of the balloon, as first invented 
by the brothers, Montgolfier, in the year 
1782." By referring,' however, to Number 
32, of our Magazine, for June 1837, ™ e 
find the following account of an ascent in 
a Montgolfier. 

"Novel Ascent in a Fire Balloon.— A 
young gentleman, of the name of Sneath, 
residing at Mansfield, has made a large 
fire balloon of fire-proof canvass. On 
Wednesday evening he was anxious to try 
its buoyancy, and, inflating it, took it at 
nine o'clock to the Bleak-hill, where fie 
thought he had secured it to the earth. 
He got into the car to see what weight it 
would carry, when the sudden bounds 
given by the" machine disengaged the cords, 
and he rose in the air. He remained in 
the balloon, floating about, until eleven 
o'clock, when the machine began to des- 
cend, and the grapnell caught in a hedge 
near Spondon. Here, however, anotlier 
difficulty presented itself: if he got out 
of the car the balloon would rise, so ne 
determined to keep his seat until the next 
morning, when, to his great joy, ne re- 
ceived the assistance of some countrymen, 
about half-past four, when he packed up 
his ponderous machine and conveyed i 
to the nearest town (Derby)." 
Monday, May 20. 

The Oriental Diamond.- -We find by 
Ritter, that it is found over a large extent 
of the borders of the table land ot tne 
Deccan, from the 14th to the 25th degree 
of latitude. It is there seen in a loose, 
conglomerated sandstone, of but . afewieec, 
and more or less deep beneath the surface. 
Gold is also found there occasionally. ^ e 
conglomerate consists of quartz, noi - 
stone, jaspar, chalcedony, cornelian, ana 
brown iron.ore. 




THE «EAT M©MT(GKQ)1LF1EB ©m FÏBE BALE©©: 



Gy 



^lau^-?i^,a7i/^ey dpfa^ œ^l&ig/ cfteAAsgs, ^^v^e^a^ 



fzj.llzjjud' &r J~ Toilet-, Jo, foZhgnhe St. Strand. 





\ 






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fr>4 














. ^_- -^_. 



■.:.■■ 



..*£ 



S < ;~ .? >r* 









S:/ 



THE ©HEAT M©MTG@LFIIEB @m FIEE BALL 



TzjéluïTied ty- J: ~ JFoZ&fr, Jo, Catherine St. Strand. 




No. 58. 



1 



LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 26, 1838. 



THE GREAT MONTGOLFÏER BALLOON. 







AIR, — Vicar and Mosses. 



As you ramble along, 

I will sing you a song, 
Make haste there is plenty of room ; 

To see Monsieur Goltfier, 

Through the elements steer, 
In a thing that is called a balloon. 

Chorus. 
Mons. Goltfier's great Aerial Balloon. 

Nine old women good lawk, 

Altogether did talk, 
When like thunder some voices loud bawls 

Oh ! get off my toes, 

And see yonder she goes, 
About ten times as big as St. Pauls. 

As they rambled away, 

I just heard them to say, 
My eyes what a terrible group ; 

And she is not filFd alas, 

With oil, spirits, or gass, 
But with steam from a pot of pea soup. 

A great fire inside, 

They can cook as they ride, 
And aloft they will play funny capers; 

Roast a bullock it seems, 

Boil a cart load of green, 
And steam 7 ton of potatoes. 

She is as high as St. Paul's, 

Out an old lady bawls, 
And ten times as big some one told her, 

And when she left the ground, 

She would take up a town, 
And eleventeen million of soldiers. 

Some declar'd o'er the sea, 

She was going to flee, 
Our grand coronation to smile on, 

And fetch horse clothes and rug?, 

And nine thousand big bugs, 
And the King of the Tongaroo Inlands. 



Its like a house I declare, 
There is up and down stairs, 

A garden and pond too for fishing, 
A great coach house good lord, 
A pump, stables, and yard, 

And a parlour, a washhouse, & kitchen. 

An old tailor declar'd, 

He for certainty heard, 
He'd bet three pence half-penny farthing 

There was plowing, & sowing, 

And reaping, and mowing, 
And thirty-three acres of garden. 

To out do Mr. Green, 

\\ ith their air, wind, and steam, 
I doubt if ever they'll be able; 

If their soup pot should burst, 

Won't they make a great fuss, 
And nimbly jump under the table. 

So I now must presume, 

This great giant Balloon, 
Is fillVJ with hot air from the fountain ! 

One old lady did say, 

'Twas a great stack of hay, 
And another bawl'd out, its a mountain. 

The old and the gay, 

They all toddled away, 
The tinker, the barber, and baker; 

When they put on the steam, 

They shout God Save the Queen, 
May she have a good blow out of tatoes. 

She's exactly nineteen, 

Is our blooming young Queen, 
And she thinks she has long enough tarried 

Mons. Goltfier she has sent, 

Up aloft with intent, 
To find a husband that she may get married 

JOHN MORGAN 



WESTMINSTER :— IMuied for the Vendors, 



ft 



THE QUEEN'S ASCENSION DAY, 

OR THE STATE MONGOLFIER. 




John Bull.— Hollo ! what the deuce are yon at— ffoin» to throw me over 
WHrrf 6 i° n8 r heS K t0 , raise ? e a11 in «Clouds ? 







i Montgolfier. Balloon.— A Montgolfier or fire bal- 
I loon, of extraordinary dia^ensions, so as to ascend with several 

aeronauts, is now being manufactured under the immediate 
I superintendence of Mr. H. Green (a brother of the celebrated 

aeronaut) and will shortly ascend. Oc*. /tfJtft 








• 



" 



Ë&BHREHfâÉË 











fUflî 



A CORRECT REPRESENTATION OF 



\% 



THE GEE AT 



TGOFJLER ok FIRE BALLOON- 



(M ïè chewed on ôhs Lake au Lhe Surry Zoolog/ca7 Orrrtferur, 
pjv/'wus to p& TOTAL mSTTlTTlOT" fyffîs TëûpZs, Jfay 24^2038, 

DRAWN CW THE SPOT BY" 
the Publisher G-. T6Bib,13. CaXfa&rms St Steancl 



BALLOON ASCENT WITHOUT GAS.— ROYAL 
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, Surrey, under the Immediate patronage 
or her MAJESTY.— On THURSDAY, May 24, the GREAT new MONT- 
GOLFIER BALLOON, Inllated with heated air, will ascend with several 
Aeronauts, from a large raised platform erected in the centre of the lake, 
oerng the first aerial voyage ever made in England with a Fire Balloon, 
and the largest aerostatic machine ever constructed In this country. It is 
more than half the height of the monument, 200 feet iu circumference, 
and contains 170,000 cubic feet of air. The new ornamental gallery com- 
mands a perfect view of the process of inflation and th« ascent. A splen- 
did military band will attend. Open at 12. Admission, la./S JJ 



/THE MONTGOLFIER BALLOON. 

^-S/^tU^? J7/ — -^- /Op.? £* 

Those personi to whom aëroitattoa is a subject of interest 
will have an opportunity for the gratification of it on Thursday 
next. Ua that day tbe grand " fire balloon" will ascend from 
trie Surrey Zoological Gardens. Three gentlemen, it is an- 
nounced, will go up in the car, but their names have not been 
suffered fo transpire. This will be tbe first time a Montgolfier 
balloon has ever ascended in this country. The danger to be 
areata from the ignition of a machine of this sort, when at a 
great height from the earth, and the fatal consequences which 
bave resulted from this sort of experiment, have rendered the 
«n C l °[, nr «.oallooM extremely rare, and for many years 
such a thing has only been talked of, or at least carried into 
.xecuion on so small a scale as to reader the experiment 
ridiculous and without interest. The first ascent that was ever 
made m a fire balloon took place in the year 1784, at Lyons, 
ibe balloon made use of on that occasion was pyriform. 
It was made of two layers of linen cloth, enclosing a 
\IFJ la y er , of P a Per between them ; it measured, when inflated, 
lu t ii a he 'K ht ' a nd 105 in brer-dth, and could contain more 
than half a million cubic feet of air. The car was in the shape 
or a gallery, 72 feet in circumference ; the furnace was 20 feet 
in diameter. This balloon had a netting, wheh the one at the 
ff .1. ♦• G ? rdens has nct - 1° the car of the Lyons balloon 
« me time of the escent were Joseph Montgolfier, the inventor, 
riiatre de Rosier, the Count de Laurencin, the' Marquis de 
uampierre.the Count d'Anglefort,the PrinceChsrlesde Lignes, 
ana a young m*n named Fontaine, who happened to be 
in the ca r at the moment when the balloon escaped into the air. 
I his balloon rose to a height of 3,000 feet, when a rent of four 
f g* w as discovered in the side of i*, and it descended with 
a tearful rabidity at a distance of little more than half a mile from 
me place of its ascent. No accident, however, occurred. On a 
subsequent ascent in a balloon on the l^th of Juoe, 1785, from 
u»u!o<ne, in company with a young man named Romain, M. de 
ttostea-and hu companion both fel! victims to tbeir courage. 

m order to counteract the fluctuations consequent upon a'.l 
aerial excursions, and to obtiin the power of increasing or di- 
minishing the weight of his apparatus at will, without the usual 
expenditure of gas or ballast, he affixed to the hydrogen gas 
oalioon, by which the principal pa t of the weight was to be 
ootne, a small fire ballo >n. The inflammable contend of tbe 
larger sphere soon filled the vacant portions of the silk, and, 
pouring down the tube which formed the neck of the balloon, 
reached the furnace, which was disposed at its lower extremity, 
and became ignited. The whole was consumed in the air, arid 
me two aeronauts were dashed to pieces between Boulogne and 
calais. A monument marks the spot on which they fell. Three 
oiner persons hhve been victims to similar experiments, Olivari, 
.. -ii I Tjambeccari. It is to be hoped the projected voy- 
age mil be accompsnied by no such f.tal calamitiy. 
nnf ? ,î°. n a î the * arden8 < 8 in height very little short of 
«u 1 feet ; it is about 50 feet in circumference, of the shape of 
an egg . and when inflated will contain 170,000 cubic feet of ra- 
ahnnt «n* i haB no, net-work, but is fastened to a hoop by 
aoout 50 cords, which are sewn one within each seam ; from 
d«r „^ P u C °V J" , «P ended ' The car is close upon the un- 
^r extremity of tbe balloon ; in the centre of the car is the fur- 
nace, having a tube going into the balloon, through which the 
heat necessary for the rarefaction is conveyed. The balloon is , 
made of glazed or oiled lawn, of wkich there is but a single 
layer. Its.colonr is white, with red stri pes.— Observer. 



Z?-s THE MONTGOLFIER BALLOON. 

Mr. Editor,— A report being prevalent that the persons 
who were to have ascended in the Mon tgolfier balloon are fo- 
reigners (and not having the slightest wish to conceal any fact), 
I beg to s*y such is not the case. The constructors are scien- 
tific gentlemen, who have for a length of time made aerostation 
their study, and they were assisted by Mr, Dean, who haB been 
engaged in the management of balloons for many years, and 
who was, with several others, to have ascended. It is also, I 
understand, reported, that the car, &c, were not provided. 1 
can only say that the car, grapnel, and all other requisites are 
still in tbe garden for the inspection of any person. I here re- 
peat that, recollecting the disastrous fate of Mr. Cocking, 1 
wâasulely actuated in the decision I came to by a desire, to pre- 
ventïEê^jnevitable loss of human life which must have ensued, 
had tbe aeronauts ascended in the manner they wished to 
do, and that up t'^a-quarter of an hour of the disappointment 
being announced, I felt confident of the ascension taking 
place. 

I beg to offer my most sincere tbanks to the many thousands 
of respectable persons who, byjtheir interference, repressed the 
conduct of those who, fancying themselves intentionally de- 
ceived, would not admit of an explanation, "nor receive the very 
compensation they were clamorous for'.' \ 

I must also publicly thank the police employed, for their ex- 
cellent, temperate, and efficient conduce on this occasion. - 
I have the honour to be, sir, your very* obedient huMble 
servant, E. CROSS, 

Royal Zoological Gardens, Surrey, May mW% ^^ 



HUMBUG. 

MR. CROSS AND THE SURREY 

ZOOLOGICAL GARDFNS. 



Of all the schemes invented to plunder and rob poor 
John Bull, the one practised by Cross of the Zoological 
Gardens was the most complete. This fellow had the 
audacity on Thursday last to swindle upwards of 12000 
persons out of £600. money, paid for admission into 
his gardens under pretence of sending up a Montgolfier 
Balloon, when we told him such a thing was never con- 
templated, and the whole affair was a disgraceful 
swindle. He knew well enough the night before the 
balloon exhibition, (and at the time when he received 
the admission money at the doors) that the whole 
thing was a vile hoax, and receiving one shilling in 
payment for admission to the gardens under such cir- 
cumstances, was obtaining money under false pre- 
tences. The magistrates ought to order the gardens 
to be closed and never allow him to be permitted to 
show his face in Surrey again. Had a poor half starved 
wretch in the last agonies of despair and hunger, 
snatched a single shilling from the person of any one 
of the visitors to the Zoological Gardens on the day 
in question, what would have been his fate ? — Trans- 
portation beyond the seas for the natural term of his 
life. In vain would have been his plea about starving 
wife and children. He transgressed the laws by rob- 
bing the public, aud humanity must succumb to justice. 
He would be sent out of the country forthwith. Now 
we put it to our readers which would be the greatest 
criminal — Mr. Cross or the poor half famished wretch 
we have just alluded to. They answer Cross, and 
most heartily do we respond to them. In the nefarious, 



base, dirty, and contemptible transactions of Thursday. 
Mr. Cross has proved himself worse than the veriest 
humbug that ever humbugged an easily gulled people, 
and if the public feel as we do at the time of perusing 
this article, his picture of Mount Vesuvius and other 
monstrosities will fume and fret in the Surrey Zoologi- 
cal Gardens to^none other spectators than Mr. Virago 
Cross and the Master and Misses Cross. We should 
not have mentioned the man or his family at all in the 
pages of Paul Pry, but for the fixed determination with 
which we set out (to expose every description of fraud 
and villany), and this feeling induces us to put a few 
questions to Mr. Cross, which if he has any manly feel- 
ings, are calculated to make him hide his head from 
the vengeance of an infuriated populace. The blood 
curdles neither one editorial veins when we think of 
the consequences which would have resulted had • he 
carried his base and horrible threat into execution ; 
and upon cool reflection we are induced to hope that it 
was only caused by the excitement of the moment, for 
we cannot bring ourselves to believe it. At the desire 
of a Correspondent, who states he was present the 
whole of the afternoon, we put to Mr. Cross the follow- 
ing queries. 

1st. Pray, Mr. Cross, when Tvler came round to you 
and told you that the company were beginning 1o throw 
stones at the balloon, did you not say with the utmost 
sang froid imaginable, " Let e'm, they shall have 
twenty such balloons fur such another garden. 

2d. Pray, Mr. Cross, when the Superintendant of the 
Police told you that the public would probably with- 
draw their patronage from the Gardens in the event of. 
imposition, did you or did you not turn upon your heel 
and say " They may be d — d." 

3rd. And lastly — Did you dare to threaten the com- 
pany, that if they did not quietly take their money back 
at the doors and quit the gardens, you would disperse 
them in a minute by letting the wild beasts out of your 
menagerie ! ! ! ! 

Now, if Mr. Cross did say, and do these things, we 
think that he has fully proved himself to be quite un- 
worthy of the support and patronage of the British 
public, and to their scorn and indignation, we learn 
liim with this observation of our own, that whenever 
lie announces " Fancy Fair" " Horticultural Fete" or 
any other rubbish, we will be on the look out to caution 
the pleasure seeker, and to whisper in his ear these 
remarkable words : " Remember, Cross of the Surrey 
Zoological Gardens, and his last swindle about the 
Montgolfier balloon ! ! !'' 

Seriously, the affair ought to be enquired into. 



I THE GREAT MONGOL FIER BUBBUk* 

* 

'• The earth is full of bubbles, these are of them." 

Yesterday the Surrey Zoological Gardens were made the 
scene of an aerostatic performance, which threatened at one 
period of the entertainment to terminate in their total demo- 
j htion ! Now that the danger is past, Mr. Cross will doubtless 
j exclaim, " 'Tis well it's no worse," and, growing wiser by 
expérience, will eschew such flatulent exhibitions in future. 
rhe facts are these:— -'A generous and confiding puI$ieltwBi 
m formed that a collossal fire balloon, with a car full' of 'aer*o- 
naufs, Would be let loose yesterday from the Surrey Balloon 
Menagerie', " doors to be open at twelve;" and thereupon 
crpdulous London poured forth her thousands from all quar- 
ters, at all hours, from ftoon tide till dusk, to behold tbe raree 
«how. The plants alas have not yet "come out" this 
season (indeed the incipient smoke-dried buds looked 
rather the worse for their proximity to Mount Vesuvius)— so 
nil inquiring eyes were patiently turned upon a lage bag, con- 
structed of alternate stripes of while and red, upheld by 
ropes attached to masts in regular balloon array above a plat» 
form in the water, from twelve o'clock to six, while " a fulî 
military band" entrenched in the Pagoda, discharged amongst 
the crowd a succession of eaasperating airs, which in the ful- 
ness of time produced their natural effect, and (it was also 
generally remarked) tended not a little to arouse the bile of 
theferœ naturae. No car was to be seen — no arrangement 
for attaching it was perceptible— no intelligence could be 
gained of the interprising voyageurs. At length a serried 
platform, full of spectators who, for the small charge of a shil- 
ling extra, sat tete-a-tete with the empty bag for six hours, 
looking (as an old lady observed) '«just like beau-pots 
ranged on a tall flower stand"— began to stamp and make 
most audible signals of dissatisfaction with its non-performance. 
Not even a shower of rain occurred to dissipate their ennui — 
nothing but the serio-comical phenomenon of some gigantic 
gentlemen striding (like Gulliver in Lilliput) over the mole 
and city of Naples. From six till half-past six the bag was 
seen to be undergoing a change for the better, but by what 
agency the fulfilment was accomplished could not exactly be 
discovered, for acanvas screening concealed all the interesting 
pyrotechny which people wanted to see ; and, in shorl, every- 
thing but the heads and shoulders of the attendants. For the 
next hour the bag did nothing, and the assistants appeared to 
be occupied in helping it ; but, as the bag ceased to swell, 
the immense assemblage began to inflate with an energy of 
impatience that would not be repressed. Shouts of " Let 
go !" " Off"!" &c, resounded through the Gardens ; but the 
only response appeated in the shape of placards, on which it 
was announced in printed characters that " the balloon could 
not ascend" (why or wherefore was not stated), "and that 
the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius would take place in- 
stead." Thisjunfortunate " typographical error" decided the 
fate of the placards and the balloon. The bearers were 
hurtled, kicked, and tossed about by the indignant crowd; 
while, like Lord Marmion's pennon in the fig/if of Flodden— 
" Advanced, forced back, now low, now high, 
The placards sunk and rose. 
* * » * » 

But darly closed the war around, 
Like pine-trees rooted from the ground, 
They sunk amid the foes." 
1 he multitude exclaimed that the affair was " a hoax," " a 
cross," "a bag of smoke!" and forthwith proceeded to take 
vengeance on the unlucky bag, which never had been (they 
were convinced) destined for a balloon, and which assuredly 
never shall be. A continuous volley of stones was directed 
against it on all sides, and the blows resounded 

" Fast, thick, and heavy as a thundershower," 
or like those of shillelaghs against headsat an Irish fair. Soon 
holes were seen (neither few nor far between) in the party- 
coloured giant's side, out of which the warm life-breath rushed 
rapidly, intermingled with sundry comically-curling gasps of 
smoke, as the body of the martyr sank in a state of mortal 
collapse upon the gridiron or fryingpan upon which it had 
been spiritualized. Pity that the attendants (Wfiérf they 
found it thus, judged, condemned, and executed at a 
blow) did not aid it to die gloriously in its own in- 
ternal fires, and ascend, once for all, in purifying flame- 
. to its proper paradise. Such a sacrifice might 1 have pro- 
pitiated the insulted multitude and restored ils good hu- 
j mour on the instant. Indeed the balloon seemed to think so. 
I for it twice heroically set itself on fire as it fell, but the ill- 
j timed attention* of its attendants prevented its effecting its own 
j brilliant apotheosis, which would really have been worth be- 
( holding. Nothing of this kind occurring the crowd pro- 
ceeded to take further vengeance, despite of the attempted 
I apology of Mr. Cross (who made just as much impression on 
I the roaring assailants as Demosthenesdidonthestormy waves), 
; and de.-pite of the threats of a surly keeper that he would turn 
out L the tigers to clear the gardens, they pulled down the 
, pa lings that guarded the ropes attached to the ma*ls for 
, the guidance of the balloon, and then " yo heave 
, oh ;! down came the masts too ; one snapped across 
and the other caught by the bough of a tree as it fell on the 
ladiies and gentlemen of the flower stand. The destruction of 
tins, gay parterre appeared to be next in progress ; but the 
[ ladiies seated thereupon screamed as the first planks were torn 
up, and its execution was suspended. Stones were heard 
rat|.lmg against the glass roof of the beautiful circular me- 
nagerie ; but the energetic cries of " Shame, shame," from 
the more considerate part of the company saved it from de- 
molition, after about one hundred holes had been made and 
the ladies who had taken shelter there from the external rioê 
hat» uttered as many snpplicating shrieks. Personal captures 
were made by the police, and instantaneous rescues by the 
crcwd followed ; but at length the former, through prudence 
or weakness, gave up the struggle, and then the "spirit of 
movement, having nothing to struggle against, died quietly 
a ^ay. Perhaps the smoke which issued timely from Vesuvius 
tepded in some degree to occupy and turn their attention from 
further deeds i of retribution; or, as rage generates hunger, who 
ktiows but the whole refreshment room might have been 
devoured as an acceptable trophy of "a great public 
triumph." We really think that Mr. Cross has had a won- 
: defful escape from that " most untamable animal," a disap- 
p Q inted English crowd, and we trust that he will not reck- 
lessly thrust his head within its jaws again for the benefit of 
an,V projector of bubbles or parachutes. He showed parti- 
cu Iar good sense, however, in not returning the money called 
fof - so vociferously by the 5,000 who departed, for 5 000 
m( )re had got into the garden gratuitously during' the 
t a8S sau[t on the balloon, and remained to applaud the per- 
t fo| -mance of Mount Vesuvius, which (we must do it, or Mr 
Cr oss,thejusticetosay)was really splendid. We strondv 
commend him to keep the mountain ready charged, and the i 
ne xt time a balloon misses fire to discharge it on the instant. 
It will certainly prove a restorative for popular good humour. 








^- 



Elevation 
G-eome'trale dupetit 
diamefre X> . E , 




Nouvelle, forme de Globe ^4ero statique 

au centre, duquel est adapte^ pour point aVapuîs 
uti& J^f achate au/si simple aue -^ facile a^^ 
-Manœuvrer, pota^ avajicer et se diriger 
dans le<r ^4irs , 

Compose ■ defaiue et t=r7\zve^^ 

Par le S r Mattiieu 
-MecaTLitien. ♦ 
.Tout au CJiaacjfe J% 
^iu Ray jr>aviaL^ 
Cketc jUT*. son^Pere Jtfarcliand . 



1 er .Avril 1784. 



COMBAT AÉRIEN D& deuaz ^j-m^ chacun de > 100 pieces de Canon f cu^Arcf d'acier au tien de poudre^ a Canon ; 

Et de 1000. homines d'Equipage, ll/tn \ 100. de -'l'invention de<r Maeliinesylëros taliones , 



A 
B 




. Vïiisseaii^iei^ostaaque de 100 ■ pieds de qiuHe* . 
. Ballons oit Globes eiis nombre et etv capacité siufisanù 
pour p> or ter le Faisseaio et s ak 'charge dont il n'a, été, 
possible, crue- d'en représenter ici une petilz parties , 
C. Les Foiles en todies ou en taffetas , 
I) . Le> Gouver nail , 



E. Cludo up e ou Ballon JPoh/edre avec Gouvernail, Rampes , 
toiles, et autres agréas pour plusieurs hommes . 

F . Son Jiecnaud ou, Gi^ille pour faire le feu nécessaire . 
Ct. La Galleries au tour et aulas' du Ballon . 

H. Poire .slèr os tatique que L'on remplit de Gaxs. ,. 

I . JSfacelle avec ses .sigrels pour porler les Aomnies . 



JTuanerfnof 



KL. La Superficie de la Terre 

L . La J\Ier 

M, Gros Hiissea.ii avec tous ses 3 allons dans le lointain 

N. ^dufre avec des Cylindres pleins de fiim ces , fl aines 

on Gatu 
O. Paisseau aérien a 3 .jPoires ou Polyèdres qui vogue 'sur la 
Mer J-jiute : de -provisions pour têni/^ dans liAtrno sphere . 



LES MOYENS a aller dans les Airs sans Few t Fiunee ni (rate ni Faide, et sur l'Eawsans BaMeeiii 1-78 4 ■ 




FiG-URE I. Vue en Largeur d'un homme qui voyage- dans l'At- 
mosphère avec des Ailes ou Ranted- a Soupape*? . 

A. Ailes 010 Ram&) 'à soupapes ■ C'est une 'petite 'perche d'environ 2%. 
Toises au bout de laquelle est un cercle ou quarré ou autre surface 
œvec de grandes mailles dejilde Clavecin , sur les quelles sont des 
soupapes en anneaux càncenlriquef- de Jbrt papier ou sai/e Fer/use 
ou Plumes- , l'on peut donner (74. pieds quarre's a celte sur/ace en 
attendant que ! "experience la determine peut- être pins juste . 

B. Axes des Alites ou Rames , dont les bouts se -meuvent dans un cercle 
die l- L iton pour donner aux Rames suivant le- besoin le niouvenrt 
perpendiculaire ou obliaur ■ 

, ■■„ /.' de comme de Joncs, Bambou, âfc. pour per ter 



l'Jwinme et les points d'appuis des Rames , 
P'. Le Vogageur Aérien prend des 2. mains les béquilles pour mouvoir a 
propos les Rames, en observant qui les meut p erp endicidairemen t 
pour manier et oblique ment pour s'avancer et se soutenir h la même 

hauteur, ei 'différemment -l "une que -l'autre suiv ant qu'il veut diriger sa 

marche il fait mouvoir le Gouvernail des pieds oudes mains avise 

que les Axes des Ailes suivant qu'il en est besoin . 

FlGURE II. Vue en longueur de l Homme Oiseau 
E. Gouvernail en soger émisée- sur quarre's de baguettes de bois et a 

Charpieres 

FlGURE III. Vue '.horizontale -de 'la Machin* 'Aérienne 

Pour que cela- 7^ e assise il faut iinhomme ' peiv pesant^fort elvg, et 



que le tout ne pèse-guere plus dé 200 . Livres: p our porter plusieurs 
fiommejet bagages longer oit lu- Maeliine a proportion , 
FlGURE IV. l 'Homme < qui Mar cire sur l'Eau- . 

F. Cglinare de S .a-y. Pieds cuhesjermé de creux vuide pour que l'eau 
rv'i/ puisse point entrer et lesté aufoizà J avec duFlemb demanux^e 
que la partie supérieure sur laquelle l'homme se tient se trouve de quel 
quej pouces hors de -beau, , 

G-. La Rame àsoupapes solide et légère- que cet homme fait mouvoir et 
qu'il place à propos par rapport au Gouvernail pour se diriger. 

K.Le Gouvernail de toile cirele sur baguettes de bois pour pouvoir traver- 
ser les courans et s& diriger avec la Rame ■ 
F IGURE V . Vue d'Ogseau du dessus du quart de cercle pour; dacer la. j 



ESSAI SUR EES MACHINES AEROSEAEIQUES EOUR EES PEKFECERENNERJEEJLES EMPLOYER UTR^EMENE. 

RdR ^.J.B. JNGENIEXrR.lj83. 







^5 ©HP ^""" 



Fig. IV. 






■ — 1 






V 


" 














FlGEEE I. Balowde 3. 2b ires H>uz?netre- pour porâer attd 
trzoins îzJSornmss eô provisions. 

Numéro . 

^. Corps duHalon en toile ou Cggeteis,ouger blaiiCj/iuxlles de cuivre , peaux, 
ou Cuir levers et solides, vernirez, sur tout les métaux, a leecterieur pour 
ne point attirer le HnnerreJ , 
2. ûiemznee, ouHoèle en, loleou Cuivre pourlournir ledeuet ^rpinieeH 

necess 'aires au- Ha Ion . 
S . He Char ou. Husseau en Osier recouvert d'une toile cirée dms le guet il 

y a autour du feu ai Chambre, elle magasin dee* hoyqgeurs . 
4- Ha Code en fade ou digfetus pour pouvoir propter da lend pour aller pbud 

inlet 
â. douvernail de Iode lernisee sur un Chassis de lois pour diriger la, nta- 

ehuu^, et louvoyer au besom, 
fi . Hame pour s ■avancer, sur tout dans un, air calme, etlàcihter a descen,- 

dre ou lon-veut- 
g . udzc Sommée de la Chemznccest urvcri&le, de fil defer pour empêcher les 

fuwd>erens de mettre le/eu, a Cenvelope guoi gu,'en,duite dûiàirv, et uneJ 
soupape ou- régulateur, pour régler etetoupsr le^/èu- au, besom? . 
o. Soupape auis 'ouvre et se reprme ad moyen d'un, car dan pour lâcher la 

, fumée- au besoin, pour^/ueihier la deseenteJ . 
a . Mfpeee de Home horizontale pour empeeher si le-Halon ou {riche venait 
CL Crever, de tomber trop rapidement , 
Hota.. l'on peut se servir degumees défailles mouillées de Haines, ChzlfSns, 
Cornes, Papiers etJKesches hzallees, Tourbes de maraur, Houdre a, CanonJ, 



Sic / en Creneral de toutes celles leaeres < yértes et de durée eè au, meilleur 
marché? 

ElGURE H. frlobe- de d Toises H^iamelre, en. Toile ■ oits22tJ7eâ&r 
feirusee, d&^o??ir?u^d^ las ague, owert/ër liane pour parler 
td.dlommes el hapae/ar par Z'aif* inpatrtal>le sodde-cer ~ 
àztrtes ruines de iduzrlori, de Terre, ou d'attirés- endrods ou, 
rnalieres . 

ae> He dole,, leguel peut se remplir de-gai^ de, lùnazlle, de/èr eà d'huile 
de Hdriol en, guelgues heures engaisant agir a Ululais un, nombre ? 
suffisant deHarrigues, cel air inflanzahle est plusieurs loi? plus le - 
per gue lagumee, et peut durer plusieurs Cours sans se /huer . 
21 est lien, a désirer aue Ion, en troux>e a, meilleur marelte, peuàestreJ 
pour oit on,erv/aire avee leaHy rites martiales? 

ai. Jj&CPanier ou Char aveevoû^, Cfouvernezd, Hames , Houssole,,Her - 
che, et autres oracles nécessaires, le tout léger et solide et suspendu par* 
des cordons ouHaguettes . 
Hon, peut/aire nne couverture, pour jfarentir tes Hh/ageurs de la pluys ■ 

12 . Hobmet ou Soupape pour damner eu, oter le aan au, besoin, ■ 

Fl&URE HI . Hatruzo horisonHaZe deàuile^H- 

3 Hue horisontale d'une-Hame, la^u^lle est laite, d'iinlliassi de-Bals au,- 
guelsonc app ligue des Cizrreaziac de/èr h lane ou, de taille surgnarrees 
deHois, a, Char^niered^ Hans la par de J'uperieur pour gue ces carreaux 
mehues dems la par tie intérieure en, s&/er??iez7itdu\rsent aller en, a ;- 
'pant,etgue, dusens cantraire,, il) ouvrent pour ne, pas reenter . 



j.4 Hon, voit par le pro/it deuze Carreaœc, ouverts. 

(FIGURE IV. ^ludre Hlame pour ernperAer fo descenHzJ 

trop pretdpilee de ia, TTZttcÂzrted . 
iô. iRouleau, a, ressort de toile, ou bpfetas, au, moyen, du, çueZ en U - 

rant un, Cordeau,, la HaiU s'étend sur un, Uhassis de Hoir poiu* 

JExposer une grande- Si^/ac& à, lizir a, lel/èl de, ralentir la, descen - 

te, de, la,JklacÂine- au, hesainC . 
iti. Houleuu develope, gui ccreplie en, Lzcliagd le, Ci^deaicd , 

FIGURE V. Glooe-ous^aloTh oui applipite, a, ttri&cer- 
àtzrie ûrtte peuH élever ttn ffzisseazt. ou aulde/ar- 
deatt' cvrtxPttiet'tztyieJt . 

tj. TSisseause ozo/ardeau, exmsielerat>le a, élever 

i3. Crrande-et petite- Houes qui, au, moyen, de Cordages, rmiZtzplûzroienr 

la, force, dd trlohe, le, corps ddve perdant de- la, Hitesse a, propor 

donJ . 
FlGUE-E VX HaZorv Corupu^ ou, auH^ern^riHjoour e/ever 

de- l'etuo d attelle, lieutleztt^ azte- lbn,t?outlraid ■ 
ap Ha, Houe sur la guelle, s 'envelop er oit la corde- ddHallonJ . 
2>o JIHznivelle a\/^ r oud/e r °d menevoir un, àran, leguel par lehrv- 

setnent d'utie eguœre, Jeroit aller un Htston-t . 
zl Hompe ordinaire dans la quelle- goue un. His tvnJ '. 

Ei&URETTL. Autre espèce.- de -B 'tzlfti -eru/brme- ûylzns - 
drtiytteJ> . 

OjB SMRT^-PTOJSrS 1 . H' on, peut emHarguer aylx/ais en, l'azr oûo per - 




■'+* 



jïG.m. 



sonnes etHagages en, proportionnant en comreguenee- la, nta^hmeen, 
U7V ou, plusieurs H allons ou Idoles ■ 

Hmr des HTommes gui marueuvrent avec- intelligence il ' n.'y a pas 
plus de danger de, Foyager dans latm-osphere- gue par des lais - 



seauôc sur mer 



Hl n 'estauere besoin de s 'élever phts deMro dotses dans l'air, pour 
voyager, d'ailleitrs sien s'élevait d'une lieue,, il y aurott trop de dan.- 
jrer, a, cause a^jprandprûul et gue, leur est frop rari/ié, a celled 
hauteur . 

Har ces moyens Ion, peut aller par un, vent/overalle- en, trois jours 
de Har is aJMadrid, ou a. Home-, ou Hénne ouHeràn . 8ce d'autaniplué 
gue lém,peut descendre en^Chemzri pour ce ralraiehir s'aprovisionner 
et se reposer . 

S'il ' a7idaisoit un, trlobe a\gort ": Her hZanc de-i3^- Heises dia/necreC 
lernise en, de hors avee une légère et so Itcle, Cacourse en dedans, dent 
l'on vuitlerod leur par la pompe ordinaire ou par la Icipeiir de léau 
houillante, ou du/eu, et de hp/ùrnee ou, du tlvZ, il est certain gu il 
s 'eleveroit dans l'atmosphère, et gud peureit/zare le tour du monde 
avant de tvmler, car il petterod environ 4<? milliers- et l'air pompé 
<éâ~ milliers : mais reste a savoir si, I "envelope résisterait au poids 
de l'air ea>âerieur eguivalanta une colonne d^eau de 3opwelr d'hauteur 

Se Feriil 

^î Har is cheZtUT Hicguenot ôrravem- rue de l'observance- 




JK. <d\.ecttaAùt 



11loàl& oe la porte p 



ennee 



€ 'ITloùtle 2<? ta porte Ouvertc- 



ïett'te 



rte 



j>eUle pot 
CJvarp?portant la aalL^ettcrecli- 
flace ou dxechcutt 




ckelLe c/& i 



oo pouces 



iiiimiMiiiltrm- 



F 




EN PROVENCE 



en elle*' di 



'c _9 Loue* 



WMMMEËMZ 



Cet aerostat oep lacera CS4:?(P pieâs 
Clu>es àcu/~ atmosplzeriaue, il pourra 
£lever 3SlS livres poTbj du pair, toute 
la îllach'ute avec les 'Dot/ cLC/eutzr et 
tout Ce a ul lewJera necej%ûre&i 






pèsera. 2/XUf- parforufequ&rit II 

restera, Moo livres aul^olvertt lieu 

pro curer rt une a/C&tfion très (flevèe 




edi&lle ae 3-o^pieaj 



o& zJOetvoiP, c/rCaa~& (onJLUé aw&rsewr ociloc; pTOeus*euj~j~ 



) 1 y- - f*i. s ) " ^jeU^Z? + > ) loctruoivttres hcui-ible Jei~vitew~ 

des a&i-M- des' trow Ctçifr d; 



U JOCZUr &yfo/?zt& àcs prOV&ZCe* l&tcuztélni^raveia^elaprovuwe 
t v3 iÇeveiib Chez. / lautcar j\ue trois Otiiieaiuc cJiex-M'IJïLle mtahletie^ 




















■ V e "; 



■ 



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UTO I 












JffC'v^tl 



M l83l, DÉDIÉE A LA GARDE NATIONALE.PAR EUGENE ROBERTSON, 



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ïr&'y->iïï 











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v . yf/^À. ^i/WW 



/ s?fs? 



Cm#<4e# // Ùùtyvmœ - tyvmôaùt ^^?^^^^ 



A 



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,<■/. ■■/■ ùfitâéw ûfcôâ&feéfeâ L'Âmwmp tyïûmawà 





' 



FIGURE DE LA BARQUE INVENTEE EN 1J0 

par Laurent de Gu&ian Chapelain du Roi de PortucràJ 

i7Diir j-'e'/ever' else t&rz&er da/ts /&r ^4zrv . 



A. youtae pour* 






Tm^mrmrn^vmTmraTi' 



B . Gouvernail ' . C C. Jiru/ffileér poia- jnamleer^ 
au défaut du Tent. D . Ailar nota* mamtemr 
ut3£acnzne .EE. Aimant ren/h*me dans deux 
Oloèes de Jfetul, attirant le Corps de la Jfa/yue , 
douai de lames de fer . F '. Jmpenale enfiler d~ircnal 




a la aiieUe sont suspendus auanùte de rrvorceauœ 



dïAm&re devant attirer une Tlatte de pailt 



tPeiafe 



oui tmmrse Iznteneia" de la, Jiaraue . G • Jiousso/e . 
HH . J^auàar pour- lartjuer /'Ecoute du cote au Tint 
I . espace pota> duc Tayaaeurv et le ^Hate^-^ 
Inventeur dvriaeant sa route . 



jj^4^ /ùJ^jy^:;^,»^/^ Jtatmru*,*^^»,,/^,;/^,^ U: ; , „„, „„ Mcr . 




ParisyFeb. xi, A «» JM of SfW? 1 
.ii,foon-to be given to the Public. This is ;an 
aeroftatic giant, of 18 feet m height, ballafted 
in fuch a manner as to preferve a perpcndi- 
cular direction, which is to be fct off from 
one of the windows of the Thmllenes, to 
afcend into the atmofphere* This coloffal 
figure will, it is faid, be accompanied by 
'forerai others of a lefs fi«.. If this Hying 
«riant fhouM fall, with his fuite, m any of the 
Cantons, where thefe aeroftatic machines are 
„ot known, an idea may be lormed of the ter- 
. ror of the inhabitants of the country on feeing 
jneo «fall from the clouds, //^P 



.iT^mAn artift having 
made two different figures, one of a horfe., the 
other of . a woman, both exactly refembiing na- ,; 
ture, filled them with a iuffictent quantity of in- 
flammable air, and let them off lait Sunday ie'n- 
night, from the public- gardens of Signor Ru- , 
zieti, in the pretence of an immenfe croud of ; 
fpeftators, who all joined in admiring the effect 
produced by that new kind of fpedtacle. The 
adventure ended ludicrouûv ; for the horfe hap- 
pening to come down at a little diftance from a 
man working in 'the field, and the. animal 
bouncing along the plain, the former lniitook. 
it for a real horfe, and obferving it took to a 
very dangerous road, followed it for above half 
a mile, and then growing bold, took Pegafus 
bv the hind hoof, and flopped its career. The 
peafant was now all wonder ; and feeing it bore 
in -its mouth a letter, which h e could not read, 
led the horfe to a neighbouring chateau, where 
the content's were made known to him,, and an ac- 
count of the reward promifed therein, to any per- 
fon who fhould bring Pegafus to its owner. It was 
by the countryman, after it had been emptied, 
carried back to Paris. 2 3 ûok ; «#-^r 

The wiman came down at Gentwilliers, . and 
was ken by fome labourers and a farmer, who all 
miftookthe figure, that then flood ftill, for a real 1 
living creature in diftrefs. None, however, dared 
to advance towards it except the farmer, who 
took it up in his arms, but to his great furprife ■ 
found, that inflead of a real woman, he was hug- 
ging an inflated bladder. This, like the tonner, 
Ho conveyed back to Paris, and reftored to 



Such is the Rage for doing miraculous 
Things, that, not fatisfied with twreWn^w 
the Air, a Man in France has offered to walk 
àcTôTTthe Seine in Shoes of his own making ; 
and another has petitioned to throw jwafilf. 
Body, Breeches, and all* into a great Fire, 
and engages tWat neither he nor the Breeches 
fhallbehurt. Ic may be a Quefljon, how- 
ever, even yet, whether St. Stephen's Chapel 
be not the Mart of Miracles after all. /?*?4 



A mechanic, at Nancy, in Lorraine, has ' 
been for fome timeçbufied about the invention 
of a machine for enabling men to fly. He be- 
gan with weighing the carcaffes of all the birds 
he could procure, and meal uring the expanfion 
.,pf theifrwings, to difcover the proportion of 
-the one to the othe*-. Pie has yet fucceeded no 
farther than to fly from off a high barn, and to 
alight on the ground, at 'the dittance of about 
100 yards. In one flight, a gale. of wind blow- 
ing him a little out of his direction, he fell 
into a large pond, to the no fmall enter- 
tainment of ail his neighbours. His wings 
fpread (0 great a fpace, that he drops perpen- 
dicularly from the higheft ileeples without dan- 
ger, descending too gradually £0 be hurt/^^ , 



The prefent rage for air-biiloons h:>s encou- 
raged a projector -to endeavour at a revival of 
the art of flying ; in ord'.r to which, he is laid 
to have applied to a prelate equally celebrated 
for the foundnefs cf his religious principles, as 
for his leaning and critical abilities, to grant 
him permiflion to make an effay of his art from 
the top of his (the prelate's) cathedral : The 
good father, aniwer>?d' him, that he could not 
grant his defire, it being quite contrary to his 
inclination ; for tho' he would do every thing 
in his power to incite people to corne to church, 
his confeien e would not permit him by any 
means tp encourage them to fly fiom it. Ijdltt 




0)e.Jirm,„ ,<r/ 



THE WJttMBTG FHttOSOriIEB... 



jyU/^fJJyt \,fioS.^ .ï/rii^on.,^. tU>, U^r/h/fr^ 



AEROBAINATION: 
A*.~V /M Or, JL/i/./. ?$6 

The ART of WALKING in the AIR. 
FESSRS. DERONViLLE and THOMAS 

. _ (Author of a DiiTertation on the PofTibility of direct- 
ing AIR BALLOONS, inferted in the Morning Chronicle 
the iSthof Auguif), after repeated experimencs, have found 
the means of Walking in the -Air; where they can afcend 
and ^defcenJ, at pleiiure, with »ut any other fupport than 
that very fluid j and fteer themfelves in any horizontal di- 
rection, as freely as could be done in an open field. The 
end of this difcovery is to crois over torrents of water, or 
countries defolated bf the plague, to vilit volcanos, and ia- 
■acceffible mountains ; to fend dilpatches with the greattft 
fWiftnefs $ and tc perform long journies in a few days, 
&x. &c. &c. 

As the Advertifers mean to give publicity to their difco- 
very, they propofe the following SubYcription and Condi- 
Jions ; 

Firlt, — As the wht-le, expence attending the experiment 
Will not exceed aco guineas, when the fublcjiption amounts 
to thatfuru, it will be finally clofed. 

Second, — .The tickets given to Subfcribers, will be fome 
of i<3s. 6d. others of 5s. and thofe distributed on the day of 
e-xperiment, will be fold at 14s. and 8s. 

Subfiriptions will be received at the Author's, No. 19, 
Surr'jlk-iireec, Charing Crofs, from theift to the 15th of 
September; at which time, if there be a fufheient number 
of Subfcribers, they will be directed to dejpofit their money 
at a per&n 01 acknowledged probity who will undertake the 
.difpofal of it. 

The public experiment will take place in aa enclofed ' 
ground, within a month afterwards. 

The Subfcribers may he perfectly fafe as to the difpofal of 
their money, and aiio reft allured of the pombility of the 
fact j fince, to walk in the air, it is fumcient tq deitroy, en 
one hand, the prefiure oft e atmofphere, while it is ine'reaf- 
cd in an opposite direction j or, which is the fame, to in- 
Creafe or annihilate eirher of them feparatel y: wherefore the 
attractive and repuliive power ot cleibicity, combined with 
, the mechanic forces of a man, are iumcient to produce that 
effett. 

N. B. Should any perfon be inclined to accelerate, at his 
OWne<.penCLS, the expriment of this, difcovery, .advantage- . 
«ws .conditions would be then propofed, 'and undeniable ïecu- 
.■xity given; and in cafe of an agreement taking place, other 
_gjojecls will be difcloied for experiments as new as ihis, but 
ignore furprifing : and in this cale, the advantages to be de- 
rived fiom the fubfeription, will be the fame, even without 
depofiting any money. • 



The rage for flying is fo predominant, that fome 
wags, taking advantage of the prefent furor, adver- 
tifed laft Saturday, that a man in a coat of feathers, 
with a monftrous pair of wings, would take an aerial 
excursion from Moorfields, and invited the Publick, 
grata, as fpectators, in confequence of which feveral 
thoufands alfembled at the appointed time, and waited 
for a considerable while, diverting themfelves with each 
other, till a young man, rather imprudently, being 
too free in his witticifms, and hinting obliquely his 
knowledge of the advertifement, the populace were with 
great difficulty reftrained from making him an objecf 
of their refentment. 'T^A V 



THE FLYING MAX, " 
TlieannniincptDcntofati ir.lended flight Uy Pi of. «5»ovGati£~ 
nani,froiii Windnull Hill, «tGravespud, acmz< \\w 'I humes 
to Tilbury Fprt Hill, in Ess»x, turned out, as wp nnlh'.i- 
jmte.tio be, n hoax, ori-/tinliiitr no iloubl with the honorable 
company »f Vintners and Boat Pioprietms of the town 
of GravVseml, who, finding the natural aUructh {is qf 
their nî^i^hhourhood insufficient to induce u profitalde; 
influx of strangers dnrimr <his season pi rehi-ation, had 
recourse to this expedient in or 1er, aa it is lenmd, ,( ir. 
force a trade." Tlje plin was in some lenpects Micerssfid. 
as, on the Sunday prei edmg the wotidrrful exhibition, Uie; 
steani boats and sailing boats wliicb p|y loGravesend, were 
crowded to excess hv those whose curiosity hud been whetted ; 
iiy tlie band hills and po'-tiii'-T-l'ills which Mere eircolattd, 
antl.. displayed in Thanies-'slreet, on Tower- hill, at YV'ap- ' 
pinff, and at o,ther pi'acesj from whence the passage boat* 
depart, and who Were anxious before they appeared to srive^ 
credit tq the slorv, to ascertain whether it bud trutli for it? 
basis. By this prudent foresight, many were at lenst; 
saved the mortification of being laughed at ; but they ne- 
vertheless con tr dusted., by the money which they sptnt, tp^ 
reward ^be authors of the joke. Among,- the other bouies 
of public entertainment at Gravcsend, to which' the niulti- 




a mattt r ol'conrse, either ordered a dinuiir, J»r y?|tie other 
n-frtjjliment, they proceeiletl to iiiterro<;aie i\lr. Pitt, the 
Im>si, aslohis m»'piiiitiis vrtn-st. !Ur. piu, \\i.m, hi comnvr» . 
with his sijjn, ma y be called a rum fellow, attended upon his 
customers with great alertness, and with a most sanc- 
tified face, assuied them be knew lmUiin^ of the Fly- 
itl'g f'henoinpnon^ s:ive u hat he bad eallected from a ge- 
neral pottt ii't'cT, wbiçîh'' iiadbeen sept to liitn, and by 
which be bad been put to 'ihe enor.mms expence of one: 
! .-:bi!iitig! Tb:r, letter informed him that M, Galignani in- 
jadeeTtu corne liij bouse wii.» bis fTJi^ and othu' 

parapheniali:!. hot he. ha<i iiaf'/aj vet, made lifs a|}fVeâroncé ; 
from which " be was very in ml* inclined tq doubt whe- 
ther be uouid come at al! ;" or in other words, that 
he di<l not believe theie Was any suclt person. Some 
wf the visiters, vvl;o saw through Mr. Pitt's candid ex- 
planation, asked him bow be came to sanction the use of 
his name in the band -bills, announcing the serial expeili- 
Jion, for three weeks, w itbout taking- some pains to unde- 
ceive the public? To this be replied, that it was no busi- 
ness of his, and that be eonklnot help such a liberty, if a 
_ étranger thouobt proper in take it. Willi this explanation 
Many were constrained to be satisfied; but others, who 
were not so fortunate as to converse with Mr. Pitt, were 
positively assured that the flight would take place, and they 
remained in Gravesend the whole of the night, in order 
that they might enjoy the pleasure of so unusual a spec- 
tacle. Thus matters rested till towards the afternoon of 
Monday, when innumerable groupes were seen approach- 
ing, from all quarters, the summit of Windmil!-hi!l, 
which, in- a short time, presented a most lively spec- 
tacle, and tilibougb a few refreshing showers damped 
the spirits of the more delicate part of the assembly, 
yet, upon the- whole, the greatest good humour pre- 
vailed. It is but due to the throng, howe-. er, to state, 
that the great majority professed their belief that nothing 
•singular would occur, although they all ran most anxiously 
to any spot In which a sudden commotion might be raised 
by the occasional t'un of the hoys, who were constantly 
pxclaimino-, " Here he comes !" 

Fii this state things rested on the hill, but in the town of 
Gravesend the tables were strangely turned. As the hoax 
originated with these ingenious folks, it may be supposed 
none of them would venture out of their houses, lest they 
Alight be included in the general charge o'f credulous lolly; 
toevertheless, many of -them who bad circulated the lfe, 
vtill (hey. actually believed it themselves, were .seen 
slyly peeping with their glasses towards the appointed 
knot, and no dnubt were in momentary expectation of 
'riktiessing something miraculous. At this awful criais, 
H cockney watr, who was somewhat deeper than bis 
jTtemla, 'foreseeing the laugh which would be raised 
ot their expence. determined lo outwit the "knowing; 
«nes," and accordingly taking a circuitous path, he reached 
the London roaii about balf-wny to Northfleet, and mount- 
ing" one of the coaches coming down from town, he was 
«won conveyed to the Lord Nelson, in the centre of Graves- 
end town- He alighted with an air of great importance, 
«nd seeing a groupe of grianing idlor.î, standing- at the 
•»omer of High-street, ho approached them with a serious 
•«0*0 te nan ce, and asked them bow they were going ou, 
on Windmill bill ? " O ! bravery, sir," was the answer, 
" make haste, you'll be too late tVsee bim go." " Aye," 
tfaysnuriwag, "no doubt, but 1 think, some of you will see 
"things go strçnsely before night !" A -biugh, and an ex- 
clamation of " What do you mean '<"' followed. "Why. "said 
lie, " hav'nt v<m heard what all this is about;" "t\o," au- 
• wer-ed -one o»d wither- beaten Pilot of some notoritty, 
" what is if?'* ,: Why/' added the other, " hay'nt you 
beard that this is all n' -hoaa by the Radical Reformers — a 
meie pretence for a large body of them to assemble to- 
gether in order that, when night falls in, they may attack 
and take Tilbury Fort, and your fortifications, and there- 
by get the command of the port of London !" " No," 
unswered the diS'iple of Neptune, ' ; as I hope to be 
ka'ved, Î did not liear a word aljout it." " Well then," 
concluded the Cocka^y, " Do you wait a little, and 

? r -ou'll see four troops of horse, twelve pieces of artil- 
c-ry, and four regiments of foot, come down to protect 
you — added to which, before half an hour is elapsed, the 
iitissian Frigate and 'brig now in the river which have been 
trained over to the cause of the Itadica's. will be boarded 
oy a. party of Marines coming from Chatham, whither Ï 
am now going to give ;id vice on ihe subject." This story, 
although at least as improbable as that of the Flying Man, 
was instantly swallowed, ^ne old bag-bellied pilot set off] 
to acquaint his friend the mayor, and in bis way repeated 
liis'tvle to all «bom h« met. , The news spiead like wil<l 
«re; wine of the shops m ce shut up. The télescope^ were 
exchanged for .pistols, 7'he boat-hooks uere sharpened 
'to answer the purpose of pikes. The old women filled 
their upper stories » it h fiiïi t stones and oyster shells, to 
fls.*ail liie rebels; and, in fact, there was scarcely an 
individual, who «as a resideiu In the town, that did not 
believe the story, nor were they relieved from their ter- 
ror, u'liib, in some cases, produced the nv-st unsavoui-\ 
const quences, untiUhey baw tin,* throng quietly at sceuding 
ftotn the hill, laughing very good huinotiredly at their 
own di'sappointuiKtit ; but h hen the}' saw the despairing 
countenunc.es of the Graves'-men, and were apprised of 
lll'e cause, they were amply revenged for any mortification 
uhicb. they might harp ^yppiiencrd. , bluuy of the btrfedU 
trnd^profeiseiily the most lesolutc of the t(/wi:smen, who.] 
had for some priulentia! reason quitted the to«n. h^ve 
since been very uppi opriatoly cuiletl " the Hying men," 
which title they r.iil no doubt retain until tlrey take their 
-final flight : to- that bout uefroin which no traveller returns.' 

EX TKAORDINARY DISCOVERY. 

— ■ / 7? f ~ 

A person of the name of Le Patho, on Uè 
has discovered a medium for the conveyance of 
any given body, by means oi : air 7 and with such 
celerity as to render it invisible. Ke has 
j made proposals to Mr. Pitt for the establish- 
! ment of posting, on this construction. fcttefS, &c. 
to any given place or at sea, at the rate ol 
miles a minute. 

A ton weight is to be conveyed with equai fa- 
cility as a. letter, the apparatus' being cf propor- 
tionate magnitude. 

.The Marquis .Cornwailis and the Duke of 
Richmond have been made acquainted wi,h its 
principles, and give the most favourable at 
tton-of its' practicability and usefulness. But 
notwithstanding, although the mechanic re- 
quires nothingmorethan liberal encouragement 
and is justified by the opinion of the great per- 
Isonages above-mentioned in his expectation of 
makjr.g ioo,oool. by exhibiting his apparatus 
las a publick spectacle, should Government re- 
1 fuse to coincide to his proposals, he conuot ob- 
tain from Mr. Pitt a decisive answer. 

We are not sufficiently informed to enter into' 
the merits of this singular invention; a short 
time, however, will, we hope, put the p 
in possession of the benefits which must 
from it. 




^^t%#t'/i2/r/jr//vfac/Mfe , 



«, -/^w^////^ fa t /c/ 6r-fêe/-î6ùrftff/z/- /7S? ■ 









Adverttjemeut. 
ïe famous Planetary Caravan, which 
I fpoke of teicre, being now entirely 
finifh'd and rendered convenient for all fuch 
Perfons, who have any Defire to viiït the 
Moon, Venus, Mercury, or any other of the 
Planets, is remov'd from Mr. Beard's Toy- 
Shop in Fleet-ftreet, to Mr. Fawkes's great 
Booth, in the Dennis-Court near the Hay-market - 
where 1 PafTengers may be accomodated with 
every Thing proper for fo long a Journey. 
This Machine fets out from thence to the 
Moon very foon (only waiting at Prefent to 
introduce the famous Tauftina, who is to 
make her Entry into the Opera, at the Roof 
of the theatre, over the Heads of all the reft of 
the Singers.) 

Any Perfon who intends to go this Way, 
or fend any of their Friends, muft fend 
their Names before the firft Day of June 
next, and likewife muft depofite their Earn- 
neft Money, in the Hands of the faid Mr. 
Fawkes, which being one half of the Fare to the 
Moon, will come to a Hundred and Twenty 
Five Pounds. The Machinist- contents himfelf 
with this moderate Price, (being only onç 
Farthing a Mile,) purely to ferve his Coun* 
try and facilitate the Means of Tranfportati- 
on, having long obferv'd, how ufefull this 
Project has been to the Inhabitants of this 
Ifland. 

In the fame Place alfo, may be feen the 
Planetary Curricule, which is a Vehicle pre- 
paid only for two Perfons, being a lighter 
Carriage, and very fit for a Couple of Lov- 
ers, who have a Mind to fpend their Honey- 
Moon in Venus, and perhaps ihou'd take a Fan- 
cy to come back again in Hafte. 

N. B. For the Encouragement of all fuch Perfons 
who go long Joumies, Fawks is ordered to 
take only one Vhoufand Pounds for a Mil/i- 
on of Miles, which will be a faving of 
11 5 I for every Million of Miles, and ren- 
der this jEtherial Navigation more eafy to 
the Adventurers. 





L' expedience de cette Fùjui^e yjtérojtaliaue haute de $ pieds, 
faite ritir teJ Jrecej £cutea ■ . ■ 



tzaitce ^/lerosiediaite de 6 vLedj S pou.ccJ de I0na11.eu.ry ^ri/7 
ajoieds ûpouccu de Aaitteur; faite va ?- /cj frères jE?zj/e?L 



GRAND "and W.ONDERÉUL EXHIBITION, a: tfc 
LYCEUM, in the STRAND. ffétff 
V. ENSLEN, in addition to lus 'charming 
'hAIR. FIGURES, fo greatly admired at the Pantheon^ 
now exhibits, for the firft time, his mafter. piece, a work of 
two years, and far fuperior to the others, it is a majeftic 
DIANA in a golden car, drawn by two fiat flags, of the rnoft 
animated form. Though every figure of this- ad mil able group 
is larger than the life, yet the weight of the whole is only 44 
ounces. The amazing lightnefs of the texture which thefe 
charming forms are compofed of, thé brilliant tranfparency, 
the juft proportions,' every thing makes the wondering fpedtator 
imagine he rsaHy fees an airy lhadf&w cloathed in mining rai- 
ments, of the richeft tints and moft glowing dies. Mr. Enflen, 
grateful for the confront encouragement he has received from 
the Public, thinks hirnfiif happy during his .fhort ftay in Eng- 
land, to be able to exhibit tliis unparalleled fpecracle on the 
moft moderate terms. 

To be feen grandly and çonft.mtly illuminated, from eleven 
in the morning to ten at night. 

Admittance only Six-pence. 



: Y, .July 6, 17..86. 

PEGASUS in the A I R, 

The Fif'ft Experiment of the Kind ever feen in England, 

~"*0-MORROW, the 7th. inft. Mr. Enflen 




sided with the graateij m.ccis iail fanfirnar in 

of every b-: ) 
AJ.ni'i.eci.. fidl place as. 6d. f-jebnd, is. if a wee day, 
the it ■■ the firft fair day afl 

;ivcn .;f it '■?- the pu but ; - 



'L Y C E U M, in the STRAND. 
A GRAND EXHIBITION, nevet, yet (hewn tariff 

p u b l i c. ffeff-zycP* 

T is Mr. ENSLEM's MASTi^-PiffcE.— A 

CHARMiNfl DiANA, in a golden CAR, drawn 
bv two beautiful STAGS. Thefe alone who fee this 
inimitable group can farm an idea of itseiquiiue workmanfivp, 
rich tranfparency, and atfOmJhipg lightnefs, though emy 
figure is larger than the life, yet the Goddess, Stags, Car, 1 
and all weigh on'y 44 ounces. 

At the fame time will be EXHIBITED the famous J 
FLYING HORSE, that afcended from Bermondfey Spa. — I 
The Nymph— A coloffal F a m e— And the wonderful 
American Harpy. 

To be feen conftantly illuminated from eleven in the morning 
..' till ten at night. 

Admittance O W v SHILLING. 



P A N T H E O N. 
R.ENStEN'sinimitihleAIR-FIGURES, 

■. the firft ever feen in England, fo long uifiverfaiiy 
admired in. /Paris, and 10 highly approved of by all who 
have feen Jrhem in this Metrop-olis, are now exhibiting at 
the PANTHEON. The public experiment made on AVed- 
nefdav the zid of February, in the Great Room of tbk 
Noble Edifice, has convinced the molt incredulous that 
thefe matter- pieces of art, perfeverance, and labour— -not 
only afcend with eafe in the air, but alio always prefei ve 
their upright pofitioji at any elevation. The lame beau- 
tiful Horfe, mount: d by an armed Warrior, which was 
letup with the gré left fuccefs in Paris laft October, will, 
with another Fig... c, be publicly charged w. ';, e.as, and 
then \t t off re take their cou.ne through the regions o; air, 
and  wherever the winds lhall dirccl: then to. This 
aftomfhing experiment will be made in, the beginning of 
Summer. Nothing can equal the fenfation produce!, by 
the fiift v-.ew ôî thefe fa utiful send foims, particular;;, 
when feen bv the eclat of a rich illuminai sen -, the trant- 
paretic?, the vivid glow f the vai legated colour*, every 
thing imprefles the Spectator's mind v. 5tl) the idea, th* 
he really fe es a Vuncr.n.-.tural hejn ', who-, in order to ren- 

' dcrhimfelf viable tr mortals, bas fthren to the coluiirlefs 

i and knpajpsblfc fluid, the richcfUu.es, the jufteft propor- 

' tions, ana the ; l oil agreste of ail forms. 

To be (eea Frotft ten : 1 the Morûing to ten o eiock at 

• Night, (Th--f,!ay Nip,ht excepted.) ./ 

Adniillion only One Shilling »ach pe rl-m- '/OP 



PEGASUS and PERSEUS in the AIR. 
A fuperb Winç'd Horfe, mounted by a Warrior, ten Feet in 
Height, in Weight twenty-eight Ounces, the firft Experi- 
ment of the kind ever feen in England. 

ON FRIDAY, the 7th of July, in Bermond- 
fe y'Spa , -fîardenS |, fjevejT_a^resjn_e^tejit J in the Grange- 
road, SôGthwark, on the Icweri-oid to.Deptford, trie fame 
wing'd courfer, mounted, by a hero, reprefenting Perfeus and 
Pc : afus, that flew forty miles laft Summer in Fiance, and 
now exhibiting at the Pantheon, will be charged with gas,_ and 
then liberated, to take its courfe through the regions of the 
Iky. A lovely air nymph will be let off a few minutes before 
the afcenfion of the h<Jrfe. The operation of filling, &c. 
which vvfll be eafily feen by every perfon in the gardens, will 
commence precifely at Oneo'Ciock; and at Two, Perfeus, 
riding o'n-his fiery deed,, .will majefrically afcend, always pre- 
ferving his Upright pofition in the air, and then glide with 
«-race through the yielding element^ to the delight and afto- 
niihraent o'fâll the beholders. As this wonderful experiment 
will infallibly fucceed as- complete'y in London as it did in 
Paris, Mr. Enjlen, the inventor nf thele inimitable figures, 
humbly^eTiimes, that the public will find their mod; fan- 
gui ne expectations amply gratified. .' 

Admiliion, Firft Places 2s. 6d. Second Place, is— the 
' Half Crown Tickets may be had' "at the Pantheon, and at 
Mr. Keyfe's, Bermondfey Spa. ■ - _ ' 

Should the day prove wet, (the only hindrance to the expe- 
riment) the afcenfion will then take place the firft fair day, 
Sunday expected, after the 7th, and immediate notice will be 
given in the public papers. Till the day of the "experiment 
only, the exhibition of the whole cabinet of thefe beautiful 
• aerial forrrrs will be continued at the Pantheon. Peg#T«s and 
Perfeus, Fame, Mercury, the Harpy, &c. are to be fee'n, 
inflated, finm ten in the morning till ten at night.— Admit- 
tance One Shilling. . , . ,„.„..„. 

N.' B.' For fale, Balloons of gold-heaters (km, of OiBTcrent 
diameters, elegantly painted and varnhh«d /r^/ 



C^ REAT NOVELTY in .ERGSTAT IÔ? 
T A mage Aerial Tiger is filled with gas in one mit 
arid visits the Pit, Boxes, and Gallerv, under Martial M 
it the ,ERG-\SCGPIC THEATRE, Lyceum, whef 
the superb. Atrial and Musical Figures, with the. most 
prising optica:! visions refracted from mature, agreeable t 
Isaac Now ton's principles in this sublime science, may tiwi- ; 
féngetfté w Ac world to produce tivj like. Large bills of' 
A\\ the performances., and Pi ace» taken at the Print-shop, i 
No. 3^9, >rani, where the Explanation of the Invisible i 
Girls, and a 1 ! Che DjJtica] Inventions are sold. Boxes 5s. ' "I 
«MPitt as. — Gainry .:»..—. Beginfat Eight o'clock. /h*r./g#<r \ 



»N- — 

limite, 



sur- 
: to Sir 

chal- 



QUPERB AIR. BALLOON FIGURES, at the 
>3 LARGE THEATRE, 'LYCEUM together with the 
à 1 limitabi e £ R G A S C O P I C E R E F R A CTTON S from Na- 
ture, which is the ne plus ultraof the Phantasmagoria, agree- 
able to Sir Isaac Newton's Laws of Optics. The- whole be- 
gins with the much admired Musical' and Speaking Auto- 
mata, and full Explanation of" the Invisible Gird. Doors 
open at Seven, and begins at Eight o'clock. Box 3s. — Pit 
3i.— Gallery, is % O/vix^ /££>$" 




PROJET D'UN BALLON DE 12Q.RIEDS DE DIAMETRE QUI DOIT ETRE ENLEVE: A. DIJON 







Explication 

A . Le Ballon B . Bwot sur lequel tourne le Cercle mouvant . C . Cercla mouvant D . Toile assujetti, au Cercle mouvant , 
lleneœistemls^nhlnlle de Imdre akd< dn Ballon ^.Chassis sur lequel est attacha la Telle . Y .Boules sur lesquelles 



roulent les cordes qui servent d Tsser etcargiier les Vodes . G. Cordes qui servent à isrer et ca&uev le 



■uL 



es. 

sici^ une 



VL* Bec avance, de 22. pieds, servant dfën%e l'air . J, Gouvernail de iC pieds de hna f en plumes mobile,, 
Chanuere. K. (former* qur attache le Ceuverrunl au Ballon , L. Cordes qui servent a mouvoir le Gvuvernml a droite, 
on aaauche . M . Cliar des Conducteurs suspendu an Ballon , 

A Taris che* ÏÏstuxiOv et^Rajriïïy , laie. St 'Jacques à la Title de Cnaances . 



i 



Copy of a letter from Mr. Alexander Gordon, from 
on board the Otter Jloop, dated I'armoutb- 
Roads, Qùieber 2,\. /?J~>4 

" At a time when the attention of the pub- 
lic is (o much engaged in Aerial Navigation, I 
hope it will not be thought unfeafonable to call 
their attention to the utility of a machine for 
that purpofe, much older than the late célébra. 
ted invention of Montgolfier, viz. the Flying 
Kite; which, if u fed in the manner I am to 
defcribe, will be found a great acquifltion to 
Nautical Navigation, and the means of prefer, 
ving lives in cafes of fhipwreck. 

" On the lit inftant his Majeity'» iloop the 
Otter came to Yarmouth Roads on purpofe to \ 
victual ; but it blew fo hard for the fpace often ' 
days, th.it no boats could come off with provi.- 
fions, and ours were then on fhore, and our water 
oat; we were therefore under the neceffity of 
quitting Yarmouth Reads to go to Harwich. 
The only thing-that puzzled us was the method 
of notifying our intentions to the Captain, who 
was on fhore, as no boat could poflibly land. 
At lait we thought of making a Flying Kite, to 
which we put wings and a tail, and then launched 
it into the air. We gave it a long range of 
twine, and about eight feet from tne end \ve 
tied a bottle, in which^was a letter for the Cap- 
tain, and to the end we' fattened a piece of wood, 
fo heavy that \\ could not be lifted by the Kite, 
but light enough to be eafily drawn along ya the 
water. We were about a mile from the beach, 
and the Kite was five minutes in g<oing aiWre. 
The thing that chiefly engaged the attention of 
the people on the beach, wa.5 the bottle eight 
feet above the furface of the water, moving to- 
wards the fhore,for they didnotobferve thatit was 
connected with the Kite. A crowd cf people 
aflembled to look'at fo ilngular a phenome- 
non, who'laid hold of the bottle the moment it 
came afhore, and on feeing a letter in it di- 
rected to the Captain of the Otter, they went 
immediately and delivered it ; and he foon after, 
by fignal, acknowledged the receipt aï it. 

Now, were all fhips provided with a machine 
of this kind, it would be a refource when the 
fheet-anchor falls, and in cafes where it could 
not be ufed. For by means of it a hawfer might 
be drawn afhore, fo that the people could be 
faved, either by veering and hauling aboaton 
fhore or, where that is impracticable, by keep- 
ing fait to the hawfer and hauling themfelves 
afhore by it. 

I am," SIR, &c. 

A L. GORDON. 



A Kite Carriage. — A curious experiment was made on 
Hounslovv Heath a few clays since, wiih a carriage drawn 
by kites, invented by Mr. Pocock of Brislol. Unfortunately 
for the trial, there was very liitle wind, but even under this 
disadvantage, the carriage, witli six persons, was, it is stated 
to us, drawn by the kites) at the rate cf eight to nine miles 
an hour. Though their course was only within six points 
of the wind, they dashed gallantly through Hounslow ; 
but were obliged to pull up at Bceu'tford, on account of the 
contrary air and the narrowness of the street. The crowd 
collected to witness the phenomenon was immense; the 
si a ;jts stopped, and one Jehu expressed his delightthat the 
kite carriage headed him for above a mile. It was a very 
warn» day, and the party stopped at a public-house to take 
a draught of porter, — when one of them called the ostler. 
— "Î be a coming, sir." — "Give our steeds a feed." — 
" Where be they, sir? " — " Why up there." — " Ah, you be 
selling it me now." — They let the carriage move on a few 
yards. — " Why,sureé!iough, it beso; Missis! missis! come 
out and see how them there kites draws this here carriage." 
The old lady came out ; she looked a person rather inclined 
îo give asi opinion than take one. — She cast her eyes on 
the carriage, then on the kites, and then on the carriage 
again, and, clapping her hands to her sides, exclaimed, 
with a hearty laugh, " What a, goose you are Tom! it is 
not the kites that draw the carriage, there are men up 
behind (hem that puli it along!" We understand that 
Mr. Pocock has been twenty years in perfecting his inge- 
nious invention. He harnesses the winds, and makes them 
obedient to his command ; — all he asks is for them to blow. 
In a strong breeze he travels at the rate of 20 to 25 miles 
per hour. He can turn as he pleases, and stop the carriage 
in an instant, though going down hill at the rate of 20 miles 
an hour. He can hand, reef, and steer, and manage his 
kites and Cab with almost as much facility as the seaman 
manages his sails and rudder. He can tack and shape his 
course as he pleases, if the wind be abaft the beam; that 
j», less than eight points, or ninety degrees. This invention 
is oniy an elegant amusement on laud, but we think it 
susceptible of being usefully employed at sea. The deserts 
of Africa might be traversed* by its aid, at a rate far exceed- 
ing the boasted speed of the dromedary. AJ1 that is neces- 
sary for iSs succets is for 

"The stormy winds io blow-ow-cw." — Lit. Gaz. 



(From the Liverpool Mercury—The greatest novelty of the , 
tllV 't lbUi0n °/ Mr - Po ^k's kites, by which a boa wa I 
' eîTn î° 7Th at COnsldCT f ble s P eed < under circumstances which ! 
demonstrated the great utility of an apparatus, which, before Mr. 
Pocock took it in hand, was a mere child's toy. The experiment 
was made a little before one o'clock in the afternoon, from h 
Floating Bath with the most perfect success. The wind was 
blowing from the south, and the tide coming in rapidly, wlien we 
n company with Mr. Alfred Pocock and" eight others *ot on 
board the boat. Many persons cannot conceive how a kUe c°n 
possibly draw a carriage or a boat in any but the direction of tfi 
wind ; the experiment of Friday must have convinced them that 
,1!"." b0a * m ay. easily -be clrawn b kites at ^ 
the wind. On quitting the Bath, with the wind directïv south ' 
we made straight for the Cheshire shore, or due west, and returned 
due east to the precise spot from which we set out having Te 
about twenty minutes in performing the trip. We then set ou 
again due west ; and after proceeding about half way to Che hi e 

ZJ^ ned i mKl \ eforereach -S^Bathwepro y ceededafw 
hundred yards oeyond it to the southerns beating up to wind- 
ward,-^ manœuvre which we have heard several nautical men 
.pronounce to be utterly impossible by the agency of kites It 
was amusing to witness the surprise of the boatmen at seeing a 
boat urged iorward without sails, oars, or steam. The experiment 
has fully convinced us that, with a strong wind blowing from the 
north or south a boat furnished with one of the largest pair of 
the kites could cross from Liverpool to Cheshire, and return 
without making much lee way, whatever might be the state or 
strength of the tide. We ought to have stated that the boat in 
which the experiment was made was a heavy two-masted one _ 
■not at all adapted to the purpose. Since the regatta-day we have 
been several times with Mr. Pocock, jun. on the river, witnessing 
his surprising and most interesting mode of manoeuvring his kites! 
•On one occasion with the wind at N. YV. we ran from the Floating 
Bath to the Rock Ferry; and the boatmen assured us that our 
course during the trip was frequently less than five points from the 



J< 



«^ ZcP. /tr>2<(f 



\aEROPLEUSTTCS, or NAVIGATION in the AIR. 

It may be recollected, that about three or fôtïï months since, we 
copied several paragraphs from the Berkshire papers, describing the 
strange phenomenon of a carriage drawn by mes having been sec;. 
making its way rapidly along the western road, if we recollect right, 
between Reading and Windsor. The statement made was, that the 
vehicle in question was seen running with several persons in it, at. 
the rate of near 20 miles an hour ; and that it passed the carriage of 
tke Duke of Goucesteron the road, the horses of his Highness bsing 
unable to keep pace even at a gallop. This story, which many per- 
sons at the time took for a hoax, extraordinary as it seems, was ne- 
vertheless, we believe, in most of its material circumstances, true ; 
and the contriver of the very novel machins in question (for which 
patent» are said to be taken out in London and Paris) has just pub ■ 
lished a book descriptive of his invention, scarcely less strange and 
eccentric than the discovery itself. The account which this gentle- 
man, however (Mr. Pocock, a schoolmaster of Bristol), gives of 
the origin and course of his " aëropleustic" efihrts is curious ; and, 
whether the invention may ever be applied te any purpose of practi- 
cal utility or not, will be interesting to a great many readers. There 
are some circumstances set forth in it, which, as Mr. Pocock him- 
self confesses, have a little staggered ordinary people's belief; and 
this is a result which does not very much surprise us. We shall give 
the facts, however, as we find them, as generally as possible in the 
words of the author. 

After describing the circumstances which iirst suggested to him 
the idea of applying the propelling power of kites to ordinary pur- 
poses, Mr. Pocock says — desiring naturally to increase the ferce of 
the machine in the first instance, as commonly applied and construct- 
ed, as much as possible, " I conceived an entirely new plan." 

" I procured a second paper kite, and flying up the first till it 
would carry no more string, I tied the end of the first kite string to 
the back of the second Kite, and letting that up with its own length 
of cordage, my uppermost kite triumphed over all competition. At 
length it was discovered, that by attaching several kites, one after 
the other, each having a considerable length of twine, that the kites 
might be elevated above the clouds ; and the power of their draught 
increased to almost any extent." 

Upon this, after going through a variety of labours, during which 
a variety of improvements suggested themselves,— such as making 
the kites jointed, in order that they should be more portable when of 
a large size, covering them with linen instead of paper, that they 
might be proof against the weather ; and furnishing each with a se- 
condary string called a brace line, the effect of which was to regulate 
the draught of the machine by changing the position from horizon- 
tal to vertical, or vice versa, in" the air, Mr. Pocock at length succeed- 
ed completely in ascertaining that his kites might he made applicable 
to the purposes of draught ; and in the course of his practice some of 
the accidents already alluded to occurred, which probably will sur- 

Erise most readers as much as they did the very active projector 
imself. 

" On one occasion the kite's string was attached to the end of a 
board about six feet long and six inches wide ; an this quickly- 
made sledge one of my sons seated himself. On letting go the string 
the sledge was instantly hurried away so unexpectedly, and with a 
velocity so great, that all attempts to overtake it were fruitless. Ma- 
zeppa's wild horse was as easy of control. The young solitary Lap- 
lander courageously kept his seat, the kites dragging him and his 
novel vehicle over hillocks and ruts, and beds of furze, till he arrived 
at the opposite extremity of the Downs, and descended upon his 
well-poised sledge into a stone-quarry. By which first perilous 
journey it was learned that no horse or rein-deer, in car or sledge, 
could successfully compete with kites in speed, but also that no mode 
of travelling could be more dangerous, unless the kites could be con. 
trolled, and the vehicle directed or stopped." 

On another occasion a sailing trial was made — 

" On Charletan-pond, an extensive sheet of water belonging to the 
Earl of Suffolk, the use of that nobleman's pleasure-boat being 
kindly granted for the purpose ; when it was proved beyond doubt 
that the kites might be applied with certain success. As in making 
the first trial by land, an unexpected occurrence took place, so did 
something of a similar nature happen on this occasion. While 
scudding along under our buoyant sails, an oar had dropped over- 
board, and having no means of stopping the boat, we traversed to \ 
the nearest shore; there the kites were given in charge to three 
country boys, while we rowed back to pick up the oar. When re- 
turning, we heard a great cry from the lads on shore ; they had been 
dragged by the Jutes close to the water, into which, but for the in- 
terposition of some young trees, they must inevitably have been 
drawn." 

In the end, an experiment with the author's family car, which 
was drawn " witha'full party upon turf," settled the question in die 
writer's mind completely that carriages might be put into motion 
with kites ; and he then proceeded, first by increasing the power of 
his engines, and then by inventing a particular description of car, 
more convenient than a common' chaise, to be drawn by them,until 
at length lie arrived at sufficient maturity to beat the Duke of Glo- 
eester s carriage in a trial of speed — an operation which he describes 
—on the road near Windsor. 

We have already noticed the brace line by which Mr. Pocock s 
kites are made operative or inoperative in the air at pleasure. An- 
other invention affords the means to the traveller of directing his 
course with these machines, instead of running directly whichever 
way the wind may be disposed to carry him. 

" This branch of the system consists in the application of two 
side lines ; one attached to the right hand extremity of the kite, the 
other to the left. These act upen the kite much as the leltM do 
upon a gig horse ; by pulling the right hand line, an obliquity is 
given to the kite's surface, on which obliquity the wind acting, the 
kite veers instantly to the right hand : straining in the feu hand 
brace, the motion is diiectly vice versa. By this movement, trees 
and other obstacles are avoided, and many advantages obtained. 

The uower of a kite 12 feet high, with a wind blowing at the rate 
of 20 miles an hour, is described to be as much as a ma-* of mode- 
rate strength can stand against. With a rather boisterous wind, 
such a kite has been known to break a line capable of sustaining a 
weight of 200. These may serve as standing ratios, from which the 
power of larger kites may be deduced. 

The purposes to which Mr. Pocock expects his kites to be appli- 
cable are various. He uses them to draw carriages — to propel [■hips 
—to carry a iope to land from a stranded vessel — and particularly to 
carry person* up into the air, for the purpose of crossing rivers, 
scaling walls, making observations, &e. &c. 



that i__ . 

ot things t-..„,...^ „.. . 

—at tue height of 1^0 yards in the air, a cuirent of wind at the rate of j 

lb miles an hour is frequently floating; a kite elevated into that 1 

current, would propel a vessel wiun her sails below were utterly 

useless. 

In cases of shipwreck, the author's kites are to be found particu- 
larly advantageous ; inasmuch as a rope, oi a grappling iron, may 
not only be conveyed to shore by them, but— 

* Should it be deemed more expedient at once to send a person on 
shore, he may be borne above the bursting billows, and alight like a 
bird ar messenger of good from the flood, on the cliff or beach, ac- 
cording to the position of the wreck." 

Again, as it might so chance that female passengers or children 
were in such vessel, m that case 

"What mode so desirable, as to swing them securely in a ham- 
mock or cot and thus transport them, as an ark of safety, above the 
roaming billows, and land them above the spray, dry shod upon the 

In the same way, 

" These kites having power to elevate one in the air, will serve 
tor observatories, scalades for passing over rivers, for teiegraphic in- 
formation, and lot signals by night and day. Elevated in the air, 
an observer could view all that was passing in a circumference of 
many miles, overlooking hedges, houses, and the minor irregularities 
oi the earth s surrace. In the puisuit and retreat of armies, from 
this flying observatory, all the movements and manœuvres of the ene- 
my might be distinctly marked." 

And-to remove all doubt not merely as to the feasibility but as to 
the perfect convenience of all these ceremonies, it is stated that the 
ascension described has been actually made. The assertion is put 
rather obscurely, and with no detail as to the manner in which the 
experiment was conducted ; but it is distinctly stated, and in terms, 
that the thing was effected; and that 

" The author's daughter, who earnestly claimed from him the 
daring honour, was the first a'eropleusf" 

The remainder of the book— overlooking some poetical notices of 
the author s invention— is chiefly occupied by descriptions of the 
manner m which his patent kites are made to work with a side wind ; 
and with the accounts of diffèrent trials, in which the char volant, 
or kite carriage, has been used. 

"The author does not commit himself, by asserting that this 
mode of travelling is the most safe and expeditious ever discovered, 
Mile alter mile has been performed at the rate of twenty miles an 
hour, timing it with chronometer in hand. 

" On Tuesday, January 8, 1827, a mile was performed over a 
very heavy road in two minutes and three-quarters ; and on the same 
day, several other miles in three minutes each. This was between 
Bristol and Marlborough ; and the wind was not furious, neither 
were the kites sufficiently powerful for the state of the roads." 

On another occasion, we learn that the char volant beat a London 
stage-coach, by a difference of twenty. live minutes in a distance of 
10 miles. 

The construction of the char volant is described ; but without the 
plate annexed, it would be impossible for us to make an extract in- 
telhgibk. As the inventor wishes to obviate every objection, how- 
ever, and as it will be evident that a person could not make a jour- 
ney in a kite carriage, and return with the same wind by which he 
went, to make everything complete, a platform has lately been added 
to the back ot the kite vehicle, upon which the traveller may cam/ 
his return horses along ivith him. 

" This accommodation consists of a low platform, with two wheels 
attached, behind the char volant. The whole being drawn by the 
kites, the cattle are quite fresh to perform their duty, and to return 
the favour of giving back-carriage to their winged associates, or of 
helping them forward, should the wind fall. Thus the equipage is 
rendered complete !" 

In conclusion, the author suggests particularly, that as his kite 
carriage bears lighter upon the ground than any other description of 
vehicle, from this circumstance, as well as its rapidity of convey- 
ance, it would be peculiarly well suited to any expeditions of disco . 
very hereafter to be undertaken in Arabia or Africa ; and might lead 
to results in those regions more favourable than even our most san- 
guine hopes can have anticipated. \P*-'/} Î4 APZ/ 



Electrical Kite. — Mr. Sturgeon says on Friday last, about 
half-past two in the afternoon, clouds began to form in various 
quarters of the heavens in rapid succession, from mere specks or 
streaks to immense groups, with every appearance of being highly 
electrical. I repaired to the Artillery Barrack grounds with an 
electric kite, and in a very short time got it afloat, letting out 
string through the hands 'from a coil or clue which was thrown 
on the ground. When about a hundred yards of the string had 
been let out, a tremendous discharge took place, which gave 
me such a blow in the chest and legs that I became completely 
stunned, let go the string, and consequently the kite soon fell. 
The accident was owing entirely to my owu neglect, and could 
not possibly have happened had I taken the following precaution. 
Let all the string intended to be employed be first taken oft" the 
reel or coil, and stretched on the ground. Let now the insulating 
cord, riband, glass, or whatever is used for this purpose, be at- 
tached to the kite string and fastened to a peg, tree, or anything 
intended to hold the kite during the time it is up. Next fasten 
the kite to the other end of the string, and let it ascend from the 
hand. W* 



©be fLitcravg aSlotlîi: 

A JOURNAL OF POPULAR INFORMATION AND ENTERTAINMENT. 

CONDUCTED BY JOHN TIMBS, ELEVEN YEARS EDITOR OF "THE MIRROR." 



No. 70.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 25, 1840. 



[Price 2d. 



THE FIRST AERIAL VOYAGE IN GREAT BRITAIN. 



3 

I 

I 






iè, 




-m<. 



THE EDINBURGH FIRE BALLOON. 
(From a Ticket in the British Museum.) 



Edinburgh, August 27th, 1784. 

Mr. Tytler has made several improve- 
ments upon his fire balloon. The reason 
of its failure, formerly, was its being made 
of porous linen, through which the air 
made its escape. To remedy this defect, 
Mr. T. has got it covered with a varnish, 
to retain the inflammable* air, after the 
balloon is filled. 

Early this morning, this bold adventurer 
took his first aerial flight: the balloon 
being filled at Comely Garden, he seated 
himself in the basket, and the ropes being 
cut. he ascended very high, and descended 
quite gradually on the road to Restalrig, 
about half a mile from the place where he 
rose, to the great satisfaction of the specta- 
tors. Mr. Tytler went up without the fur- 
nace this morning ; when that is added, he 
will be able to feed the balloon with in- 
flammable air, and continue his aerial 
excursions as long as he chooses. 

Mr. Tytler is now in high spirits, and, 
in his turn, laughs at those infidels who ridi- 
culed his scheme as visionary and imprac- 
ticable. Mr. Tytler is the first person in 
Great Britain who has navigated the air. 

Mr. Tytler, in accordance with the con- 
cluding portion of the letter, is entitled, 
as Mr. Monck Mason correctly states, to 
the triple distinction of being the first 
native of Great Britain who achieved an 
aerial ascent ; of having accomplished the 
first aerial voyage in these realms ; and, 
with the exception of a recent experiment,! 
the only person, upon the principle of the 
original inventor, in which the agent of 
the ascension was atmospheric air ran- 
fied by the application of artificial heat ; 
and, notwithstanding the unquestionable 
testimony afforded in the above-quoted 
papers, this event has been disallowed or 
overlooked by all who, previously to Mr. 
Mason, had professed to chronicle the 
progress of aerostation. It is pitiable to 
observe with what obstinacy the several 

* As Mr. Monck Mason observes, the application, 
here, of the term inflammable, is, evidently, an 
error of the writer, arising from an ignorance of the 
real meaning of the word, and an incorrect associa- 
tion between the material and .the cause of its pro- 

Tm".' Sneath ascended in a balloon of his own 
construction, from Bleak-hill, near Mansfield on 
the night of May 24, 1837, being the only instance 
on record, as Mr. Mason states, in which, with the 
exception of Mr. Tytler's from Edinburgh, such an 
expedient has succeeded in any part of the Brit sh 
dominions. After being in the air two hours he 
balloon began to descend ; and at eleven, the grapnel 
took effect in a hedge, near the village of Spondon 
Apprehensive of the escape of the baEoon should 
he auit it and fear of allowing the fire to abate, lest 
no &r able to support itself, the balloon might 
fall upon the furnace, and be consumed h 
compelled to continue in the car till ^«*»? 
on the following morning, when some J rarjanen, 
passing by, came to his assistance, and leheved him 
from his dangerous situation. 



writers upon the subject have perverted 
the admission of this ascent, and concur 
in ascribing to Lunardi the merit of 
having accomplished the first aerial voy- 
age in this country ; whereas he did not 
ascend till September 15th following. It 
may, probably, be urged, that Tytler's 
ascent was not attended with any of those 
astounding circumstances by which the 
exploits of the earlier aeronauts were 
generally signalized: neither was the 
distance run over, nor the rate at which 
it was accomplished, such as to entitle it 
to particular notice on the score of these 
attributes. To regulate the merits of an 
ascent according to such a scale, would, 
however, be most unjust ; these are, in 
fact, matters wholly dependent on cir- 
cumstances over which the individual can 
have no possible control ; and many in- 
stances might be quoted of experiments, 
remarkable enough in other particulars, 
which, in these, might be considered as 
singularly deficient. Were such, in fact, 
to be taken as the test of admission to the 
honours of aerostation, Pilatre de Rozier 
and Arlandes must relinquish the glory of 
the first aerial flight, whose utmost stretch 
did not exceed 5,000 toises ; and the 
celebrated ascent of Joseph Montgolfier, 
in the Grand Montgolfière, at Lyons, must 
be erased from the list ; as, in that, the 
distance accomplished was even incon- 
siderable to that achieved by the Edinburgh 
Fire Balloon. B - 

We are indebted for the Drawing whence 
our wood-cut is derived, to Mr. Edward 
Spencer, jun., the eldest son of the dis- 
tinguished aeronaut, Mr. Edward Spencer, 
so often the associate of Mr. Chariest 
Green in his aerial expeditions. 

Madame Thible, the first female aero- 
naut, and possibly the only woman who 
has ascended in a fire balloon, did so 
in a Montgolfière, from Lyons, June 4, 
1784, in company with M. Fleuraud, m 
the presence of the court, and of Gus- 
tavus, King of Sweden, then travelling 
under the fictitious name of Count Haga. 

The numerous aerostatic attempts during 
the year 1784, occasioned the following 
amusing lines, entitled 

The Air Balloon. 
By land let them travel, as many as list 

And by sea, those who like the hard fare, 
In an airy balloon whilst I sit at my ease, 

And pleasantly glide through the air ! 
Round this globe, the farthest they ever can reach, 

Let them travel night, morning, and noon ; 
Such excursions as these are but mere bagatelles, 

When compared with a trip to the moon ! 
In my chariot aerial, how pleasant to go, 

Tn see all mv friends in the stars : 
Take a breakfast with Mercury, and dine, if I please, 

With Jupiter, Sat urn, or Mars 1 

r^ TTTfTHcmed or wearisome prove, 



1 



258 



THE LITERARY WORLD. 



EDINBURGH FIRE BALLOON. 

Air balloons, the principle of which was 
known to Favori nus and the ancients, more 
than two thousand years since, — as we are 
told, by Aulus Gelïius, lib. x. c. xii., that 
Archytas, a scholar of Pythagoras, made a 
wooden pigeon, that could fly, by means of 
air enclosed within,— were again brought 
into notice by Stephen Montgolfier, by the 
accidental circumstance of the paper cover 
of a conical sugar-loaf, which he had flung 
into the fire, becoming inflated with 
smoke, and remaining suspended in the 
chimney ; which thus impelled in the inge- 
nious Frenchman the first thought of the 
fire balloon, designated, from his name, the 
• Montgolfière. Etienne Montgolfier, the ori- 
ginal discoverer, never ascended ; at least, 
so as to come before the public in the cha- 
racter of a practical aeronaut. Joseph 
Montgolfier, his elder brother, Pilatre de 
Rozier, and five others, ascended in the 
Grand Montgolfière, at Lyons, Jan. 19, 
1784 ; but the immense machine took fire,* 
and the aerial voyagers descended without 
injury, in about fifteen minutes : any fur- 
ther attempts by the Montgolfiers, as prac- 
tical aeronauts, are not recorded. 

In Scotland, some interest appears to 
have been excited by the popular rage 
respecting balloons ; and the earliest at- 
tempts emanated from a chemist, at Edin- 
burgh, named Scott, who, on Friday, 
March 12, I784,f let off, between two and 
three o'clock in the afternoon, from He- 
riot's Gardens, an air balloon, of about 
three feet and a half diameter ; the colour, 
a light green. It took about six minutes 
and a half in ascending, before it disap- 
peared altogether; and would have gone 
out of sight much sooner, had it not been 
for a black cloud, in the midst of which it 
appeared like a star, and was really taken 
for such, by some gentlemen at the Cross. 
The day was extremely favourable, the 
wind moderate, and at west a point north ; 
so that the balloon went in the direction 
of east by south ; and was taken up near 
Haddington, about twenty miles from 
Edinburgh. The crowd of spectators on 
the occasion was immense. On the 17th, 

* According to the information of M. de la Lande, 
editor of the Journal des Sçavans ; but, according 
to others, by a rent, or burst, near the top of the 
balloon. 

t The celebrated Philip Astley, by a singular coin- 
cidence, on the same day, "launched an aerostatic 
globe [or balloon], in St. George's Fields, in pre- 
sence of a greater number of spectators than were, 
perhaps, ever assembled together on any occasion." 
The writer in the Gentleman's Magazine, p. 228, who 
notices this fact, observes: " Many of the spectators 
will have reason to remember it; for a more ample 
harvest for the pickpockets never was presented. 
Some noblemen and gentlemen lost their watches, 
and many their purses. The balloon, launched 
about half-past one in the afternoon, was found at 
Feversham." 



Mr. Scott let off another balloon, which 
rose more perpendicularly than the for- 
mer, and continued in sight about thirty 
minutes. Several other balloons were 
started in the same month, from other 
places : one, launched from the Observa- 
tory of Aberdeen, went the distance of 
thirty-eight miles, in the space of half an 
hour. 

The fame of the Grand Montgolfière in- 
spired another adventurer, in the person 
of Mr. James Tytler, a chemist, also, in 
Edinburgh, who superintended the con- 
struction of a balloon on the Montgolfier 
principle, and appears to have exhibited it 
as the Edinburgh Fire Balloon : the price 
of admission was three shillings.* An Edin- 
burgh journal, for August, 1784, records 
— " James Tytler, chemist, in Edinburgh, 
has been, for some time past, employed in 
the construction of a fire balloon. Its 
dimensions are about forty feet in height, 
and thirty in diameter. It was the inten- 
tion of the projector to have ascended, 
with his balloon, about the beginning of 
this month, during the race-week; but 
things not being in that forwardness and 
the perfection he expected, he was obliged 
to postpone his aerial journey. On the 
morning of the 27th, however, he made a 
decisive experiment. About five o'clock, 
the balloon was inflated, and soon mani- 
fested a disposition to ascend. Mr. Tytler 
took his seat, and, with inexpressible 
satisfaction, felt himself raised, with great 
power, from the earth. The machine 
entangled itself among the branches of a 
tree, and by a rope belonging to the mast 
which raised it, so that its power of ascen- 
sion was greatly weakened. However, 
when the obstacles were removed, it as- 
cended, rapidly, to the height of three 
hundred and fifty feet, as measured by a 
line left hanging from the bottom of the 
basket. The morning was calm ; and, as 
no furnace was taken up with it, the bal- 
loon, therefore, went but a small way ; it 
soon descended to the earth, without any 
damage to the projector, who, in testimony 
of his security, returned, while in the air, 
the huzzas of the spectators ; and, on his 
return, was overwhelmed with their con- 
gratulations." 

In addition to this very circumstantial 
account, there is extant a letter from one 
of the spectators, dated on the day of this 
ascent : 

* In the very extensive collection of "tickets to 
places of public amusement," formed by Miss 
Banks, the sister of Sir Joseph Banks, and now de- 
posited in the print-room of the British Museum, is 
a ticket of this exhibition, with the autograph of the 
exhibitor ; and a manuscript memorandum on the 
card, that the balloon was "constructed by Mr. 
William Brodie." A portrait of the aeronaut, Tyt- 
ler, is among the portraits etched by Andrew Kay, 
the quondam artistical-barber, at Edinburgh. 





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Extra&of a letter from Bath, Jan, 10 >? a ^ 
" This day, a little after twelve o'clock, Dr Varrv 
a very ingenious Phvfician of this city, ret BTTrônf 
the Area of the Crefcent,. an arr-bal'loon ■ While it- 
continued in fight-, it afcended gradually- at the fame 
time that a gentle breeze wafted it horizontally towards 
the Severn, which river it wjlj probably croft, and de 
fcend among the aftonifhed Peafants, in fome part of 
Wales. Dr. Parry not only well timed the flfghcof 
his balloon, but it was alfo well placed, for it. rbft be ■ 
fore the windows of the Duchefs of Devonfh ire's houfe - 
and as her Grace docs not. go from home at prefenr' 
it was an attention, wliich In a moft . articular manner 
delighted the writer of this, as he had a few hours be 
fore received from her Grace's hands a heavy roleau 
of gold, to he difpnfed of in a manner he is notât ii 
berty to relate, further than that it was to comfort the 
affiicred." 



Our Correfpondc.nt at Bath has favoured us with the 
following account (which he had from the ingenious 
conftruaor, Dr. Parry) of the Air Balloon, lately let 
off at Bath, as mentioned in ouHaft :— It confifted of 
two hollow cones, joined together by their bales : The 
circumference of the common bafe was upwards of 17 
feet; the height of the upper cone three feet, and of 
the lower five and a half. The materials of which it 
was made were taffety and farmer, of which it took 
about 18 yards of 3 quarters of a yard wide; it was 
varnilhed with the common drying oil of the painters 
which is nothing more than linfeed oil boiled wirh If' 
tharge. From the dimenfions fpecified above it ap- 
pears, that the balloon was capable of containing 
fomething more than 72 cubic feet of air, without mak- 
ing any allowance for its approach to a fphericai form 
on distention, which, in reality, feemed to increafe its 
folid contents at leaft one fourth. The inflammable 
air with which it was filled, was fnpplied from iron 
(havings and concentrated vitriolick txhl, of the for* 
mer of which were employed 17 pounds, and of the 
latter 36 pounds, with a proportionable quantity of 
water. It was eight hours and a half in filling with 
air to fuch a decree as to float, which it did when it 
was lefs than two-thirds full.— It was let off in the 
field before the Crefcent, in the prefence of a niinie* 
reus concourfe of fpecfators. For near two minutes it 
arofe fmoothly and with incrcafing velocity in a direc* 
tion very nearly perpendicular ; after which', Mill afcend*- 
ing, it bent its. courfe with the wind almoff due Wed 
and at the end of two minutes and three quarters from 
the beginning of its afeent, totally disappeared. 



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ZxtraB of a letter from Oxford, Fd^. 

P 'L Y °\ have heard a great deal lately of Air- 
Balloons, but moft of the makers have been teTy 
re^ as to their method of confondit a r 2 

" The Air-Balloon conftru&ed by Urn and 
aunched from Queen's college on Thurf" y the 

JÊL îf e f dlyin a Pedicular" dt 
ration, with a heady uniformly accelerated 

le i ^he^g ™ cut ataqulrterpaft 
one o clock, m the prefence of a numerous 

was pe r feai y ierene ; and we learn that k fell 
the fame afternoon, at a quarter before three 

cclv' ' ne " r Wa]lin 2 ton ^ n t} < is 

'f This balloon was compofed of 22 yards 
of red and white Perfian filk, pieced a'ternat" 
ip to as to appear like meridional lines upon 
a terreftnal globe. The varnlfh with whkh 

mnnT € ° V % ed iS Prepared in the blowing 
manner :-To one gallon of linfeed oil add 
two ounces of litharge, two ounces of white 

ho? ; ? H V W °, 0UUCeS ° f 2 um ^nderack; 
boil thefe for about an hour over a flow 
nre; when cool, ftrain it off, and mix it with 
an ounce and a half of the fpirits of tur- 
pentine. The Teams were covered with a So- 
lution of the e/aftick gurn in the above com- 
politic», 

" The form of this Balloon was fbherical, 
fifteen feet m cirtwmference, and capable of 
containing upwards of fixty-five cubicle feet 
of air. Nineteen pounds of iron filings, and 
forty pounds ©f the concentered vitriolick 
acid with a quantity of water in proportion to 
the latter as five to one, produced a fufficient 
quantity of gas to fill it to fuch a degree as 
to float, which it did, when about two-thirds 
full.- 

"-The apparatus made ufe of for filling it 
confifted of two. cafks, conneded together by a 
copper cyphon ; through an orifice in one of 
tnem were introduced the materials which pro- 
duced £e fa&itious air; and from the other, 
which was nearly filled with water, projefted 
a long metal tube, to which the balloon was 
fixed." '■'■■"•... 



Extracl of a letter from Plymouth) Feb. 1 e . )7gt 
" Thurfday, Feb. 12. This forenoon, zV 
Cox fide prifon yard, M r. £h'nwjd .die , or^Eding* 
burgh, launched an ai r baHoooT of 1 ç feet, in 
crcumferenceY~tïïe weather be ng fin?-, it aicer.d- 
ad gradually fir fome time, and in about four mi* 
nines and a half, it. was left in the clouds. The 
wind being N. N. W. it is imagined, it fell in' 
the channel ; the concourfe of fpecTfators to lee 
this grand experiment, was aftonifhing; there 
were 1000 who paid one fhilling admittance into 
the prifon yard ; and the citadel ramparts, the; 
marts of ih,e fhips in the pool, and the firrounci- 
ing bills, were covered with thou'ands of people, 
from all parts of the country. 

" Friday, Feb. 13. -From fix o'clock this 
morning, till fix o'clock in the evening, there was 
the moft allonifliing (now florm ever, fêen in this 
country, in many of the ■ ftreets of this town, th J 
(now was from .13 to 16 incites deep, and where 
drifted in the roads near this town, it was from 
fix feet to ten deep. At Tory Bridge, about 
eleven miles on the Ealtern Road, it was ten feet 
deep. The diligences, which fet off from the 
Prince George, London Inn, See. for Exetc-r, 
were obliged to put tip there, as the roads were 
utterly impaflable for carriages. 



WednefcUy a machine, nearly upon the plen 
0/ thstconftfufted'by Mr. Moore a few years 
fince,vvas exhibited upon' the "Serpentine River. 
The inventor called it an Ice Balloon, and it 
travelled with amazing celerity, having a fort of 
keel made of iron, and being impelled forward 
by a fpring, giving motion to a wheel at the 
front of the carriage. The novelty of the in. 
yention induced feveral people of fafhion to ride 
in the, above machine, and feveral of them hand- 
fomely complimented the Proprietor for his in- 
genuity ; but the price, demanded was but the 
moderate fum of one penny from each paffen- 
ger. A hog was roailed whole upon the ice 
the fame day, and afforded an extempore meal 
to a great number of people. ft-P- dfi&4 -. 



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Extra H of a Utter from the I la vue, Dec. rç>. 
a Yelterday, at one o'clock in the afternoon, 
'ffie Sieur Dillon let go, in the Court of the Stad- 
tholder's palace, an aerioftatic Balloon, of his own 
invention entirely, as to the matter which com- 
pofes it, and the agent which put it in motion. 
This Balloon, the fmalldt of all thofe at prefent 
known, is neither made of paper, taftety, or li- 
nen, but a compofition of the bowels of animals. 
The inflammable air with which it was filled, is 
extracted from zink. So that the Sieur Dillon 
hath not employed, in this experiment, either the 
methods of Mi de Montgolfier or thofe of Mefl. 
Charles and Robert. This balloon is about the 
li;:e of a common drum, its folidity four cubic 
feet, its colour pearl, and its whole weight half 
an éunce. 



\ ivfrription of the Flying Machine, called The ERI- 

"*TISH MECHANICAL BIRD, now exhibiting in 

Hart-flreet, Covent-garden, and in which tlv.- inventor 

actually engages to Fly, is given in the Third Edition 

r^H E AIR B ALL 00 N, 

\ JhesEioff the natural caufes which influence an Air 
Balloon; anckthe particular conftruction, materials and 
methods of filling it with Inflammable Air ; alfo the great 
variety of probable ufes it may be applied to. 

Printed for G. Kearfley, at No. 46, in Flcet-ftreet ; 
Deb'rett, in Piccadilly ; Bew, in Paternofter-row, and 
Swell, In Cornhill: Price One Shilling-, with a Frontif- 



! Exuaft of a letter from Shaftefbury, Jan. 24. 1/^4, 
" Tuefday afternoon laft, about four o'clock, an 
Air Balloon, ticketed from Bath, fell in a field in the 
narifh of Farrington, near Sturminftcr-Newton, in 
this county, to i he no imall confternation of the neigh- 
bouring villages, which it paffed over at the height of 
about 40 yards It fell in a field among a pnrcel of 
cows, who gathered round it with. hideous bellowing. 
The farmer and his men agreed to attack it ; feeing 
it bounding on the ground, they concluded it to be 
fome monder come to carry off the cattle : one of his 
men, more courageous than the reft, went to it, and 
fecured it by tying it .to the railing of a rick. The 
curidfity of the country for fix or eight miles round 
was never more railed than by this Air-Balloon." 



*r / C O V % ' N T - u A \i ft E i s < • *" 
+ +* FOURTEENTH NIGHT. /?&Jt 

& it T the Theatre- Royal, Lovent -Garden, 

l\ •: M F N T N! G. 



7 -A 



V F. N I N C, 
Will be performed a New Comely, «ailed 

MORE WAYS'THAN ONE. 

After which will be performed, 3 d time, a New Paj>wmime, 

Called 

HARLEQ.U1N RAMBLER; 
Or, The Cogent in an Uproar. 

Ii which will be introduced, for the Firft Time«n any. Theatre, 
A R E A L A I K BALLOON. 
To-morrow, w*l be performed the Opera of Artexerxps. 
—On account of the crcat number of LadiCMWBd Qenttafleoj 

mho were difappointed of places laft night, *&*l AbwtfM wU 
kerfoMi Lady Betty Modith, for the 4 th time, on F riday not. 
Oo Thurfday, Mr.s. Crawford will perform A 1. arc n, in J bo 
Mourning Bride- ?ara," Mifs Yoangc. In a few days «Ù. 
' te produced a Tragedy, (altered frwp U.lo s t atal-Gunotity, 
■ called The Shipwreck. ' - _ 



A correfpondent fays,. he is informel that the 
real Air Balloon which was lo well received at 
Drury-Lane Theatre yeiterday evening, in the 
Pantomime En terrain meat ofthe Magic Ceitns, 
has. been for fome time- projected, and would 
have been produced in that Entertainment on 
Tuefday Iail, but from an accident which hap- 
pened in the filling of it. ~?&P< à ■ /?^A 

Lali night a real Air Balloon was let off in 
tire pantomime of Harlequin, Jim. or the Ma- 
gie Ce (lus, at Drury-lane Theatre, under the 
fble .direction and management of Mr. Clem- 
. fon, Balloon and Umbrella-maker, in the Strand. 



The balloon but, at prefent the rage among' 
the women of mode, is beginning to ber offi- 
cially icouted at fome of our public places'. Aï 
Bath, Mr. Dawfotï, the Matter of the Ceremo- 
nies, has profcribed them from his rooms ; and 
tho' they ftill are stdmittjed at Covent Garden 
and at the pit of the Opera, yet at Drury-lane 
a better decorum prevails, and the box-keepers 
fail not to enforce the orders given them, of re- . 
fuling admittance of any hat into the fide boxeb., 
Amongother perfons who have been thus ftt'bj 
to this neceffary regulation, was Lady Derby» 
who with great good humour acquiefcing in tab 
Handing order, pulled off.her Balloon Hat,, and 
féat into the Green Room to borrow a cap du- 
ring the continuance of the play. ?tj$'. /7^h 



AlR~BAilLOON HATS, either trimmed or 
plain, or the wires to make them, may be had, in the 
greateft variety of colours, at HARTSHORN and DYDE's, 
Wigmore-ftreet, end, in the Circus, Bath; where likewife 
may be feen a large quantity of particularly fine Goat's-beard 
Muds, from two to three guineas ; mock Point or worked 
Gauzes, in a variety of patterns, from I2d. to l8d. a yard ; 
Malbrook, Balloon, and ether elegant Fans, fold for one half 
the prices they arc ' at the Fan Shops; Drefs and Undrefs 
Hoops, from îSd. to 15s. Silk and Stuff St' aw Goats, 
made in a particular light manner; a large quantity of new 
long two yards wide' Aprons, at 3s. 6d. &c. &c. Goals'- 
beard Muffs cleaned, to look as well as when new. 

N.B. Soi'.fnée Gauzes, in entire new patterns, that look 
as well as fine Blonds. / 7^7^ 



Balloon Hats now adorn the heads of fuch of 
the parading impures as can afford them ; whiig; 
the mere inferior tribe have invented a hat 
which is, not improperly, called the baftard 
balloon ! — being a humble imitation of the 
g;een-box halloc-n, and deftitute of feathers 
fhefe balloon faihions are about their zénith,, 
and mult foon burft and be forgotten ! *7*?4 



£^traÛ of a letter from the neighbourhood of 
l.fruxsir\ Lheadle, in Stafordjhir,. V?*?4 
<\ We haV"e had ah' extraordinary accident in 
this_pari{h,!which being fomething uncommon, 
> I will -.trouble you with a mort relation of it : 
bn Tuefday the- 17th in il. two fons of jqfe'ph 
Warrilow, the tenant at P'ainfley-hall; hap- - 
pened to fee that, curious machine called a ' bal- 
loon floating in the air, , defending very faff, 
which they immediately weirr m purfuit of, and' 
found it in a large riiarle-pitj and as; if had a 
confidèrable motion upon the ice,' they thought 
r^;awe*y^-ftrange creature; and a curious' dia- 
logue, enfued, which ended in calling fome more 
afirltance, -who' fèized and carried it. to the 
farm-houfe ; , , arid p lit it into a large chamber, 
where it was viewed by the family wjth much 
furprijKe. • Aftar '/the wife and daughter had 
let c it, the two young men and two labourers 
forced the refql.ution of trying to reftore it to 
its priltine fhape, for as it'had loll a c.onfid'e- 
rable quantity of air at a fmall .aperture near 
thé. crown or top of it ; they faid it was like 
a half-blown bladder ■; and to açcomplifh their., 
defign, they applied a pair of bellows and 
foon: filled it. They had previoufly tied up 
the aperture,. but perceived that it ftill loft 
air near the place which they had before 
endeavoured;, to flop, and as they were pre- 
paring to» fecure it a iecond time, though a 
candle which. one of them had in his hand was 
net nearer the balloon than. two feet, théf/r^- 
/«f -inflammable air, with which it; was origi- 
nally, filled, intlantly took fire, with an §xplo- 
fipn muth louder than a .cannon, which ftruck 
the four perfons down on the floor. They foon 
.recovered from the fall, but weréfo ftunned,.as 
not ço be fenfible of fire till, they perceived 
th^ir heads v in ablate, their beards and eye- 
brows were burnt quite off, and their faces 
terribly fcorçhed. However, they are. under 
the care of a furgeon Ji and likely to doweil. 
Such was the force of the exp.loiion, that it 
burlt two double tranfom windows in pieces, and 
threw the lead and glafs thirty yards againft a 
yew hedge, made its way. into ah adjoining 
room by m.ifplacing a waiufcot partition, and 
forced out the windows; it likewife palled into 
an adjoining gallery, broke up a boari in the' 
floor, paffed to the.e'nd of the gallery to a door, 
which it forced open v . broke a . window,. 'and" 
carried it to a confidèrable diilance. . 

" The men probably efcaped with life, by the 

room giving way, by which the inflammable air 

had room to expand. The explofron above 

defcribed, was firatkr to: the effed s produced 

by the firing inflammable air in , the mines; 

which is a danger which I have-not, feen any 

mention of in refpeft of thefe modern machines; 

whichT think fhould be made publie to prevent- 

I iimilar accidents. ' ' 

1 « N. B. This balloon was let off by Mr. 

Gell, of H QP t on j near Matlock; irr Derby wife, 

1 abl^nT 25 iiulê? from the place. where it w/s 

, found." 



An Air-Balloon, of a very unufua» Magni- 
tnde, is getting ready, and is to be let off by 
his Majefty in Kenfington Gardens, in the 
CourfeofafewDays. ?7i<*. 1. '9- Wl 



Extrail of a letter from Deal, March 3 I . \J$f 
" Wind W. Came down £nd failed the 

John, Hayles, for Liverpool. 

«« Remain the Air Baliooru. Campbell, from 

Cork for Yarmouth ; Mary Jemima, Peters, 

from Plymouth, and Scout floop." 

An air balloon is making at Nanteè, . in 
France,' upon an entire new plan: it is n 
of the membrane of an animal, a new i 

r and a fecret, and ,s-tobe filled wnn gaz ne» 
ver yet ufed or made. Two experiments .nave 
been made with fmall ones, which have . an- 
fwered infinitely beyond expeftat.on. ^Fc ,r 
men, befldes the inventor, are to go up ; w ith. 
provilions for a fortnight's voyage. «*«- 
Lrkable that this perfon has found oat a mean, 
for preventing the leaft elcape of the air, or 
change of it. nj*^C H^ft . : 






An Air Balloon of four Feet m Diameter, 

I fil,ed with iaa.mm.ble ^ -s fentoff from 

Sandwich, in Kent, on ^^ffrt£ 

?Clock "n the Afternoon, at Warneton, a 

ridian. or nearlv S. t. bv a. -r* 

CrU for an aerial voyage : iu ^ > ',i mt 

or failure that has yet *"?P™^ £ „, 
four perfons ■ the UM not er rf 

°r S * h ^ f T^0^t7s ,0 beruaue, 
taftety. hv V) . ■ tK.rrident.s- allô means 

and ftores la.d m W*"^ ' The Duke 
pcp ared » -f h ^ „ e ot i«, ■* '" 



Extracl of a Letter from Neivcafle, April 10. 
\jj%\ A Letter has been received in Town, 

-hgnifying that the Air Balloon which was, 
launched on the Forth Boiling-Green on 
Thurfday Week, at Half pail One in the 
Afternoon, by Mr. C. Clarke, was taken up 

. at Three the lame Afternoon near Wakefield, 
in the County of York, by which it appears, 
that in an Hour and a Half it travelled 133 
Miles ; by far the greateft Voyage we have 

j heard any Aeroilatic Machine ever mad" " 



Extrait of a Letter from Ay ton (Berimckflnre), 
April 26. /?rf4. 

" Cn Thurfday the 15th inff. there was found 
a balloon upon the farm of Paul Darling, Efq. 
■about two miles from this place. 'It was per- 
ceived by two country-boys floating in the air, 
who, upon its coming to the ground, ventured 
to approach it; and, foolifhly conceiving it be a 
whale's bladder, they got it upon their cart, to 
bring it home. A woman whom they met, per- 
ceiving it to be made of lilk, and luppofing it 
might be cleaned by boiling, perfuaded them* to 
give it to her, and enjoined them fecrecy; but, 
within thefii two or three days, the matter has 
been difcovered. Had it fallen into the hands of 
any fenfible perfon, they might perhaps have 
made a difcoVery from whence it came, and the 
time it had taken to perform its Voyage." 



Bv f«RMisS!9» of the Lord C h a m r e r i. mk. 
For the BENEFIT of Mr. DELHI NI. 

T the Theatre-Royal, in the Hay-market, 
X. TO-MORROW, April 30, 1784, 

Will be ai'ç&rited a Comedy, in TJuee A.'t«, called 

The S P A N I o H F R Y A R. 

Dorninkk, Mr. J. L O Y D, 

Lorenzo, Mr. Hamlen ; (Jomsz, Mr. SwtiniiS, 

AlDhonlb, Mr. Knights ; Pedro, Mr. Hunter ; 

And Elvira by a Y O U N G LADY, 

(2ein £ : lier riiil Appearance oh a y Sfoje.) 

£nvf of A«St I. a Nc.v Pantoniiir.icd, OjL-raticàl, Farciç-r, 

The PEASANT "mETÂmOR-PHOSED-î 

Gr, li'xr.irZLVinïs VOYAGE from DUBLIN in an 

air ËACLmm: 

In which Mr. Dclpini wTfTTnTroduce a" Specimen of Sinking 
in Fiench; Italian., and En^iifli, wliicli will cjncluJe with 
a New Kornpipe, by celebrated, Mr. JShke, by permi!'- 
fjon of the Mana^eri of the Opeftr Hcul'e, (being his ill 
appeamnce on that £t%e.) 

End of Act IL aC mic P.iatomims DiHCf, called 

The COUNTR Y S.Q U A g 8 L E. 

By Mr. Delpini, Mrs. Dagville, Mifs Parifh a;id Monf. Du» 

quefney jun. 
End of Afts II. and III. Singing by a YOUNG GENTLE- 
WOMAN, who never appeared on any Stage. 
After tîie Play, a new Paritomirnica] Inte.iuds, called 
The R Ï V A L C L O W N S. 

By Metirs. D-sipir.i, Blake, &c, To condiule wiih an 
Alle^..n>ie, in a isew Comic Stile. Ths 13 and fro.n the 
Opera Koufe. 
Tickets to be haii at Mcms. Longman and Broderip's 

M«fte Shop, No. -2:6, Cheapiide, No. 13, Hay-market ; and 

of Mr. Rice, at the Theatre, where Place; for the Boxes, may 

fee taken. 



On Saturday lalf at three o'clok was launched 
,at Grofvenor-fquare, an Aeroflaticfc Globe of a 
beautiful appearance, which, from the clear- 
nefs of the atmofphere, afforded a general fa- 
tisfadion to vaft numbers of genteel fpedators, 
who attended on the occafion. It took its 
courfe fouthward, with a brife wind, and" was 
obferved by'the naked eye for ten' minutes. It' 

was done at îhs foie expence of — Willis, 

Efq- for theamufeme-nt of his family and friend?' 
UEcier the infpection of Keeg.an of the StnmaV 



R A -N L. L A G H. 

THE difappointed Nobility, Gentry, and 
Public; atRanelagh, on Saturday^ are hereby "nform- 
ed, as well M t-o do juftice to the Managers, to whom they 
acknowledge the favor of the ufe of the Gardens and Rotunda, 
that the Proprietor of the Pyramidical Air Balloon is exceeé- 
Lvgfy hurt; that the ExlJbition mould fail, owing, as he lup- 
Pcs, to the violence of the wind beating the Balloon againft 
the Rotuhda. where a fharp ledge of lead ran acrofs, but is 
fomewhat relieved on refleûing that ike whole of the money 
was returned. / '^^f 'Ï&* 



ElcTfiBiTlON, for iiliing and railing * GRAND AIR 
BALLOON, being 60 feet high.and H S in drcumlerence, 
This and every Evening, (if the Weather permits) at Six 
o'clock precifely, at No. 13, near Bu ckincham-Gatx, 
P1MLIC0.. I',""V TO , 

THIS Machine, -condraûed upon a Plan en- 
tirely new, fn which above 800 yards of.ftrong cloth 
have been employed, and weighs. 1600 pounds, is the largeft 
a ,d molt curious in its kind . that hath hitherto , „cen 
execuied in ths kingdom. It repreients a CHINESE 
TEMPLE, fuperbly oecorated with Columns, a Ga.lery, See. 
and appears in the operation o{ filling it, as rifmg inftanta- 
neoufly out of its tains, and floating,' in the body of a ti.uk 

C "Admittance in the Apartments, is. 6d. each perfon; and 
18. 6d. in the Garden- pl**f & <+ ' * 7^ Q H 

"Take care of your pockets. — The people of this 
country are now, iince the fine weather com- 
menced, fo completely air-balloon mad, that 
nothing h to' be fee n or heard in the ilreets, 
sbout dufk, but Sde the air balloon ! And in- 
eleed the exhibition is abundantly common, as 
five or fix may often be feen dancing above our 
Leads at ore inilanr, like fo many Will 0' the 
-C!.y',-/J tranfportVd from a terreltial to an aerial 
jftation. The well known Slight of Hand Clue, 
who live by an attention to th* flgns of the 
times, take every poffible advantage of this tem- 
porary delirium ; and while the eyes cf the 
jnultitude are fosrlpg among the clouds, fheir 
iingers are diving with great dexterity 10 the 
bottom of every pocket within their reach. In 
cider to improve this new mode of fwindling, 
balloons' are purchafed on purpofe,- in order to 
decoy the mob, and produce fuch a glorious 
confufion and uproar, as may give an oportuni- 
ty for an expeditious and fecure exertion of fuch 
talents as are competent to the fcene. ^/*^« 



On Thurfday afternoon Iaft, at 20 minutes pad four 
o'clock, an aëroftatick globe, filled with inflammabl •■ 
air, of the diameter of three feet fix inches, was let go 
from the garden of Sir Afhton Lever, in Leicefter- 
fquare ; and on the fame afternoon the faid globe was 
feen by two boys in a field in the parifh of Brentwood, 
in Effex, and defcended to the earth exactly at a quar- 
ter before five o'clock ; fo that upon a moderate com- 
putation it travelled the diftance of 23 miles direct in 
25 minutes. 

The b*/s followed the globe for near half a mile, it 
being within fix feet of the ground for that diftance, 
before it quire defcended. 9f%a^-. J,. /7#4 



Extracl of a Letter from Milan, March 23V < 
" An Aeroftaiic Balloon has been launched < 
in this City, 66 Feet broad, and 72 Feet 1 
high, prepared by M. Paul Andreani, a young ' 
Gentleman of 2a Years of Age, who, with 
two of bis Friends, was elevated in this Globe, j 
It is computed that they mounted to the Height j 
of 4000 Feet. Having traverfed the Air for ; 
Half an Hour, they defcended on the fame 
Spot from whence they ftarted. This is the ! 
iirft Experiment of the Kind made in Italy." j 



FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE. 
Milan, March 23. /&?4 

THE Difeovery of Aerial Navigation, 
lately fo eagerly fought after by all the 
European Nations, begins now to meet with 
fome Obftacles ; feveral Publications have al- 
ready appeared, in which it is attempted to 
be proved, that it is both for the Advantage 
of the Sovereign and the People that the Ufe 
of them fhould be profcribed. In Auftrian 
Lombardy, a Decree has been iflued again ft 
thefe aeroftatic Machines, in the following 
Terms : 

*« Government having jeceîved Informa, 
t.ion, that feveral aerolratic Balloons, filled 
with Air ratified by Fire, have fallen near our 
Powder-mills and Magazines, where being 
confumed by the Flames which have iffued 
from them, there was great Probability of 
their doing considerable Mifchief ; to obviate, 
therefore, in future, the Accidents which 
might otherwife be occafioned by thole Ma- 
chines, which only ferve for Atnufement, and 
which being carried through the Air without 
any Direction, mult inevitably be productive 
of the moll fatal Effects, fhould they happen 
to fall on any Buildings, Magazines of tiay, 
or any other Place wherein combuitible Mat- 
ters are contained, his Royal Highnefs bas 
thought proper to forbid, under arbitrary Pe- 
nalties, the launching of any Air Balloon, 
either in this City, or in the whole Extent of 



; r»W ever, referves to himfelf the Privilege ot 
j granting, tfom Tune to Time, Permiffions for 
j this Purpofe to intelligent Perfons, whoftiaj* 
! however, be obliged to ufe every Precaution 
I which the public Safety requires. The Ma- 

giftrates of this City, that of Mantua, &c. 

are required to give Information of any who 

may have the Audacity to act in Oppofuioa 

to this Decree." 

Milan, March I?, 1 784. 



• J <?? ° f f Let , tet from Madrid, June\c 

r A f ™ days fince a henchman wïrt u£ * 
confidence diftance in an air balW but his 
weight being infufficient to keep it in a pe™ en f 
dicular pofitton, it turned topfy turvy! She 
hre being mtfplaced, caught hold oK part of 
the machine, wh.ch immediatelv defcended • 
and when it came xvithin feven or eight yards 
0( a frX 00 !* 9 the r,enchr "an was foKJen! 
ed that he threw himfelf from the eallerv w 
by the feH broke his leg ; he wa ofherwife fo 
much bruifed that it is fuppofed he cannot 
recover. In conference ofïhis acc^enuhe 
King ha* declared his intention to put an «! 
tireftop to thefeexperimentsjn future." 



« w? £l L f tsr from Choczimy Jun/it 
■ His H.ghnefs the Prince of Naffau Siegen, 
in his way through this city to Conftantinople 

7 S ,r£ C ^ ed b L th . eP f ha with great marks 
of diftinaion. Having been invited to dinner 
by the Governor, his Highnefs prefented them, 
after dinner, with a fpectacle hitherto unknown 
in thefe Countries, by fending up a balloon of 
thirty-two feet diameter, cônftructed according 
to Monjtgolfier's method. This aerial globe! 
whicrfwaTTKadeup in hafte by the Comte de la 
Forte, one of the navigators in the famous bal- 
loon of Lyons, and who is one of the Prince's 
companions on his tour, was very fuccefsful. 
It .role to the height of 700 Toifes, and afto- 
mfhed the Pacha to a great degree of tranfport, 
as well as all the Turks prefent, notwithftand- 
ing their general infenfibility to novelties. Be- 
fides the grandeur of the afcending globe, there 
happened a circumftance which added to the fa- 
tisfa&ion. The balloon took fire, and gave an 
appearance of a globe burning in the air. It 
defcended by chance, and was entirely con- 
fumed near the Pacha's windows, who took 
this for a mark of the Prince's politenefs to 
him, and returned him thanks in the moft grate- 
ful and affectionate manner. The good Mufful- 
man could not contain his enthufiaftic joy, lit- 
tle dreaming that the burning balloon might 
have fet fire to the city. The company on this 
occafion was numerous and brilliant. Among 
thePolifh ladies whom curiofity brought thi- 
ther, Mademoifelle de Witte, who is celebrat- 
ed at Paris and Verfailles for her wit a«d beau- I 
ty, was prefent." I7 , n , \ 



sa On the 17th inftant, at Philadelphia, the 
^ large air balloon, lately brought there ly Mr. 
*^\ Carnes , was let off from the New Workhoufe- 

tyatd: " About fix o'clock it rofe from the 
ground, and afcended very majeftically, amidft 
the approving acclamations of thoufands of ad- 
miring fpectators (the wind carrying it fiowly 
to the Southward), until it got to fo great a 
height as to appear to fome no larger than a 
barrel, to others much fmaller, and feemed 
then (la'tionary, though rather inclining upward, 
I when unfortunately it caught Sre, and in a few 
moments was reduced to atoms. At the mo- 
ment of its catching fire, the feelings of a num- 
ber of people at a diftance were much hurt, on 
the fuppoiition of a perfon having gone up in 
the balloon ; and their apprehenfions were in- 
creafed by the falling of the furnace, which, to 
thofe not near, prefented to their imaginations 
the horrid fpectacle of a man falling from an 
immenfe height. Happily, however, the ap- 
paratus which held the perfon broke near the 
ground, and he only fuftained a fall of about 
ten feet. 

Notwithftanding this accident the fpirited 

1 Citizens of Philadelphia mean to evince their 

ardour in purfuit of philofophical knowledge, by 

erecting one much larger, and on a much better 

I plan. 



Extract of a letter from Philadelphia, dated July 21. 
" On Saturday evening làft I was highly entertained 
by an exhibition of an aëroftatick balloon within the 
limits of this city. Peter Carnes, Efq. a Gentleman of 
the Law, from the State of Maryland, began at five 
o'clock to inflate an el.lipfis marie' of filk, uhofe per- 
pendicular diameter was 36 feet, and its horizontal 
diameter nearly 34 feet ; at the bottom, or rather the 
point, of this el ïi r fis were 1 fattened a furnace, a brafier, 
and a tube, which weighed 150I. To this brafier was 
fufpended by chains a triangle, on which a perfon was 
placed, who weighed 134th. who was to afcend with 
this curious machine into the upper regions of air. 
At feven o'clock, a quantity of fire and hickory wood 
being put in the tube, this grand machine afcended 
with the bold pafltnger to the height of about twenty 
.feet, when the balloon being urged bv a guft of wind 
' in paffingthe walls of the yard in which it was inflated, 
the point of the triangle fattened under the eaves of 
the walls, the force of the afcending machine broke the 
chain, and the fearing voyager fell without much in- 
jury ; the balloon then ruflied into the air with afto- 
nifhing velocity ; in a few minutes it was from two to 
three miles high, where it entered a contrary ftream of 
air, and either from fome vibrations in the upper eddies, 
or from the fhock at the wall, fome papers fay, fell 
between the brafier, which communicated the fire to 
the filk, to the great mortification of the fpectators : 
The iron in a few minutes was feparated from the filk, 
and defcended from two to five minutes before it reach 
ed the earth — the (hell of the balloon ftill remaining 
in floating flames, and did not teach the ground tiil 
entirely con fumed. 

" This enterprifing philofopher deferves the fmiles 
of his countrymen, and more efpecially as this machine 
was made at his own private expence — nor is the burn- 
ing of a balloon any more an argument againft the 
ufing them, than the burning of houfes is againft their 
ufe. This balloon afcended with 4501b. weight, and 
in all probability would have mounted with much 
more. Whatgarrifon can remain unconfirmed ? What 
region unexplored ? &c. &c. To what amazing per- 
fection thefe globes may be brought futurity alone can 
unfold." 



Extract of a letter pern Philadelphie*, July zj{^ 
" Laft Saturday evening, about fix p'clock, 
the greater part of this city was drawn out into 
the Common, to fee the ingenious Mr. Carne's 
machine afcend ; my curiofity alfo, joinêcTTôa ' 
with to encourage fo bold (and without doubt 
10 ufeful) an enterprize, led me into the yard, 
where it was inflated, merely by the rarefaction 
the air underwent, by a fire made in the furnace 
below with hichory wood, which afcended the 
tube, and filled the cavity of the balloon. 

" This balloon, which was nearly 35 feet dia- 
meter, macie with fijk, and lined with paper, to- 
gether with an iron furnace, &c. at bottom, 
weighed 300 wt. this, with a man who weighed 
130 wt. afcended to the height of about 20 feet, 
when a flaw of wind wafted the man, who was 
fufpended at the bottom, againft a wall, and the 
triangle on which he fat faftened under the eves 
of the wall, the violent afcent of the machine 
broke the chains, and threw down the paifenger, 
and having loft fo much of its weight or ballad, - 
the celerity of its af;ent was fuch, that in four 
or five minutes it gained a height of between one 
and a half to three miles ; after a fhort time it, 
took ûre in the air, and the furnace, iron work, 
&c. fell to the ground, without doing any da- ' 
mage. 

" It afforded great diverfion to feveral thou- 
fand fpectators. Mr. Carnes's machine, as the 
property of an individual, has been expenfive, 
the enterprize noble, great, and laudable," 



AI R 



A L L O O N. /^ 



a^si^Z- -- ■ 

A N Aereo- electrical Apparatus has been 
x\ contrived, and ig now fold, at a very low Price 
by Mr. Hurler, No. 53, Great Marlborough Street. 
It contains a final! Air Balloon, and the Apparatus 
neceffary to produce the Inflammable Air and to fill 
the Balloon therewith : And hkewife an.l-Ueclropho- 
rus, ufeful for feveral other -Experiments v. ith Inflam- 
■mable Ais, and alfo in Electricity ; the faid Appara- 
tus containing fome other Inftrumciits beiides thofc 
already mentioned; 

N.B. This Balloon may be filled in a few Minute» 
Time ; and, if taken jrepev Care «f, will ferve a 
great many Times over, 

Perfons purchafing the above mentioned Apparatus 
will be fiirnifhed with printed Directions, and if re- 
quired the piactical Ufe of it will be actually fliewa 
ttfthem. 



/;^4 A.Ï R B A L L O O N S. 

AN Apparatus is connived, and now 
made by Mr. HÛRTER, No. 53, Great 
Marlhorough-Street, containing a fmall Air Bal- 
loon, and the Apparatus neceflary to produce the 
Inflammable A r, and to fill the Balloon therewith : 
Aud hkewife an Ele&rephorus, neceflary not only 
to make other Experiments with Inflammable Air, 
but alfo in Electricity. 

N. B. Perfons purchafing the above Apparatus, 
will be inftru&ed in the Manner of ufing it. Printed 
Directions are alfo given with every Apparatus. 



Extracl of a Letter from Abingdon, Berks, 
dated July ai. i/$/+ 

" On Monday laft the Count Van Dolken. 
made fome grand aerial experiments near this 
town : he afcended in a machine annexed to a 
balloon of his own conftruction, being thirty 
fêéTaîameter ; he was plainly perceived by the 
naked eye for near twenty minutes, and then 
totally difappeared. It was exactly half pail 
twelve at noon when the Count afcended ; at 
half pad three in the afternoon, by means of 
letting out fome of the inflammatory air with 
which the balloon was filled, he defcended at 
a place called Old Down, in Somerfetfhire, 
being upwards of fixty miles diftance from this 
place. 

" The concourfe of people affembled on 
thisj^afionjvasamazinx^and Abingdon might 
very juftly be compared to Stratford at the 
time of the Jubilee." 



" '1\> the W.jLilitv, Centry-, and Public in General. 

ALarpe and Curious Balloon, is now ron- 
ftruding at the Lyce*m, near Exeter 'Change, m the 
SfrandV on a Plan entirely nave!,, and which has ordinate! 
iiithis Metropolis, from the ingenuity ot a Gentlemen, w,>.. 
is'tp alVcndvvith 'it. The cohftruclion is now begun at «| 
aliove nl.ee, aad when the globe (the materials of wh !C h are 
oil d filk, of two cobirrs) is competed, it will Le filled wi$ 
inèmmiâblè air, and launched fnm, Chelfea Hofpual GahJen, 
h ,viri» get* permiiiion, for that purpofe. The objecl of the 
G'-n i^m .n'< aerial tour, is to make, fome intereftmg experi- 
ments, by which it is prelumed this nation will difcover us 

ueiil utility. .„ . 

N B-. The Gallery and Wings are almoft fin>thed._ 

-Subicnptions are received a.t the Office adjoining Ue 
Lvceum, where Tickets may be had. . 

•Ottè Guinea Ticket will ad nit a perfon tour difterent.tm-ies 
tof.ethe conftruftfon, Ynd \Uevnk into the garden, mucled 
to h 1 ve a chair hfear the gUbe to fee it launched oft. 

A Half Guinea Ticket will admit a pe.fon to iee the con- 
ftrtirfwn wue, anPikeivifemroftegarden, entitled t« have 
a pl -,per beach to lit do.vn on, next to the above ^*»fcr.be«.t 

Tivc Shilling Ticket wi'l admit a perfon once to lee the 
rt^tiruâtonV a^ndlikewifeinco the garden, entitled to have a 
ptopsr bench to fit down on. /A^y //^ . . - 



Yellerday the Sieur S^tuwer repeated at 
the Prater, in prefence ÔT a numerous af- 
fembly, the experiment of his grand aeroftat, 
weighing 4600 Vienna pounds., including the 
four perfons who were in it. This aerollat rofe 
to a confiderable height, and after pafïïng over 
part of the Prater, fell on the oppo/ite fhore of 
an arm of the Danube, where the Tabor be- 
gins, without re-ceiving the Ieaft damage. The 
experiment was followed, by an exhibition of 
fireworks by M. Stuwer's fon, the defign and 
execution of which were greatjy applauded. 

«ta»)* — — . *35$* 



«^The reafon of Monfieur Vivgjiaii-'s having j 
/^gone fo much higher in the âir tfTan* MefTrs. 
^Chides, Montgolfier, and other aerial naviga- • 

tors, was owing (as we find by his pamphlet, ' 

and the plate annexed) to his taking up with ; 

him a quantity of Dr. Prieftley's improved Vital ; 

Air, which he made ufe of when the atm.of- 






to 

. on 

As 



xtrnit sf a prinjcue hitir < x fated PaHs, Sept. 23. 
** I don't know what you may think of our 

:tempts to cut our way through the air; you 

ill fay, perhaps, that a Frenchman can go 
irough any thing; but be as fatirical as you 

leafe; certain it is, that all our good Parifians 
re petrified with wonder, and Hften in the cor- 
er of every fbreet, '* with open mouth to the 
.lan of news," I mean fuch as concern the air- 
lutftfipping globe. There are, however, fome 
mpious wretches who dare to feoff at and deride 
he wonderful Meffr;. de Montgolfier, and die 
;reat and more furprifing confequences that 
[re expeded to darive from their curious inven- 
ion. Among the fatirical pieces publifhed on 
hat fubjeci, the following letter, inferted in 
me of our newspapers, is not the mod cc.n- 
:emptible ; it feems to be built on the Hora.iah 
maxim, Ridiculum aeri t &c. 

To the Gentlemen of the Aerial Navy. * 

Gentlemen, 
**';I am as delirous as any of you to tr 
Che air, and I think it my duty to ft» 
your wifdom the thought which ft ruck 
the flying-' up of thefirft areoftatic glob 
an amateur 1 wifn graceful nefs fhould ur .e to 
the eafe and fafety of the traveller* This con- 
fideration perfuades me, that the moft eligible 
form would be that of a Pegafus, of a fize far 
exceeding nature. Its body will ferve as a re- 
cipient for the inflammable air ; the head, with 
mane flowing forwards, would then ferve as a 
ftern ; by means of wings the degree of eleva- 
tion might be determined as well as its velo- 
city, whilft the tail would be employed as a kind 
of rudder, and the four feet placed in the atti- 
tude of a.galloping horfe, _ and poifed by a 
weight fixed at the extremities of the hoof, 
and proportioned to the reft of the machine, 
might be considered as a kind of ballad which 
would keep the rider in a lleadypofiure. The 
whole fhould be covered over with a light coat 
of whalebone, wrapped up within a light^ lute- 
ftring, prepared with ekitic gum. This being 
conftru&ed, it will be an eafy matter to fix a 
faring, which would ferve by the direction of 
the rider, fuch as the prefiure of the knees 
againft the horfe to let out fuch portion of the 
inflammable air as would temperate the fwift- 
nefs of the^orfe, in cafe he fhould make a bold 
and adventurous attempt to fcale the Armament. 
I am, &c." 



On Fire Balloons. — /«Petits de la Croix'j Re- 
ception of the French Amhafjador by the King 
of Siam. 

The fire-works that were played at night 
were .perfectly fine. There were rockets as 
big as one of our hogftieads, and of a pro- 
portionable length. They mounted about the 
middle region of the air, and caft lb great a 
blaze, that they lighted the country fix leagues 
round, as if the fun had been mining at noon- 
day. The inventor of this fire- work fitting 
hnhfelf down on the end of one of',thefe rock- 
ets, ordered it to be fired, and was whifked 
up into the air higher than any four fteeples 
in the world could reach were they ferons 
upon another. The rocket having fpent its. 
ftrength, and being ready to fall down, all 
luminous with the infinite number of ttars that 
broke from it every moment, the engineer 
opened a fort of umbrella he had carried with 
him, which, when it was extended, was little 
lefs than thirty feet in diameter. This um- 
.brella was~mâde of feathers, and fo very light, 
that the air fupported it without any trouble y 
no otherwife than we fee in France thofs ma- 
chines of papers that are called kites, which 
being fattened to a long firing of packthread, 
the children make them fly in the air. Ij-fo- 
much that the engineer fup ported by this. great 
umbrella, came to the ground, furrounded 
with fta'rs, as gently as irhe had had wings, 
••V r ouId have flown with tnem. 



GRAND ENGLISH BALLOON. 

To the Nobility, Gentry, and Bublic- in ge eral, 

A LARGE and curious Balloon is now con 
ftrudli/tg at the Lyceum near E*eter - Change, 
Strand, on apian entirely novel, and which has originated in 
this Metrop dis, from th; ingenuity of a Gentleman, who is 
to sfcend with it. 

The conllruÔion is partly finiflitd at the abovt place, and 
when the Globe (the materials of which are oiled Siik of dif- 
ferent colours) is completed, it will be filled with Inflammable 
Air, antf'launched from Chelfea Hofpital Gardens, having 
obtained permiflion for that purpofe. 

The objecl of ihe_ Gentleman's aerial Tour is to make 
fome tn'terefting expe:! merits, -by which it is prcfumed this 
nation will difcover its real utility. 

The Gallery, Oars, and Wings are now compleated. 

Subscriptions are received at the Office adjoining to the Ly- 

reur», where Tickets may be had. 

One Guinea Ticket w'dl admit a perfon four different 
times, to fee the conflruclJon, and likewife into the Garden, 
inthltd t. have a Chair wear die Globe to fee it launched off. 
. A Half Guinea Ticket will admit a perfun to fee the con- 
ftrucTmn twice, and likewife into the garden, intitlcd to have 
s proper bench to fit down en, next to the above Subfcribers 

Five Shillings Tickets will admit a (jëjfên once to fee the 
conllructioii, and likewife into the garden to have a proper 
bench to li; down or.. 

The above Room is now open from ten o'clock till eight 
o'clock, for the jiimiffion of Subfcribers, where the Con- 
ftriiftUm, Galle .y, Oat*, and Wings, together with other 
Baltoef'9 may be feen. 

Admittance for Non-i'ubferibers Two Shilling Sfl4c$îx. 
pence each. /**Of If — L/*PJk 

A grand air balloon has jult been completed 
at the chateau of the Due as Orleans ; it is 1 60 
feet in diameter, and conftructed with wings 
and fails, by which the direction of it is to be 
regulated. Strange as the undertaking may ap- 
pear, a party of gentlemen have it in contem- 
plation to crofs the fea in it, near Brighthelm- 
ftone I . -?*U ±*b - />^ 

An air-balloon, which was fent up from the bowl- 
ing-green in this city on Friday laft, was found the 
oe^'t morning at Diclley. As its defcent was not ob- 
ferved in what number of minutes it went about feven 
i miles, is not known. //W~" 5 ; ?&i zL ?**• 



AIR BALLOONS, ■ c#f^ew 



eW Gonftroclion, 
Three Shillings and Two and Sixpence each. 

'THESE Dai'oons haver 'been' very much ;-ui- 

mired fol their Simplicity: andeafy 'Manner of filling 
with, rarefied Air only, without anv ill Smell. — Thefe 
Sailùyr.s arc made on fuch a Conftruction as to be equally 
viiiblc cither by Bay or Night, but more particularly at 
Night, when they exhibit a nioll beautiful Appearance 
in the AtmpfpHcre. They have been known to travel 
Eight Miles horn, the Place where they were let off intho 
Space of Ten Minutes. They alio may be ufed in any 
Room in a Houfe, without Danger, or any ill Smell. The 
Size.ofa Balloon, of the fundi Value of Three Shillings, is 
Nine Fett in Circumference. They will ai Ford the Spec- 
tators as much real PJcafure and Diverfiou as one of an 
liuiiclrrc r'eet in Gircumtcrenc •■. I t.rv are made very 
hght and portable, and may be carried in a Sheet of 
Paper. They alio may be ipade 10. any Size larger. 
Made and Sold by. 
ARNOLD F I N C H È T T, 
At his T:n- Ware Manufactory, (No." 188) between Chan- 
cery-Lane and St. Dunltan's Churciv, • Fleet-Street. 

Proper Direètions are given with each Balloon, how to 
fill and ufe them. Good Allowance to Country Traders, 
or for Exportation. 

N. B. Beware of Counterfeits, as there are a Sort felling 
ab-miTown, which do notanfwer the Pafjjfofc, 

'*V* ;i Np butters will be anfwered ; butt o.e Pofl-paid.. 



ExtraS/ of a I'HerfronLl'xrih, Sep:. 3, //^J?A 
y On Mo»day_ ewjiing was exhibited here, 
at nine o'clock, a* fine ibafloon fancifully 'pain- 
ted, of 22 feet in -circumference ; it ro'fe to a 
confiderable height, and continued in fig.jjt for 
twenty minir.es; ic \v:\s then eclipfed behind 
the douds,_ having taken its courfe over, the 
parks -of Duplin: was afterwards feen parting 
over the viljage of Methveh, five mil s from 
this; the wind, takings contrary courfe, drove 
it back ro Black Ru'thVcm, where it alighted,, to 
the no fin'all amazement of. the inhaljiia^n-t^ " 



On'Tuefday evening a very feriouS accident 
took place at the Rev/Henry Bate's, in Effex : 
That gentleman had procured, an air baUoon 
for the entertainment of the country people, 
and gave orders that a cannon fhould be fired 
for the purpofe of giving notice. In preparing 
the charge for the cannon, a fparkfrom a match 
fell upon two pounds weight of gunpowder, 
which blew up, and burned the face of the 
coachman and a boy in a moft miferable manner. 



for 1784, 



Sept. g— 1 ï« 



Yefterday a complaint was laid before the 
Lord Mayor, relative to the danger that may 
enfue from the Air-balloons which are every 
night fent up in different parts of this City, and 
his Lordfhip promifed that he would lay the 
matter before the Court of Common Council 
next Tuefday, for that Court to confider of the 

I proper ffeps to be taken in order to put a total 

I flop to them. 



2?T 



Extrafi of a Letter from Deal, Sept 6. 

" Put back the Generous Friends, Hall, for 
Bofton, and remain with the Scout Hoop, the 
Diligence, Piper; Prifcilla, Wilfon, for Dub- 
lin ; and Ann, Barnard, for Oporto. Wind at 
South." 

On Friday laft three air balloons were fent up 
in different parts of this metropolis, when one 
of them fell in a barn near Camberwell-grove, 
full of corn, and with the greater! difficulty the 
barn as well as corn was preferved from being 
deftroyed. 

Laft night at nine o'clock, the extenfive pre- 
mifes of Meffrs. Browning and Eykyn, Smith- 
field-bars, were near being burnt down by an 
air balloon, which took fire and fell in their 
yard, but being immediately difcovered, was 
put out without any material injury. 



It is pity that an ingenious invention mould he turn- 
ed to the detriment of 'the publick, as is at prelent the 
cafe with thofe fmall balloons, purchaled for three or 
four (hillings, Which ate every night feen floating in 
the air, with lights burning in them. Three fires have 
alreadv happened in confequence of thefe dangerous 
machines. Even porter-houles now collect company 
by giving notice of their intention to launch a balloon 
at a certain hour, by which feveral of them are faid to 
have made it well" anfwer their purpofe, fo balloon - 
mad are the people in this metropolis ? 

Laft Tuefday night, between eight and nine o'clock, 
a gentleman, walking from Whitechapel church to the 
'Change, counted no ltfs than feven balloons, with 
lights in them, floating in the air, one of which fell in 
Whitechapel. J^Â M> CM 



T , D U A ! R BALLOON, 
ine Public are requefted to take notice, that a clear 
and entertaining defcription of that wonderful 
invention, is given at large in <*-? - '/«tf/i 
TJRESLAW's LAST LE G 1 C Y 5 
JLJ or. The Magical Companion : (publifhed this 
day, price only is. 6d.) Containing all that is cu- 
rious, pleafing entertaining, and comical, felefted 
from the moft celebrated mafters of deception; a* 
well with 1 hght of hand as with mathematical inven- 
tions ; including all the various exhibitions of thofc 
wonderful art.fts, Breflaw, Sieur Comus, Jonas, &c. 
The interpretation of dreams, lignification of moles, 
&c. with afeletfion of ail the favourite new fongs 
ning this feafon t Vauxhall, &c. riddles, and boni 
mots : the whole forming a book of real knowledge 
in the art of conjuration. In which is difplayed the 
way to make the Air Balloon and Inflammable Air. 

d ?'I? tC Jf 7' M ?,° re > N °- 33. Paternofter-row ; 
and may be had of all other Bookfelkrs in town and 
country. 

tâ> In this ingenious performance is more parti- 
cularly defenbed than in any other publication of a 
fimilar nature, how to make the Air Balloon, fo 
that the curious may amufe themfclves and friends 
by difplaying them either in public or private. 




UJrr.>/a/r.i Jrr.>/ ' ^rs/ruy 



A gentleman in the box lobby on Saturday 
night, after the performance^ the new f^rce, 
called Aeroftation, exV'refTed his'aftonifhment that 
the minilter fneuid fuffer the prologue (which 
contains feveral -levere Itrokes on the late taxes) 
to bs fpôken ! " For, continues he, that dif- 
tinguifh^-d politician has already deprived ui of 
of the fenle of /hing, and by a parity of con- 
duct I thiuk he may take from ks another fenfe, ' 
bearing, and, perhaps, will at length leave the 
people of England nothing but feeling, to re- 
number him." <fcH*f,A ffAff 



Yefterday morning, about one o'clock, afire 
broke out at a Chandler's fliop in a Court near 
Wapping Church, which confumed the faid 
houfe, with the furniture and ftock in trade. 
Themiftrefs of the houfe and three children 
are mifiin;^, and it is feared they perifhed in the 
flames; three other houfes were likewife con- 
fumed, and four greatly damaged. It was faid 
to have been occafioned by the careleflhefs of a 
fellow, who has for fome time fabricated the 
cheap balloons advertifedfor fale. /«r*.«/$V4 

""Thurfday Mr. Blanchard's balloon, with all 
the apparatus for filling it, was fent to Dover 
Caftle, whither he goes himfelf in a day or two, 
to wait a favourable wind to waft him to his na- 
tive fhore. '2*~- '*- 'J** 



■ Donne the air balloon ra^e, winch continued 
to operate itf various <p«ifl extravagancies 
ip/Pan, for (ometime, its motUhv-erting en-etts 
were after exhibited among feleft parties of 
pie Tare. .An ingenious gentleman contrived to 
Lveaflock of large fwans bafkmg on the bank 
of a rivulet which ran through his gardens, who 
on the app.oach of a company invited to M 
in them tpr the evening, mitant y afcended and 
an elegant pleafure barge followed them at « 
diftance. But the moft remarkable inftance wes 
the fituation of an Engliihman, who having 
been out a hunting, and coming into a friend « 
houfe exceedingly hungry, ^j£Wf%&Z 
pUte full of boiled eggs, which he bad h m elf 
Srdtred ; but the moment- the napkin was lified 
« the/bounced againft the ccihag of theroom 
Xd lit him to gaBauidgaptV #» *«^^ J 



General V has agreed to pay ^r« Hun- 
dred pounds to the proprietor of the balloon, 
with whom he has engaged to make an alcent, 
for the expence of filling it, &c which agree- 
ment i. toxoid good whether the general con- 
n^esVclined to make by aer„l escurfion or 

"advantage whatever. : ^..#f, '/^^ 



The Parifiajis are now changing the form of 
their aerojlatic maibines from perpendicular to ho- 
rizontal fhapes. They find that the immenfe 
globe obstructs their navigation in the atmof- 
phere, and a Chevalier de ta Moite h?i contrived 
one which prefents a much fmaller furface to the 
wind, and which promifes therefore to be moie 
under controul. //^-y « 

The Duke of Bedford has declared, that he 
„ will be at the expence of a balloon, for any phi- 
losopher that will rife in it; and if he goes as 
high as Monfieur Charles, will reward him. 
handfomely befides. ^/^^ 




piece indicated a revolution of 7 fifty ye 
conforhm'y Wîlh' motrerrr-adorn mène, was d - 

rated à la Balloon. The preacher reading that. , 
part of the' Liturgy/ which express: "' from all 
fulf dec/f/'ic,""' ; ? :c; th-e-g-fH-fl-lhed- piece of and 
quity, Reclining hef head, ù'.tered, f \ CosJ icr.î j 
d-Ai'ver us-V v/ken.tn'i fudden, off went the J 
; B.-lloon, together with 'tlie'/^/V_y gallery, and is ' 
contents; the congregation . was ^omewhsft dif 
concerted, uniil the Balio-jn, with its h "/pen 
dages, became reihftated 6n the infertile Iccdiij I 






Thompfon, the poet, once- faid, that he/ 
[ did not defpair to live to fee the time, When ; a ' 
\ man would call for his tvhigs, 2s he calls for 
' his boots or horfe. But he lived not to borne 
: fo near this phceno^nenon as we have dpne. 
: The general converfation tarns fo much on 

■ the ambition of ballooning it, that, but for the 

■ expence, there hardly would be an earthly- 
; minded man in London. But we- may, with 
I fome little alteration, apply the advice of the 
< created of men, (i Let him that fljttb. take 
• heed left he fall." 17&A 



M. Thyfbeart, a Proftfibr in the TJniverfity of 
Louvain, has difcovered a method of producing 
inflam mable air fV ogn pât-çpal ; a circumllaace 
whiclTirnay be of great advantage to this coun- 
try. He found from various experiments, that J 
fifteen ounces of powdered pit. coal yielded, in , 
about three quarters of an hour, no fewer than 
one hundred quarts cf air, of fo pure a quality, 
that on trial it was proved to raife a balloon ais 
raoidiy, and as high, as if it had been filled with 
the uihal inflammable air. The operation is 
foon to be repeated on a larger fcale, and iron re- 
tons of a great dimenfion are now making at 
Louvain by order of the Emperor, for the above 
purpofe. Wt 



A letter from Paris gives an inftance of the 
danger there is in fending up lighted balloons- 
One of this defcription fell fome days ago on a . 
i building of the fair St. Laurent, where wild 
I beafts are kept for fhow, fuch as lions,. tigers»' 
&c. providentially, however, the exertions of 
the firemen, and the place being tiled over,, pre- 
vented the dreadful confequencesj which othe**-- 
( wile muft unavoidably have taken place. /««?/ 



■ÇW 



,UR BALLOONS. &az£$. 



4 Only the other night," writes Horace Walpole, " I diverted 
myself with a sort of meditation on future Airgonation, supposing 
that it will not only be perfected, but will depose navigation. J did 
not finish it, because I am not skilled like the gentleman who used 
to write political ship news, in that style in which I wanted to per- 
-fectrpry essay ; but, in the prelude, I observed how ignorant the an- 
cients were in supposing that Icarus melted the wax of his wings by 
his too near access to the sun, whereas he would have been frozen 
to death before he made the first post on the road. Next, I disco- 
vered an alliance between Bishop Wilkins's Art of Flying, and his 
art of (jniverssll Language, the latter of which lie no doubt calcu- 
lated, to prevent the want of an interpreter when he should arrive at 
the moon. 

" But I chiefly amused myself with ideas of the change that 
would be" made in the world by the substitution of balloons for 
ships. I supposed our seaports to become deserted villages, and 
Salisbury Plain, Newmarket Heath (another canvas fur the altera- 
tion of ideas), and all downs (but the Downs .}, arising into duck- 
yards for aerial vessels. Such a field would be ample in (uruishing 
new. speculations: — but to come to my -ship ne«s. 

" The good baftoon Ua>da!us, Capt. Wing-ate, will fly in a few 
days for China ; he. will Mop at the top of the Monument to take in 
passenger?. 

" Arrived, on Brand Sands, the Vulture, Capt. Nabob; the Tor- 
toise, Snow, from Lanland : the lAt-en-l'Air, from Versailles; the 
Dreadnought from Mount /Etna, Sir W. Hamilton, commander ; 
the Tympany, Mongolfier, from the Cape of Good Ho;»'. Foun- 
dered', in a hurricane, the Bud of Paradise, from Mount Ararar. 
The Bubble, Sheldon, took (in- and was burnt to her gallery ; tfnti 
the Phœnix is to be cut down to a second rate. 

" In those days Old Sarum will again be a town, and have houses 
in it. There will be fights in the w with wïu%Uns., find bows and 
arrows; and there will be a prodigious increa-.e of land for tillage, 
especially in France, by breaking up all public roads as useless." 



The rewards which the King of France has 
given to all the inventors and improvers of the 
air baloon, fhews what a difpofuion there is in 
that Court to encourage, and bring merit far- 
ward. We have naturalifts, philofuphers, and 
experimentalifts in England, who by the af- 
liduous labor and undeviating attention of a life 
united with the genius and penetration that 
make real difcoveries, yet who -nevefc received 
the leaft reward, notice, or ercouragement 
from thofe who diftribute, or rather who divide 
the public money. . "-','?, 

There is hardly a country town in England 
at prefent that has not had its air balloons let 
off, by which exhibitions as much, money will 
betifelefsly fpent as would try a thou (and im 
portant experiments. //V^ - 

..""There is actually at this time in London a 
gentleman from Lancaflvre of very great know- 
ledge in nature, who has fpf at a confiderable 
part of his life in making experiments on air, 
&'c." &c. and has brought up an application of 
the .air balloon to a purpofe truly national, 
i.yeU&facYa nature, that it may be kept a pro- 
found fecretfrom other nations. He has waited 
■ foine time to be admitted to minifters, in order 
jo.-expiain his project, without being able to- 
.Vc.t a moment with them, io fully are they em- 
ployed in" the arduous work of preferving their 
ow>r places, and negleding all kinds of public 

buiineiV. s?rA 



the molt icientifir r;,»r,r'~ . Jk 3° teet;— . 

r , g hbo Urh ^ fi f^";^;" P « ee ;^ T - d 

Jainc* Alear, Mr P m„ "'", Rûu ' 1 >. Mr. 
Holden, Ic/a^de^teir M? 

oat, and Mrs. Hiae S , who w.î °dcS?u. g '£ 

company the Gentlemen," and J efj Co p ? ant> 

n«ng he, pface tie balloon inftantly rofe, W 

t al (' «^«S to ,he beholders affem. 

1 / , d have »nformed you that a 

large field was the fpot made choice of to make 

domed liberality proni i fad the farmers in hi* 
panfh, a remtffion of half a year's tythes in 
coniiderauonof the damage which they migit 

îtoîlndï. Sr * C ° nC0Urfe ° f *«>&** 

At an elevation of about -two hundred yards 

Mrs. Hines gr-acefully bowed, to the fpccWs' 

Z^îf t" 1 handke , rchi ^ a ! did t«e gentlemen \ 
and the balloon rook a direction towards the fea 
Ml ajiag m its progrefs. Whether the valve 
was unfortunately obitruded, or want of manie- 
ment was trr-caufe, the people of Yarmouth ob 
ferved the balloon approaching the ocean vcfyra- 
p.dly at an immole height, and with a w «d too 
high to render any aifiuanee frrim boats poffibI<v 
and at the approach of evening it was wholly Jolt 
to their view. livery 00 e lamented the probable 
fate 0/ the adven trous aeronauts, and the. next 
day there appeared damped upon fevery counte- 
nance an anxiety to Team fome favourable account 
of them ; bat it was not till the following day that 
news arrived, of a Dutch veilel, commanded by 
Captain Andrew Van-Swieten, having luckily 
taken them up at fea, near the coaft of Holland 
the car gliding on the furface of the water, and 
the halloo;), like a guardian angel, waftinf them 
in fecunty. Mr. Davy fortunately fpoke a little 
Dutch, and through the afliftance of e pa/Tender 
on board from Amrterdam, who was a little ac- 
quainted with the Englila, was enabled by a 
kind of mixed language to relate the particu- 
lars of their expedition. The lady, who you 
know 1» noted for the excellence of her (puns 
fupported by her example her fellow-voyaeen 
to the Jail. ; 6 

.*' They weie conducted this day to Beccles, 
amidrt the acclamations of jome thoufands of 
fpectators, and each wore a laurel crown, in- 
scribed in the front on a gilt label, ** Ybefam 
'Voutèd of Mm vta." 

•* An elegant marble flab, with an infeription 
wri.tsûby the Rev. Mr. Amos, will be placed in 
the choir of the Church here, to perpetuate this 
lingular act of courage, and inltance of divine 
protection. 

** When at the tÉmoîl altitude, Mr. Routfc 
penned the following line?, with as greaî fa 
lity, he declared,- as he'eve'r wrote. 

\VHEtf floating in the va ft wrpanfe, 

We ownf.d thy gracious «are> 
For 'twas' aiane thy Providence,) 

That cbasTÎ away our fear ! 

Supported by cay mî'gh'*y ara?,' 

When danger? tbreaten'st tcviuâ, '. 

CoWpo&M \ii fat', fecurre from horm> 

Ana fttf.% fefsH fotind ',*' 

' " 4 - 



*?V*£uy, October 19, Saturday being the da 
appointed for the afcenfion of' Mr*dÉ?çoi's 'Bai-'' 
"loon from this place, the î&rg^. conclu ffc~oj' . 
people 'iiïembled ever known Bpon any occafion, 

—About twelve o'clock a great number of 
perfoos of fafhion occupied the~gn>uud, who 
exp/ifit^d the higaell fatisfa&ian at the orocefs- of 
filling the oalloon, which was conduced u~,- 
dcr the immediate i'nfp'ecVion of" Mr. Blake, 
wbo.&tcer.cled with Major Money ;>nd Mr. Lr.ck- 

. wood from Tottenham -court-road,, " and ■■ o'u-r 
intrepid aeronaut, who during the whole time 
/hewed a degree of coolnefs fcarcely'' to be paral- 
leled. The balloon being fofficiencly inflated, 
(which circumflance was afcertàined by weights^ 
affixed to the bottom) the car Was fufpend'ed, 
and Mr. Poole got in, quite collected and com- 
pofed. It was now found neceflnry to'cut away 
the wings, intended to a& as fails, which had 
bem confiruéled by an ingenious Piedrnomefe, 
patronifed by Lord Qrford, and which, it was 
fuppofed, would have'con:ributed to facilitate 
the direction of the balloon, but' were, found 
greatly to retard the celerity of its motion. 

This circumltaoce being effected, about two 
o'clock, Mr. Po'jle afcer.ded wiih great rapi- 
dity, amidtt the acclamations of thoufands, 
whofe raptures on the ocxafion were indefcriba 
ole, and which were returned in the molt polite 
manner by the aerial voyager, who for a long 
time Mated thsm by taking off his hat, aûd' 
waving his flag. 

I'he following particulars are given by Mr. 
Pool himfelf: 

" Imrhedia.tly after,m.y balloon was liberated, 
I found myifelf afcendiag .with an Rail by North ' 
couife, aiereneday, a very beautiful .fey, and- 
the ienfiition of afcôut exceedingly pieaiing. On 
entering thrfirit cloud, . I, .found the mercury in 
the barometer had fallen four inches and a half, 
which Rated my elevation at three quarters of -a 
mile and about i/j.6 yards. 

" Although my afcenfion was rapid, the. clouds- 
were of fo unequal a height, that I did not pais 
them in lefs than four minutes ; I th n found 
mvfelf parallel with their tops, winch wore, a 
inuwy whhenefs. I now began to feel colJ, 
although the fun fhone with uninterrupted fplen- 
4<?u,r ; ..; my balloon was. now cûivfidénibly ex- 
panded,; and having afcended beyond the 
reach of found from- --be-low, I was itruck with 
theiiknce, winch pre.viied to fucaa dègrae;, that 
il heard the watch beacing in my pocket.— Not-" 
withitanding the. cloud, which was conliderable, 
I C">ntinuedjo mount, until my barometer had 
fallen 14. inches and a quarter, which I fince 
find, by comparing^ with my table of altitmies, 
is three miles and 133 yards. My Balloon was 
expanded to a degree of tenfion, and on dralwing. 
the appendice to me, I found the gas was ill'uing 
very copioufly ; I had now a confined and uu- 
pieafant feniaiion in my eafs^ — Co confid'eriug 
my elevation, I was altônifnéd to find that look- 
ing to the earth was hot attended with the fma^l- 
elt difagreeable fcriiation, although- I have 
always experienced- it on looking down" a pre- 
cipice. 

" Having been up 50 minutés, and knowing 
that -I had made a 'coniidér'able pro'gf&is to the 
eaftward, I was furprized at not being able to 
difcover the fea through the intervaf pi the., 
clouds ; I was about to defcend below them for 
mtormaiion, when I difcovered a \beautiful 
meandrihg river, beariiig by my cOmpafs South 
Eaft by E'all, and by tracing its courfe, difco- 
vered the termination of the land in tfiat quar- 
ter. I could now alfo perceive thé ocean man 
ealkrn dirtétion, the point to which I was ad- 
yanchig ; h h.id rather aft opaque than a lumi- 
nous appearance ; and 'judging it not to be ve 
rydiitan:,! thought pro'pe» to defcend ; I open-r 
ed my valve, which acted very well, and by 
keeping it open fome little time, found the fun*- 
face o' the Mercury become convexTafid light ; 
downy feathers which had hitherto defcende-o, 
began to take a eo.-.trary direttion.-— My deicsnt 
was gradual, i ioon aftci aligtttéd in a Jmall 
piece of ground at Earl b'oham, in this coomy, 
without injury either to mtjfelf or bailoon. 

:*' 1 was very hofpitably received by Major 
Dade, who lives in thai neighbourood, and 
found my diflance from Bury to be 28 miles, 
Having been in the air above one hour and ele- 
tea-minutes." /7d}^y~y 



All degrees and: profeffions Lave now been 
riding balloons. A fon of the church, the 
Rev. Peter Routh clofes the lifl, He took a 

; female too with him, providential to be fure ; 
but it does not appear that he approached 

• Heaven,, with greater facility than other bal- 
looniil-s. 

Matter Peter Rontb got dabbling at Po-etry 
when aloft. His verfes are rather of the Stern- 
hold and Hopkins eaft to be fare. M4fter Peter 
and his frimds.a-e, however of opinion, that 
they, may be fu-ig to the mujic of the Spbersi. 



Mr. Poole afcended VVednejday^jt one o'clock 
from Cambridge, with a balloon. There were 
a number of people of the firft fafllion of that 
part of the world prefent. He defcended at 
Den fon, about 12 miles from Newmarket, and 
24 from Cambridge. '2 ^ J&z*. ./?J?f . 



-J 



By a Gentleman juft arrived from Paris «,- * 
hear that the rage for balloomng ?. fo "ari™>| 
and cxtenhve in that capital, thft feveml w! Xj 
men have what- t Uw ~,n u_n « . " ,uw - 



^ a V , '" " ,fl «' wpuai, mat lèvera fhow~ 

men have what they call balloon ftands round ç 



body who chafes i 8 let up to a certain height. U 
and pulled down bv a flrin» ^™u„_. : ° . * V 



and pulled down * a ïring^hrf^fi fr 

balloon for that purpofe. An accident hao ^ 

pened, however, a few days fince, which h£ ^ 
made nennle a 1 tM» w^-.L.-„ ' , . . nas 



* 



r .r«--j ..wvv.v^ „.. rew aays , which has ^ 

made people a little morecautious ; Wh was! S 

night half over Pans, before gas enough had ' 
been expended for it to defcend. The perfin 4 
who went up was a young man about 11 He Jl 
very fortunately came down in a Nobleman's ^ 
rou.-t.vard ; and as the iervants f aw his del 
fcenfixm, they had prepared for it by getting 
together a parcel of beds, ftraw, &c. bv which 
he efcaped unhurt, though almort frightened to 



On Friday evening, about fix o'clock, a new 
Aquatic Balloon was funk, a little above Weft- 
minfter-bridge ; the inventor was in it. A tube 
was fixed at the top for air ; the Balloon drifted 
with the tide as far as Lambeth Hair*. In the 
interim, two fignal.s were made; the firft de- 
noted that all was well ; but the ad, that he 
wanted inilant affi fiance ; upon which the boat- 
men who attended, inftantly "hauled up the, 
balloon, and found the man nearly drowned. 
It feems, that through fome miltake, the water 
got in : However the inventor purpofes making, 
a fécond experiment. ^PK&PWf* 



A letter from Portfmouth hath the^llowin? 
article, dated May 13, ««We were laft night! 
about nine o'clock, (hocked on an air balloon 
palling over this town all in flame^Wwr-apT 
prehended by the courfe it took that it would 
rail in the dock-yard, which might have been 
attended with fatal confequences to us all, for 
had it fell amongft any combuftibles it might 
have done great damage, not only there but 
perhaps to the town. But the wind blowing 
bulk it earned it into the middle of the har- 
bour, where it fell, and the water foon extin- 
Ruifhed the flames." 



IRELAND. 

Tralee, Junei$. '/SS~ 
r Efterday morning fome young Gentlemen 
near this town floated a large balloon, 
called a Montgolfier, which afcended to a 
considerable height, but taking fire, it de- 
fcended on a farm-houfe at about two miles 
diflance, and a dwelling, liable, with two 
horfes, and haggard, in which was a great 
_jfjuantiiy of corn, were totally deftroyed. 



■ Some little time fino" -, 

d-peratEv^'iX^in- ^ '? ilnen 
long timel^W ed in his t^T' * h ° had 
<«»™g aloft, having bouUt a 1 * Paffi ° n f ° 
remnants of filk of a hmth g n! }**& P arce ^ < 
run on the wrL fr de fe ^T H^ 1 ' Vvho ha 
lution of fabricant S P °\ formed * reft 
* Speedily ^^y^^?>> whit, 
mous auctioneer nf't-C> - P oi ar * inge- 

rafter of be W fjtfS* Wh ° had ths ^- 
iaflammable ai?, fig ^fc ** ^^ of 
Tuefday the A X^ baIJ °° n > and <» 
draper made at attemrn L Sf T"* ^ Iinen " 
forVfew yards S^. *&h he did 
! to too greltf qu 'n it^f? " u «>*M«red, 
! introduced intoLs bXm ^f^ Mr being 
balloon burft, and the ^b ^ enfion Cilfue d, hit 
with great rapid! y atalnft "«T? J"? *"" fel1 
at the* gable end of ti r 6 °^ the *»ttlements 
much fei^SâSSSfft*?' and f ° 
■everhereafter-relinaSllî ■ Ï? 11 ,' he wil1 for 
t, fine himfelf to tleTxeÏcS IK^H* ^ COn " 
Hkean induflrious &^£±£*>^ 
more congenial tn »!,- r i p ' n em Ploym( 



I 



Mr. VanDan Bergen a Major in the Dutch 
guards, alcended in a balloon. 56 vard, by^ G . 
on t},e ift j^ft. aç Amflerdam, taking wkK him a 
garaclmte, a dog, « cock, and ^tftet», fl» 
^ mer / f which was letdown, and appeared S 
defcend gradually for fom:.time, but Vterw.rdl 
went :off in a horizontal c,urfe, and became m- 
vifible to the fped-ators. At two hours and 
.forty-three minutes after bis a/cenfion, Mr. Van 
Bergen became invifible to thé anxious fpee- 
tatorê, and though the merchants and r^therv^. 

fels^ftretched out to fea, aid everv other method 
both oy land atld water wa$ e ^ cned ^^ . tf . 

telhgence of his defcent, no tidings havAs ye e 
been heard of him, and greit apprthen fions are 
entertained for the valuable life of this brave and 
diftinguiftred officer. To adi to the melancholy 
catallrophe of this tragic event, Major Vari 
Lergen was lhortly to have been married td 
Maoam Roilola, daughter of the Governor-Ge- 
neral of the Spice] les, who upon hearing the' 
event became diAraded, and has ■ fince utterly 
loft the power of ipeeeJi. 

The States Iiave proclaimed a reward of one 
thouiand -pounds fterling to Whoioever fhall bring 
the body OB balloon of Mrjor Vau Bergen, and 
prohibited on pam i0 f death any further aerial ex-' 
permients ih Holland. Z><-.<. t7sr 



>« It is 



"It'-" an ill wind' that blows nobody rood," 
for .although theW of Tuefday evening^ , d 
not ra.fe the Ranelagh Balloon y tt [ t wafted 
many of the diTapp^T^tôrs^o VauxïaU 
where they drowned their chagrin in the juice 
ol the grape, and the tffence of Batnvia.^&c*/ 



■ jes pfelent to the^xnd a„ iSZT' #"«**** 



thero rh V a m Ne , wcaftIe - u Pon-Lyne, dated Sept. 
Po(t?rnVT^ m o tl,e ™ ]3ncho] y Account in the 
ng k .led by fallmg ■ f r p in a Balloon ; and further fay s ; 
Conceive the Aftomfliment'. that feized every one 
prefent, particularly the Crowds which were ^pon 
the \tVpi ■ Staple, St. Nicholas's, and all 
p/rrS r " C ? - the Ne, ghbaurhood, to behold a 
Pei (on fn/pendeu bv h» s Arm at the End of a Rope, 
afcend Co prodigious a Height fo quick, and tumble 

hL A'^nn loon was given of its being poor Mr 
Heiorv: H»s Father, Mother, and Sifters, with their 
deSed ^'V^ldjuftby, the Grouad was 
de/erted, and the Cues of the Spectators were 
d ftreflxng. He fell partly ereft upon a Tree, from 

nf r ffnV 1 'T fame SitUat!on »P°n a Flower Bed 
of foft Mould, into which he funk nearly Knee-d'en 

NnV 7r^ h , aS bec ° J me of Luna r d i, I cannot tell vou : 
but I fancy^he made as good a Retreat as he poifibly 
could f 0r Fear of the Fury of the enraged Populace 
Wtobff the Balloon took Fire from Lnnardi' 
Ignorance or Negligence, is belt known to hiraWf- 
bdt every one before the Balloon burft feemed to 
dunk he was very dilatory in performing the 
Operation; and I need not inform you, that this 
M.sfortune will be a fad Memento to this Town and 
its Neighbourhood. 

" Mr. Heron was between ai and 22 Years of Age • 
was n ot out of his Ckrkfhip with his Father, who h 
an Attorney ahd the Under SJieriff for the County' 
of Northumberland." %*' 



Extra a of a Letter from Dublin, Jur.e <$£ \ 
" The liberating of lamp balloons is become ■' 
now Inch a common practice that no lefs than . 
20 or 30 are let off aim ok every night, to the 
great fear and terror of the inhabitants of this i 
city ; a deal-yard in îïngine-alley, on Tuefday ' 
night, narrowly efcaped being confnmed by 
one of them falling among the timber, snd 
would have certainly done it but for the timely 
afliftance of the neighbours. 

" As the inutility of fire balloons is now 
evident, and the extreme danger of liberating i' 
them has been manifefted by the conflagration 
at Tullamore, &e, it is praife- worthy in the j 
Lord Mayor to have iffued his mandate againft ., 
them, efpecially when hay and corn may fhort- j 
ly be expofed to the utmoft danger." 



Laft night A was performed at Astley's, a 
Mufical Piece called the Cobler and' the Air- 
Balloon, which was originally written by Mr. A. 
to fhew there was fome danger in Aeroflatic 
Experiments; the fong by the Cobler, which, 
concludes the piece, produced a good effecT— - 
Mr. Ailley's indefatigable i'nduftry in bringing 
forward fo great a number of favorite pieces, 
deferves the higheil commendation. 1Ç /^n^/^Hj^ 



j. _. m. 

It is laid a certain atrial voyager has profer red F 
Mr. Ailley to take his extraordinary monkey with j 
him on his next excurfion, and by that means, ' 
immortalize him for ever, as he has done his 
dog and cat, provided he will let the créature ; 
perform fix nights at the Pantheon, either before 
or after the journey. Whether this propoG- 
tibn has 'been accepted, is. not ..known, but 
if we might judge from our own inclina- 
nations, fuppofing we-bad fuch an extraordinary 
and invaluable creature in our ^polleffion,' we 
ih >uld imagine Mr. Ailley has not' been agree- 
able to rifk the life of the family, as many 
foolifh Generals and Admirals have dene, merely 
to gain immortality. What recompence would K 
it be to Mr. Ailley that the monkey ihould be 
dead and immortal, for 'the lofs he would full ai n 
for his life, and confequentiy, the performance 
of feats that fill his Amphitheatre every night 
with, the moft crouded audiences .? If he' be 
wife, we are allured he has rejected with difdain 
a propofition that- has no poiîible advantage in 
proipect to tempt his acceptance. S^tPS" * 



Oi\ Thurfday laft Mr. St. Croix alcended in 
h js. balloon fr om Mr. Hutchins's yard, near St. ! 
Martin's church, amidfl the ace! 'mations of a [ 
prodigious multitude of all ranks alfmibled on the ; 
occafion. The balloon- was of filk, large, beau- 
tifully transparent, and adorned with a pleaf 
ing variety of colours in ilripes. Its fhape nearly 
that of a pear, round at the top, and verging to a 
point at its lower extremity. Over the whole was 
thrown a ftrong net, and fome cords to which the, 
car was appended. About two o'clock, the wea- 
ther being remarkably fine, the aeronaut took his 
ftation in the car, and after performing two or 
three manoeuvres, configned himfelf to the ai . 
The wind blowing lightly from the Weft, his af- 
cent was magnificently flow, and beautiful be 
yond defcription, impr fling on every beholder 
the moft avveful and lively fenfations of grandeur, ; 
aiionifhmenr, and admiration. Every heart ^elt, 
and every tongue fpoke in praife of the dauntlels I 
adventurer, who courteoufly waved his flag,' and | 
bowing his hat, gallantly bad?, the wondering j 
fpectalors adieu ! He continued to afcend about 
three quarters of an hour longer, foon after which ] 
he began to defcend, and about twenty, minutes j 
after three o'clock he alighted in perfect iafety 
about half a mile from Romfey, Jind- the next 
morning; returned to this city/ 



r 

and. t 



A correfpondfent informs us, that on Saturday 
night the new uncovered buildings on the Surry 
fide of Black-iriars bddge, were fet on fire by a , 
balloon ient into the atmofohere by the fmpsk of 
burning fpirits. Ttie immenfe fame-work of 
the buildingdefigned for the corr-miils, on which 
thoufands of pounds have been already expended , 
were thus on the point of being confumed by 
this child ifh fpyrt. By good fortune timely af- . 
fiftance was procured, sn'dnhe fire feafc taoly cx-.i 
tinguilhed before it h^d got head. ^/'f'l/J/^A 



Bailôja^ ar: flHl/een fiyîng îh 'the ta of aft j 
tvening, n t.vithftihJing the manjfell danger at- | 
rending th;s ver-v filly and chifliih amufement. ; 
Parents of children ought to difcootage them f 
from purfaing it. It is a duty th y owe to ■ 
fociety, , fT*-'? 



A Frizeur in Oxford Road, has got - writ te* in 
his window, balLon teles — a very neceiTary recom- 
mendation this ; for on confideriijg its afcenjton, 
it ought to have fome innate power to keepitfelfin 
Inflationary pcfiion. *7&° 






The excursion of M. Testa, from Paris, in, June 
1786, is without a parallel, having lasted twelve 
hours. His balloon was furnished with wings and 
other apparatus for steering ; when he had reached 
an elevation of three thousand feet, the distension 
of his balloon gave him serious apprehensions of a 
rupture ; he therefore descended in a corn-field in the 
plain of Montmorenci. An immense crowd ran 
eagerly to the spot ; and the proprietor of the field, 
exasperated at the injury his crop had sustained, 
seized M. Testu, and demanded indemnification ; the 
aeronaut made no resistance, but persuaded the 
peasant, that having lost his wings, he could not 
possibly escape. The ropes were seized by a number 
of persons, who attempted to drag the balloon towards 
the village • but as, during the procession, it had 
acquired considerable buoyancy, Testu cut the cords, 
aiid left the disappointed peasants overwhelmed j 
with astonishment. The temperature was at the 
freezing point, and particles of ice floated around 
him. As night approached, the blast of a horn 
attracted his attention, and seeing a party of hunts- 
men, he suffered some gas to escape, and descended. 
He now resigned his wings as a useless incumbrance, 
and reascended through a mass of electric matter. 
Shrouded in darkness, he was wafted about for three 
hours in the gloomy region of the gathering storm. 
The surrounding terrors, the lightning's flash and the 
roaring of thunders, accompanied by copious drifts 
of sleet and snow, did not damp his courage : a flag 
ornamented with gold frequently emitted sparks of 
fire, and was ultimately torn in pieces by the lightning. 
At length the elemental conflict ceased, and the stars 
began to appear ■ between two and three, the ruddy 
streaks of light in the east announced the approach 
of day ■ and after beholding the rising of the sun, 
he descended uninjured, about 70 miles from Paris. 



I>o? the V/ORLDs 



jy^C^/^y 



*The fc'lo'iv'rng Lines make part of a Poutt, Written h AwTî- 

CUA, on the fir st meo/AEROSOSTATIONj 

By Mr, GILBERT. 

" ! Could I join thee in the fields of air, 
And trace the wonders of some other sphere ! 
Borne by philosophy, and new-taught lore, 

In other regions, other realms explore 

Claim int'rest with thee in the glorious part, 
And join with thee, asgen'rous heart to heart ! 
Dart over wilds unknown to human sway, 
.Where the lone eagle wings his dreary way j 
Or where athwart the solitary step *, 
The Star-led Arab wets his parching lip 
Fiom jaded camels ; but at length o'ereome. 
Ne'er ends his journey, ne'er Reviews his home ! 
O ! Could we pierce through Nature's wilds, and find, 
lost in those wilds, the Philosophic Mind ! 
Keadl the hairas-s'd Persian into sense, 
; And bit! anew the reign of Taste commence.— 

The lazy Asiatic rouse to thought, 
■ Improve the soil with Nature's riches fraught.— 
.With quicker navigation cut the stream. 
And with fresh force direct the fervid beam v 
Of iight'ning science to the barb Vous breast, 
And force the blood-stain" 1 d warrior to be blest ! 
' On Attic plains, a new Lyceum raise, 
Confirm the v/averino Candidate ?ok 

yp.AïSS; 
Bid Academia's grove fresh honours rear, 
And with renewing verdure meet the year : 
Lead the wild. Tartar from his Caspian shore j 
Lead the new Russ from Volga's icy roar ; 
Xet them no mote the pathless desert rove, 
But yield to science, and bend down to love! 

" To Southern climes, where tawrfy nations stray, 
Fast by the throve of ever-burning day— 
Where few moist clouds their gentle influence shed, 
Or rest benignant on the mountain head- 
Where the scarce grove, from noon's destructive heat, 
Affords no shelter and no cool retreat- 
Where the parch'd native, savage and forlorn, 
Views undelighted his resplendent morn, 
That, rising from the east in glories drest, 
Yet firss no transport in his gloomy breast.:—* 
Convey the pleasures and the arts of life, 
And sweet domestic bliss, the balm pf strife.— 
Convey philosophy — convey the art, 
To polish nature, and to raise the heart ! 
On slavish Mexico new treasures pour, 
Prefer the human to the minral store, 
Make Europe open all refinement's charms, 
And carry Science, where she carries Arms !" 
* Russian term for the Desert. 



ALMANACK for 1§B7; 

PRESENTED GRATIS WITH « THE WEEKLY CHRONICLE.'' 



THE NEW HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. 




Travelling in JErlal vehicles may foon be expected 
to be reduced to as great perfection as in our mail 
coach'e.*. An Author has published a book at Vienna, 
fhewing that eagles may be ufed in drawing air balloons. 
He iikewife lays down rules for yoking and driving 
them together, with the whole fyftem of their manege. 
This certainly is a ftep beyond building catties in the 
a!I "! J<J. f./foz. 



The Gentleman whofe afcenilon m the Engîifh bal- 
loon, as announced for to-morrow, .is the well knowa 
ProfeiTor of, Natural and Occult Philofophy, a#d au- 
thor of a very ingenious and curious work on the fai- 
ences of Natural Magic, Alchyrny, and Hermetic . 
Philofophy. ^y- //• /** I 



Citizen Hulin, chef d'efcadron in the 15th Regi- 
ment of dragqons, at a fpeeial meeting of the AçjdçV 
mic Society <q£ Sciences at Paris, on the Sthinft. read 
a memoir on the practicability of directing balloons at 
pleaKire. He propofed to adapt to them a revcrfed pa- 
rachute, the effect of which will be to retard their 
aîcent and feizontal motion. <**t*. 'f. SS&z, 



Pedestrian use of Balloons.— The pedes, 
tnanmt of Balisom remains yet untried in Great 
Britain. On the Continent it has been ingeniously 
proposed; for every cubic inch of the contents of a 
Balloon, the weight of a person bearing it on his 
head ^rendered one ounce lighter. A Balloon may 
be easily carried on the head, which shall take 
Ml 501b. from the weight of a person walking. It 

; is fixed by straps to a leather belt. These straps 
pass through a wooden support, by. which the Bal- 

..loon rests on ; the head. Over the whole Balloon 
is a net-work, which preserves it firm in its posi. 
tion, and in its connexion with the wooden sup. 
sort. The leather belt passes round the waist 
Promit hang two bottles, in which are the mate, 
rials fox a supply of inflammable gas,.fo be put into 
the Balloon by a cock when any part escapes of that 
With which it is filled. The walker is furnished 
also with two oars, covered at one end with taffety 
to assist Ins progress. The fabric of the Balloon is 

JUJL /* MM 



; A practice has obtained of letting off Fire-Bal- 
' loons from different parts of the Town. This is 
extremely dangerous, and ought to be immediately 
put a stop' to. 

When some more lives have fallen a, sacrifice to 
idle curiosity, some attempts will perhaps be made 
to put a stop to the Balloon mania, which seems to 
have revived in all its former excess, though it is 
evident that nothing can be made of the invention, 
of any use to mankind. ^"*/- /***Z 



ÉALLOONS* 



- 



>L /sat. 



At the Chateau de Meudon, one of the forfeited 
estates of the Emigrants, not far from Paris, 
there is an Aerostatic School. One of the Gene- 
rals who ascended at the battle of Fleurus, to re- 
connoitre the camp of the Enemy, presides in it ; I 
and a Balloon of thirty feet in diameter, is con- 
stantly kept inflated. The same inflammable air 
will serve for about three months, but it slowly, , 
and almost imperceptibly, grows weaker.' 

Many improvements have been made on the fa- 
brication and filling of Balloons ; they are made of 
silk wovç at Lyons ; and great advantage is found 
in varnishing them only on the outside ; for, when 
varnished both without and within, they not only 
are liable to crack and turn mouldy, but the air 
corrodes, or destroys the varnish with which it 
comes in contact. 

At Meudon, the Professor, witli a number of his 
Students, mount in the Balloon, and remain sta- 
tionary during whatever time they please, being 
retained by ropes, which others of the students be- 
low keep hold of. By these means experiments 
are made with great ease, certainty, and delibe- 
ration. 

Hitherto the minutes of these repeated experi- 
ments have not been published ; but it is expeéted 
that they will, on some future day, be made known 
to «he world. 

Many persons have proposed to regulate the di- 
'eftion of Balloons, but the nature of things 
;eems to have formed an irresistible impediment. 
From navigating the water, we have learnt, by the 
experience of some thousands of yeai^s, that there 
must be some great force exerted from within 
the vessel, such as oars or sails, afted upon by the 
wind. Now as a Balloon is all immersed in 
one medium, or fluid, sails cannot be of any avail, 
because there being nothing to resist, the Balloon, 
like a body entirely immersed in water, must follow 
its direction, be the form what it may ; and as to 
any interior force, there is not any animal, nor 
any machine, the weight of which the Balloon is 
able to carry,, of sufficient force to work wings or 
oars so as to produce any movement contrary to the 
impulse of the medium in which it passes. The 
string by which a flying kite is held, answers the 
same purpose with the resistance of the water in 
the case of a ship ; and the moment that that force 
ceases to exist, the kite, or the substance that is 
carried along, goes as the current directs. This, 
we believe, will always be the case with Balloons, 
although we allow that much may be expected 
from the efforts of ingenious men, for a long pe- 
riod directed to its improvement. 



To ENGLAND'S BRAVE SAILORS. /%Ot 
'HEN the Balloon Mania* lias subsided, John 

. V • Austin, No. 10, Essex-street, Strand, proposes an 
Abarisian Machine or Parachute, to go before the wind, its 
basis is Reason, Strength, and Utility. There is no doubt 
but the Air is as navigable as the surface of the Water ; no 
Seaman can doubt the strength and capable parts of the pow- 
ers of adlion quoted and courted, and where travelling one 
mile a minute with ease and safety, and the landing fr«m 
ship on a lee shore any situation equal to from Blackfriars 
Brrege to the top of St. Paul's, or more kitty, I say, where 
such is required, it will prove of utility in the three 
first attempts to descend with a Parachute, which ope- 
rates only by the pressure aiad resistance of the Air, 
there was too much Wind, and the- descent itself was 
more dangerous than useful. I court Boreas's greatest power. 
Mr. A. will wait on any Nautical Gentleman with his Mo- 
del, submitting to their understanding,- he^ays, the majo- 
rity, or seven out of eight, will be advocates' for it, who de- 
sires an opportunity to volunteer his service for the good of 
the Royal Navy, Navigation, and Commerce. 

* Mania, irom this reason, the expence- exceeds the utility .- 



It is rather furprifing that our aeroftatic travel- 
ler^ complain fo much of want of refrefhments 
during their journey, considering how many caftles in 
the. air our late Minifters caufed to be erected on the ru- 
ins of the French Republic, and how many King's 
heads and King's ar?ns, and Mitres and Crowns he fcat- 
tered in the clouds. /Sal 



■ 



- " r 



Some Gentlemen were conversing lately upon an 
Aerial Traveller, who was supposed to have been so, 
long in the air coming from the Continent, that his 
strength was nearly exhausted : one of them ob- 
served, that it was singular that he did not endea- 
vour to descend sooner. An Irish Gentleman who 
was present replied, that he suppose he had thrown 
out all his ballast before. /8ffl 



The Balloon mania, it is apprehended, will now 
subside, till some further discovery entitle the in- 
vention to further notice. Al present, its uiUity_ is 
confined loan exhibition of personal courage, which 
even uyjiMM are anxious to «hare. . J(**fi 1 

Garner rN is accused of committing various tres- 
passes in his late descent ; tome on the ground* of the 
illiberal, and many on the feétLkzs of the liberal . 



H 



THE ASCENSION OF THE BALLOON 
AVING attracted PublicAitention for this some 
.*. time past, and Half-aGuinea demanded for Front Seats, 
to see this wonderful Phenomenon, TOWN SEND and Co. 
\ wis» to cal!, the attention of Ladies to the Old Balloon, No. 
27 Oxford-street, which they may ascend and descend with- 
! out the fears attending an Aerial excursion, and have front 
! seats gratis, to insped the Beauties it contains : which con- 
! sist of rich India Shawls; from two guineas to too ; elegant. 
Chintz Furnitures, modern patterns, their own printing; is. 
: iocl. worth zs. jod. ; Printed Cambricks, only ?.s. ; Ell- wide 
ditto. 2S. Jod. generally charged 3s. iod. ; 12.0 1 leces of 
vard and half wide Cambric Muslins, delicate colour and 
quality, as. iod. ; Rich Colonade and small-pattern worked 
India Muslins, some of which are a little soiled, to be sold 
astonishing bargains ; with every other Description or India 
and British Muslins, equally cheap ; a Lot 01 Stout Dimities, 
at is 6d. ; Curious Hollands, Irish Linens, and Suttolk 
Hemps. Ladies who have large purchases to make, will 
find a few boies well worth their attention, not being of that 
flimsy texture so generally sold for some tune past, but war. 
lantedequ;.*;, if hot superior, in colour, quality, durability, 
and cheapness.to any that may have been bought at any former 
period j India Nankeens, capital colours, ys.'W. 1-bie 
Linen, Russian, Lancashire, and Irish Sheeting, Counter- 
panes; Silk and Cotton Hose, with many other art.cles.un- 
commonly cheap, at the (fjease to observe) Old Balloon, 
No. 27, Oxford-street, where two shopmen,' gttJUftîMnW co 
the town in&i, ars wanted . / &/> Z 



Alblioon, launched iron*. Westminster, on the 
6th of >FT"month, at half-pttst two o'clock, was 
found, lying in the warren of Mr. Thomas Gibbs, 
of Bate >mfo, about three rmlês from Crawley, at a 
quarter before four o'clock the same day ; having tra- 
velled a distance of 36 miles in one hour and a quar- 
ter. Âtpr./^r. s&te 



A RUSSIAN FETE. . ^ 

An article from St.Petersburgh, dated on the 5th 
ult. says : — The name-day of the Empress's Mo- 
ther was celebrated on the 3d with unusual magnifia 

cence. All the foreign ambassadors, and other per- 
sons of distinction, dined with the Imperial Family 
at PeterhofF: in the evening were a public masque- 
rade and supper. The garden was superbly iliumi- 
nated, and the water-works played — at least 30,00c* 
persons were in the garden in the evening, and. 700-; 
at the masquerade. At 11 o'clock the Imperial 
Family, after driving round the garden, appeared 
at a balcony, whence these was a view of the. sea, 
on which, lay five yatchts finely .illuminated, the 
middle one with the initials. of the Empress, inco, 
loured lamps. . At the same moment, two- air bal- 
loons, of transparent lire, rose from thefedge of ta'tl 
writer-; — 'sparks, of fire fell from the lower cne,. ana, 
suddenly a" beautiful ire-work arose from the gon- 
dola;— .at length the lower balloon took fire, threw- 
forth a flaming shower of various colours, and the;» 
set on are the balloon' Which floated above, and a 
sudden explosion destroyed both. ' The sight was 
very.fine. . The two balloons cost 3000 roubles, and 
the whole fete 30 ,000. ■ $*J/-. 0<?'& 



Aerostation.— Professor Robkrtsom, of Ham- ! 
burgh, accompanied by Mj Lhokxt, has lately i 
made a second aerial excursion, which has confirmed ! 
many of their former -e>qperi men î.s, and produced 
some new and interesting results. M. Robertson 
iias ascertained that, sounds, may be conveyed up- 
wards to fche height of i2 00 feet, while downwards 
they can be conveyed only half .that distance, — - 
When about seven thousand two hundred feet from 
the earth, he enclosed, in an instrument invented by 
M. Hez, four inches of the surrounding air, along 
with mercury, and marked exactly the point where 
the air and the mercury were united ; -and when he 
returned to the earth, he found that the mercury 
filled the whole tube, within a tenth. This im- 
portant, experiment seems to prove,, that in the 
upper regions thexe exists nothing but vapours, and 
so atmospheric m f _ O^ *> ~i<f><>2> ' 






/ERiAL ASCENSION, 

St, Peiersburch, J !JI ^ 1 7-~ -The ascension in 
the air, undertaken by the desire of the Academy 
of Sciences, to make experiments, has had the de- 
sired effect. The famous chymist, Sacharoff, 
and Professor Robertson, ascended in a favourable 
state of- the weather, from the garden of the cadet- 
corps, at 25 'minutes after 7 o'clock in the evening, 
The members of this, learned body, who so much in- 
terest themselves for the advancement of sciences, 
attended, and >. wi tnesied the ascension, the most 
beautiful yet seen in Russia. The three small 
balloons sent into 'the air as guides, or to reconnoitre 
(he wind, went, first to the south, but scon after- 
wards to the east, and towards the Baltic. This did 
not prevent the aeronauts from ascending, having 
with them several instruments to make experiments. 
The balloon floated over the Baltic Sea for upwards 
of an hour. Two different winds v/ere felt blowing 
in opposition. From the ciîy a manœuvre was ob- 
served, which bad for its object to cut through the 
upper wind, and by it procure the travellers an op- 
portunity of getting to rii.e southward, and over 
■the land. Afterwards they ascended higher and 
higher, until ten o'clock, when the balloon 
was entirely lost sight of, even by the persons 
following it with the telescopes from the Ob- 
servatory. The next day an express brought the 
President of the Academy of Sciences information, 
that the aeronauts had, without any accident, ar- 
rived at Siwaretz, .60 wersts, or near 26 leagues 
from this capital. They descended fon---five mi- 
nut s past ten in the English Garden opposite the 
castle of General Demidoff, who received and en- 
tertained the aerial travellers with (he greatest hos- 
pitality. The result of this ascension, undertaken 
only for scientific experiments^ will soon be pub- 
lished, and found very interesting as well as, in- 
structive. 



Ut*.?*'. /&o 6 ■ 
AnTttempt was lately made by Messrs. PauH 
and Lemercier, of Paris, which proved, that bal- 
loons can be steered and directed, according to the 
pleasure of the aeronaut. They invented macni- 
nery, by which they moved the wings attached -to 
the balloon^ and the rudder resembling the tail ot a 
bircfr~OrTascendin { -; they were conveyed by a gentle 
East wind j and, on working the. machinery, they 
made way 'slowly against if. At length after a voy- 
age of five hours, they descended at Denouviile, 
near Chartres, convinced of the practicability ot 
their experiment. 



M ; H EUIN ** P llb, ^<! his opinion, that 

Mr. Mum»; who lately fell f POrn a balloon in 
*«.«, and was dashed to pieces. Sethis de h L 
h s own n*g| 1??nce . « The car i* which h a eei d 

t^2& G *™*l™h was foo shallow: the cor L 
by winch ft -as attached to the balloon were Lofa 
par ; and it is probable, that when Mr. i ^ E vr 
was leanmg over to let an arurx-,,1 droo in a n a ' 



Pfru, Ap'll 22. The balloon m which the an- 
te mate M. Mosmenr ascended, was found com- 
plete between CharleviUe and Charleroi. In the car 
hed to it, which had likewise received no da- 
»'■ . » * t'i' - was found, with asmall loaf and some 
* ' f '-'- *d§ ! y which the car was attached to 
<hi .- balloon v ere: also entiie, /tP£&* 



Yesterday se'nnight, a curiou's experiment was 
made iat Woolwich with balloons, intended to carry 
dispatches from one post to another, when the wind 
serves. A match is put in one part of them, which 
at the end of a certain time, sets fire to a string sus- 
taining a parachute, or other contrivance; and 
when the string is consumed, the parachute and dis- 
patches fall to the ground, and are picked up by the 
centry, who is on the watch for them at seme distant 
post. The length of time that the match is to burn, 
is regulated by the velocity of the wind, a-nd the 
distatnw the balloon has to travel. ^-A^ic 



nmMMHM|HHiF, > 

A sm-aij inflammable balloon, which was sent tip 

' from Hackney on the day of the Jubilee, was found 
two hours and rive minutes after the time of its as- 
cent at Wilbraham, near Cambridge; thus b must 
bave travelled at the. rate "of about 25 miles a hour 
at least. ^V? 



FLIGHT Y EXPERIMENTS, s 



\ The art of- rising and moving in the air, -by 
of wings, confinées to engage tee attention' ofa ul : 
her of persons in Gernvany, At Vienna., the «audi, 
inaker Dug en, aided by. a liberal subscription, is nr. 
copied in perfecting his discovery, ; lie has recw-iftv 
fait fin several public flights in the Prater, which wijl. 
by detailed in one of our subsequent numbers. At 
%Hjif, Cn.vuBius,- a wealthy rnaiiu'afcturer cf\oiL 
cloth, is engaged in like pursuits ; he rises in tfto 
air without difficulty, and can move in a direct 'jinn 
at the rate of four miles an hour ; but his uiit-s ar'e 
unwieldy, and he cannot turn, round hi them? At 
lelni, a tailor, named Be-rblinger, announced on (ln- 
■■1W\ April., that he had, after grc-nt Sacrifice ftf 
money, labour, and time, invc-nU-d a . maroiite it 
wlue.ii he would, on the 12th May, rise in the .air 
arid fly twelve miles. /S// 



BA1.LOON».— A whimsical persun is preparing an appa- 
ttvtus composed of two smalW»ai loons, which will support 
♦he weitfht oX liis body, permitting his feet just to «ouch 
^ Ihegronnd; these «re joined as hoy* join boudent, or 
> «ci*» lot learning «o*wiin, and are to be fastened antler the 
v arras in the same manner, the weight of the body being sop- 
W ported by the balloons} he expects, with ihe addition of a 
^ «onple of wings, to be able to walk, run, or fly, at pleasure 



; 



The ascension of the Mechanician, Qittork, 
from Manheim, was truly .disastrous. When he 
j had risen to a considerable height, be perceived, 
I trio latev that his balloon was daniuged, and had no 
I other resource titan to open the pump. The bal- 
loon descended with extreme velocity, but, owing 
to t tie wind, without preserving its gravity : the in- 
flatmnnble matter which it contained kindled, thfc 
. shreds caught fire, and fell upon M. Bittouf's 
head, anns.'and breast, which were much burnt. — 
On a sudden, his crazy vehicle struck upon the 
roof of a house, two stories high, from which he 
was precipitated, with a gondola, attached to the 
balloon. The inhabitants took him up, and carried 
him, covered with wound?, to his own house, where 
he died the next day in great agony. /*7/2 



!■*■; Robertson made, on the 19th of Oct. bis 
forty-eighth ascension, at Liege At a certain 
height be launched a parachute, which descended 
safely With a live v.bbit. In about a quarter oi 
an hour, meeting with a contrary current of wind, 
he determined on descending ; but when toe bal- 
loon touched the ground, it rose, thirty feet ana 
rebounded against a tree. H » vin ^lu"own <m n^ ■ 
o-rnnpling irons without success, Mr. Robertson 
lelfl on the topmost branches, abandoned a, 
balloon, and alighted safely at the entrance of the 
little city of Vise. W',/Zf 



~K(JÏALTY'T1TEATRE. 
THIS Wmm, Nov. ^^T:*^t^i 

:\li>gui Tale.. --^-^ = =s= ^.-u--^--^ '= 

^LONDON, 
. MONDAY, NOVEMBER. 9. 1812. 



^AEROSTATIC, OR IMPROYRf) BALLOON. 

»' p . s "Sus i& d * ,o 5 ¥*fpwî asaftss 



region "7 USH^mS^ WiU bC c ™<™«>* "*'« ^ di- 

dace of asceusion, t» prevent déprédations taiSSrSS-Su 
tin* b.v the 1« of j (llie Md m be^ffiéSrf? f,r ,1 ?,- : 

pL*d KSaBEUS """"^ "'"" *> '"" "«» "• 

3-ffJr IL WILLIAMS, 

T "^ Carlisle Hoti-e, Lambeth. 

be^d S f,M , Ȕ?"i at ^ f t 156 ' IfadenhalKstreet, Diree.ions may 
ot Jiad toi playing Li«htnew Variations of die Game of HrafW 

4t PolT; lL P ' Hy are ^'^ M y, diversified and increased. 
ur«> Jd ΄,i ,1 C A , ' R!T,0 i , C ' Mm:s ' l ' e l,erel) >' combined and im- 
Thll ' i " ,e n fti,me ,s Susceptible of bei,,^ played by Two, 
Three, or Four Persons at the same time : peeulilrlv ad -n ted' 
to the amusement of seafaring R eBtlên.en J ^aaptea 



IMPROVED AIR BALQON. • 

Ma. ÈÇTo^A^r^^n^^^ur 
excellent l'aper, I obcerye that it is open to Ihere-ry 
and scentihe as well as political correspondents ; £ 
an» therefore, mduced to sobcit the att^tioti 
&f thecitnons.t-b a proposed improvement in th« 
gnttructwn o{ Air B a l„ on . s b y a Mr. Wdbmn • 
fa model of, which h now e.inbhmg at Mr 
m^ns, stat.oner, I^adenh.dbstreer}, wherebr 
pe tevonauts in the car will be able to v.ny their 
wjrsç .mm the w-r.d s in an smgJe of 20 or i>0 de- 
Nés, bv m.érm-5 ofa movable g«H , ;.md a] 30 to eK 
atC ari ; i t p, ' ejS ^ U aV Ple^"^, by a different mov*. 
pntof [I* same sail, without the l„ss„| « ay „ 
hega^therelore.trie same baiiotmand gas wi}ui v& ' 
o. several ascensions. Uras. so much pleased W -thr, 
uspertmn nf , he n.odel, thac I determined to ■ , 

I attracting r h e Mention, and hafinp- the onin on 
i ^ ai . ?P»r ieereeuCorre-nnJe-ae/ In my 
inmble or-tnién it promises !o :ihvia:e ,;, (h d}fl c 
unie, wn.icb have hitherto prevented the m ann| 
b ^ V 1 baBqr,»., If, Mr. £dkor, yoti thiol- ^ 
f^gP>ng worthy of insertion, vo U will l?J I 

M.yiT, 1813. A ^{ifi^B. 



rr^HE Nobility and Gentry, and those of the Pub- 

51 lie, who have generously declined the return of ilieir 
Subscription for defraying theexpence of const.ucllug a Bal- 
loon that cotikl be elevated, depressed, and directed at the plea- 
sure of ihe œronatit, with oilier advantages too uintie.ons here 
to mention, are informed, that their receipts will entitle them 
to admisiion to 'he inflating and ascension of a Balloon con- 
structed on the principle of that which was intended to have 
b. en exhibited on his Majesty's Birth-day, lhat is expected to 
ascend in ihe course of the present month of June, from ihe 
Bowling-green of the Horns Tavern, Kennington. 

It is requp led that those Subscribers who mean to avail 
themselves nf ihis |)iivilegp, to apply at the bat of the Horns 
t> have tueir rec-ipS certified and sealed, where tirkets of ad- 
mi-si .n are to he liad, at 5s. ciirh, a= i. money will he taken hi 
the entrance to ihe Green, not even miilieday of ascension, it 
be'mg p e.-umed thai this nnxle of proceeding vviil prevent the 
depref!a!io:is n<a i!l> committed on these occasions, as the hold- 
e s of tiekeis and subscribers will be the only persons interested 
in these exliihaions. 

The Model at No. 156, Leadenhall-street ; and the drawing 
at Mr. Want's, Gonf.ctioner, Bond-street, remain on view to 
iV'oii-SubscnbTs, Is. each. /p7j 



THE FIRM of Messrs. B1DDULPII and Co 
CEarkig-crdss, decline receiving S-nbserîptio.as of Ten 

P ; »u:)(ls nod upward^, for the aceoiBinodatiou of the Nobility 
and Gentjv, which is advertised every evc/.iuj in The States- 
man .; as the intention of that Subscription is wholly to pro- 
mota Scientific Knowledge, 

llli no longera question if BATXO.ONS can be directed, but 
jf the amount of the Subsei-iption will be sufficient to enable 
the Projector, ii. Williams, to put it in practice by the 1st 
<if Jll-ie ? 

A Drawn?, that w'll clearly demonstrate the practicability,, 
U to be seen at Mr. Waud's, Confectioner, Bond-street, where 
Subscriptions of Five Shillings are received, for which a re- 
fcelpt'isttrhe -:<'iven, that will admit each Subscriber to the 
(• : -,i a ic?nsion, and I i view ihe Model, now exhibjtiug at 156, 
.Leadenhail-street. T'ie Pub'.- are requested, for particulars, 
to see ihe Advertiseraetit in t he Rvc-mee P,iper. fa^ /$/j 

"._._; — '- - vi /j. as: 7 v?j 

M. Degen took an serijA fligjit in Paris, on ]5ih 

Auoiist. He asceinlt'il in a balloon ahi>ut tkrfe 

i in the afièrnouii, fro in a platform ràî'sçd in ihtiiniil- 

clle of the Seiije, be. ween the brnlo c of Concord 

and the bridge Roytil.- Assi.sied by his witr^s, he 

moved horii5e>ntai!y from ihe plat form to ihe Urirj'iie 

H'o\;t-, "hen he rose nearly perpèiklii'ètâil'y to the 

! height of 54-00 feet, fdlouhig the direc'eu, of ihe 

j Seint' through Paris, test he suoiiln e.X|)eiience any 

j accident, and was successful in guiding ihe balloon 

! by frrearis of his wings against the wind, which 

Was very stronr(. Throughout he evinced much cool 

ness and courage. At six o'clock he descended- in 

j the plain of-St. Maude; at eight he returned to Paris. 

! ON THE BALLOON, EXHIBITED IN HONOUR OF 
NAPOLEON'S BIRTH-DA V. 

Apt emblem o? Usurper's pow'r, 

It rises with mu«h toil and trouble; 
Then, soaring, swelling, its short 'hour, 

It sinks a breathless, worthless, bubble '. 



KING .JOE'S RELIGION. 



Poor Joe's Religion's such, 'tis sa;. J, 
That he would moek his Maker; 

But, when from fFctltngton he fled, 
'Tis thought he turn'd a Quaker! 



JM 



ACHH OMATIC OB JE CT-&US S 



Tig.ô. 



Aeeoxauti c s jPH TE IV. 








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/% &ùu *tâ* /W ^suen^ti AL <&p4 *>-0^? A <%* 



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+*a* *L<- »"<?- ***+ "ZZ "* 



CHRONOLOGY OF THE ART OF FLYING. 

For many centuries— dating back, we presume, 'to the a°e of 
Icarus— the theory of flying with wings was indulged in by man- 
kind. " To swim, ; says Dr. Johnson, » is to fly in a grosser fluid • 
to fly is to swim in a subtler." In the middle ages many plans 
were devised for imitating the motions of birds : even Friar Bacon 
and Albertus Magnus are said to have indulged in those atrial 
speculations In the 16th century an Italian attempted to fly from 
the walls of Stirling Castle to France, but unluckily he no sooner 
expanded his wings than he fell and broke his leg. He said that 
the next time he would try eagle's feathers: but he never 
tried again In 1617, Heyder, rector of a grammar school at 
Firbingen, delivered a lecture on flying, which induced a learned 
monk to make wings on Heyder's principle, but the moment he 
committed himself to them, he fell and broke both his le<*s At 
last— no wonder— the experiment was altogether abandoned. A 
very profound Italian mathematician and anatomist wrote a book 
to prove that the weakness of the pectoral muscles in man rendered 
it impossible for him to fly. Good master anatomist, was that the 
only reason Does specific gravity go for nothing, in the absence 
of the air-cells that assist the birds'? 

The indefatigable Jesuits were the next speculators in the art of 
ascending through the air. But they devised the more practicable 
mode of traversing the winds by balloons, although their first at- 
tempts were awkward enough. One Father Laurns [he was no 
doubt an Irishman, and his proper name was Laurence! in 1630 
asserted that a spherical bag filled with dew, and exposed to the 
sun at noon, would ascend. Marry why? because the dew came 
from Heaven by night, and ascended by day ! He illustrated this 
curious theory by a goose egg, which filled with dew would he 
asserted, rise up and remain suspended in the air. His disciples 
tried the experiment, and were wofully disappointed to see thee™ 
he like a stone on the ground. °° 

The next attempt was that of a bag filled with smoke, having 
valves and a boat attached to it. This was the nearest approach 
to the modern balloon-but it failed. In 1690, Francis Lama a 
worthy Jesuit, proposed the union of four copper balls, each 
wenty-five feet in diameter, and only the 225th part of an inch in 
thickness. These balls would be of themselves lighter than air : 
but being filled with rarified air he assumes that they would rise 
with a force equal to 1,220 lbs. But Lama could find no backer 
and he was himself too poor to make the experiment. As a plate' 
1 ather Lama s design looks very imposing. A Dominican friar fit 
would seem that the ecclesiastics of those days had a strong passion 
for soaring) devised an œronautic machine in 1755, on a scale of 
magnitude much greaterthan his predecessors had dreamt of. His 
p an was to collect the purest atmospheric air, and place it in a bae- 
ot sailcloth, the dimensions of which should be more than a mile 
every way. The ascensive force of this stupendous vessel would 
he contended, transport through the air a whole army, with its 
artillery, waggons, horses, provisions, and all other appendages 
i .a the ,*? om Kirche of Cologne, this enormous project was 
. abandoned for want of means. But by such experiments as these 
. we are brought at last to the invention of the practicable balloon 
which originated m France in 1782. 

Two ingenious mechanics, Stephen and Joseph Montgolfier 
had long contemplated the construction of the balloon apparatus' 
and at length Joseph Montgolfier formed a small silk bao- in thé 
form of a parabelopipedon, having a capacity of forty-five cubic 
feet, filled with the smoke of burnt paper. The bag/when freed 
of its stay, rose instantly. He then constructed a globe thirty-five 
feet in diameter, and lighted a fire within to keep up the Tarifica- 
tion of the air. It rose with a force of 500lb. Having thus satis- 
fied themselves, to their inexpressible delight, they made the first 
public experiment m the presence of their townsmen on the 6th of 
June, 1783. As the balloon arose the feelings of delight and 
astonishment, not unmingled with awe, of the villagers, were in- 
describable. The news rapidly spread to Paris, where, b !7h M- 
owing August M. F . de St. Fond sent up a balloon filled with 
hydrogen gas, but owing to the awkwardness of the men, it did not 
answer the purpose. The Parisians, however, were delighted, 

* nnrf r ! n6Xt day an ° ther balloon was seût «P to the height of 
oOOO feet in two minutes amidst the firing of cannon and the 

Po^ nng / * 6 mul l lt " de - ™ e Montgolfiers were now invited to 
Pans, and sent up a balloon filled in eleven minutes with the smoke 
of burnt straw and wool. It rose to the height of 1,500 feet 
taking in the basket which hung from it a sheep, a cock, and à 
t&* the Ji rsta, ? lraaJs *£ had ever left the earth in such a 
vehicle. The globe descended at the end of eight minutes, and 
the animals came down unhurt. Montgolfier then made a balloon 
of epheroidal form, forty-five feet in diameter, and seventy-five 
feet high, and in the same month Piloter de Rozier, an, eminent 
naturalist, ascended in it, having the honour of being the first 
aeronaut. In a few days after he was accompanied in another 
ascent by the Marquis d'Arlan. Each time they had straw with 
them to supply the tire in the balloon. A few holes were burnt in 
the balloon, but by the application of wet sponges they prevented 
the combustion from extending, and having traversed six miles 
in twenty-five minutes they descended in safety. Meantime 
honours and riches were heaped on the fortunate Montgolfière, 
lue Academy of Sciences gave them an annual prize of 600 livres 
the elder brother received the badge of St. Michael, and a patent 
of nobility; and a pension of 4,000 livres was conferred on the 
1 other. 

Several ascents were now made with success. On the 1st of 
December, 1783, a balloon filled with hydrogen gas took up 
aeronauts for the first time in the persons of M.M. Charles and 
Robert. On the 19th of January, 1784, the elder Montgolfier 
ascended from Lyons in a balloon, 134 feet high and 109 feet 
wide. The dimensions of this have not been equalled since. It 
took up eighteen cwt. of ballast, besides six voyagers. This' bal- 
loon, m dimensions, expense, and decorations, has far exceeded 
all succeeding ones. In the same year, Madame Thible ascended 
at Lyons before the King of Sweden. She was the first aeronaute. 
Oa the 19th of September, M. Robert and the Duke of Orleans 
ascanded from Paris, and travelled 135 miles in five hours, during 
which his royal highness was frightened almost out of his senses. 
inis is the longest voyage ever made in a balloon. On the 18th 
of June, 1786, M. Festin ascended from Paris, and remained a 
whole night in the sky. Previous to the darkness he descended 
and re-ascended several times. On the 25th of November, 1783 
the first ascent in England was made by Count Zambecarri an 
Italian, in a gilt balloon, from the Woolwich artillery-ground On 
the 21st of September, 1784, the Chevalier Lunardi made the first 
ascent from London. On the 7th of January, 1785, M. Blanchard 
ana Dr. Jeffries, an American physician, ascended at Dover, and 
descended m a forest near Calais, having crossed the English 
Channel in two hours and three quarters. M. Pilater de Rozier and 

«L jTV' T 10 , US t0 return the visit t0 the English nation, 
ascended from Boulogne June 15, 1785. The better to regulate 
tueir course, they suspended a smoke balloon from that filled with 
frydrogen gas ; but they had not been up more than a quarter of 
aa hour when, the spectators were paralysed by terror at seeing the 
lower balloon take fire and communicate the flames to the upper 
one. In a minute the car was without support, and the helpless 
aeronauts were precipitated from the height of a mile, and dashed 
to pieces on the sea shore. Since that calamity smoke balloons 
have not been used. In August, 1785, Blanchard used a parachute 
tor the first time. He sent down a dog in it, which reached the 
earth in safety. Blanchard made more money by his excursions 
than any other aeronaut. On the 2d Sept., 1802, M. Garnerin, a 
frenchman, ascended from London, and attempted to come down 
in a parachute; but he was nearly dashed to pieces against the 
cnimnies of St. Paneras, and he was found in an adjoining field 
almost without life. Balloons have been occasionally used in mi- 
litary service. The French republican armies had a balloon attached 
to each division, for the purpose of reconnoitering the enemy. The 
decisive defeat of the Austrians, and Gen.Jourdan, in June, 1794, 
is attributed to the information conveyed by a balloon, which made 
two ascents before the battle. As it went up the second time the 
enemy fired several balls at it, but in vain. 

After all, balloons have not justified the expectations they raised, 
lney have conferred little or no value upon science, and their 
principal value is derived from the opportunity they give of seeing 
almost a whole kingdom at a glance. The aeronaut has only the 
power of ascending and descending. Nor can he reach any given 
point unless the current of wind in which he happens to sail sets 
directly towards it. 



-For the M OR N IN G HERALD, 
AIR BALLO Ô N s! 
Mr. Editor, f*-/^~ - /MJf 

VHR public has fomftW* been AizeJ-with 

jouable fuly of inciiv;: rs highly o* 

^na. trade: this thereto rr,,!uYel b e 
c : Ledan i nnocen t andh,rn 1 !^raee? Eut. Sir 
another Speeds of ma,ia htf huefy broke out 

en he " hCm be '" g har -^> 'really tfu^ 
tens the country with imminent J«i ; the 
people Seem at prefent balhon mad. I am „o 

feu would have them confined to P erf 0ns we I 
verfed in phyfces, in. who*: hands balloons mipht 

«J^v* f pubIic , ut;]ity : but whe » ^fe 

zeroftatic machines are let o/Fin eve y flreet in 
town, any at ni& too, it is hi|h time for people 

theieglobes alight upon hay ricks o* corn flacks 
or on thatched otft houie,, r.o man could Sore > e 
th£ extent d the mifchit-S th, t might enfue- 
houfes burnt down, and families reduced to W" 
gary might berths- melancholy confequencef ■ 
and thus what was intended as parti me to tome 
thoughts young men, might be the ruin of 
the moll mdullrious and ufefu) part of the com 
munny This i ; not the only country in which 
this balloon rage has fhewn itfclf; but the wif 
dom of foreign princes foon cvtinpuiflied it in 
then- dominions. The Archduke Leopold So 
vereignof the Grind Duuhv of Tufcany foon 
checked u by an edict, which enjoined all per- 
lons m lus territories, ot what rank of erudi- 
tion whatever, not to let off an air balloon, 
without his exprefs licence; which licence how- 
ever, for the fake o'fphilofophy, he declared he 
would not refnfe to perfohs properly qualified by 
their learning in phyfics to conduct aerial expe- 
riments. France, where the ballocn took^ its 
birth, and where the fovereigh. encouraged by 
his prefence, the launching of more than one 
into the atmofphere, foon. perceived thenecefli- 
ty of following, the example of the Grand Duke 
of Tufcany ; and by a royal edict, the King 
forbad the general and indiscriminate ufe of bal- 
loons, with an exception however in favor of 
the learned, under whole aufpicea aerial navig'a 
tions may Hill be undertaken. 

Would not Such a policy as this be worthy the 
adoption of our magillrates? The Security of 
houfes and Ships from fire calls for it. Some 
may imagine that there is no law under the au 
thority of which, the magillrates can prevent 
the general ufe of balloons, and recourie mult 
be had to the Sovereign power, to make a law 
for that purpoSe,: but this is a miitake ; the pub- 
lic fafety is at Hake ; and that is a law in itfeif 
fuperior to any that can be made by the legisla- 
ture : balloons ,ffn- up with a lighted candle are 
nuifances, but Still greater at night; the favorite 
time with the young and giddy .for .launching 
them ; and thofe who make ufe of them mi gin 
consequently be indided'Sor them, exclufive'of 
their being anfwerable in a pecuniary way, for 
the damages that might be occafioned by them. 
I thought it my duty to fay this much, in order 
to_ fet people on their guard, and put them io 
mind of the Coniequences that may poffibly at 
tend their amufements : let thofe whole peculiar 
duty it is to watch over the public fafety, take 
the hint and fee that — ne quid detriment! n'/puhli- 
ca capiat. 

VIGIL. 



for 1784; Sept. iB^lU 

UTILITY of the AIR BALLOONS. 

THE flate of the atmofphere has been 
Hitherto very imperfectly underftood ; and 
the trivial difcoveries made in it already fuf- 
\ ficiently compenfate all the induftry and ex- 
pence attending the air balloons. 

The different direction of the air, in propor- 
tion to its altitude, is an objecl: which cannot 
but intereit the attention of the curious and 
fcientific. The degrees of heat and cold which 
it parles as it approximates, or recedes from, 
the earth, with a great variety of other qua- 
lities which belong to that fubtk fluid, may 
alfo be afcertained with precilion by an inde- 
fatigable profecution of thefe aeroftatic re- 
fearches. 

It has long been an eftablifhed idea, at leaft 
among the vulgar, that fo ftrongly did the air 
aét on the human frame, when raited to any 
confiderable height,, that the blood veffels were 
unable to. refill: the impulfe, and confequently 
burft by the. violence. Philofophers, affefted by 
this apprehenfiôn, have refufed toafcend moun- 
tains of any extraordinary altitude, as deem- 
ing it madnefs to attempt an experiment which 
they believed themfelves, certain of not Sur- 
viving. 

Our aeroftatic expeditions which have yet 
been followed with no great or insurmountable 
inconvenience ariling from a difference or ex- 
tremity of temperature, exprefs Sufficiently 
the abfurdity of this prepoffeffion. For ex- 
cept the chilnefs perceived by the Roberts, 
and an accidental whirlwind in the courfe of 
a Subsequent voyage, it does not appear that 
the lungs or circulation of the human blood 
,are at all impeded or affedted by any height 
to which adventurers have hitherto been, able, 
toafcend. 

Over and above all thefe, who knows what 
advantages may be derived from air balloons by 
armies or fleets in the operations of war, in be- 
fieging towns, reconnoitring localities, detect- 
ing ambufhes, taking diftances, marking charts,, 
difcovering water, provender, and forage, for 
camps in an unknown country, not to mentioa- 
the utilities it may afford to phyfic,, navigation, 
and aftronomy. 

Though no one advantage were tobethe con- 
Sequence of this difcovery, which couldentitle 
it to a place among the neceffary, it would Still 
have a claim to be claffed among the elegant 
arts oS life. For furely it unites the beautiful: 
and grand in an uncommon degree. What 
more pleafing than to fee the machine afcending: 
and descending with a motion fo eaSy, graceful, 
and charming. It brings to our ideas the re- 
membrance of ancient times, when the inha- 
bitants of the upper world vifitedand revifited 
ours. 



But the Sublimity of the ipeclacle is altoge- 
ther unparalleled— an object thus Spacious, 
ponderous, and magnificent, riling or Springing 
perpendicularly upwards, as if to rival the eagle 
in her flight, muft.be viewed with SenSations 
peculiarly awful and affecting. It is not only a 
new fight, but a fight she molt Surprising and 
extraordinary, that ever the eye beheld. 

é O Art, bow wide and extenfive is thy domi- 
nion ? how potent and univerfal thy energies ! 
how numerous, how neceffary, how interesting 
thy utilities ! No element is either So violent or 
So Subtle, fo yielding or fo fluggifh, as to prove 
fuperior to thy direction. 

Thou dreadecrft not the fierce impetnofity of 
fire, but haft rendered its qualities both obedi- 
ent and uSeful. Thou halt. Softened theftubboi 
tribe of minerals, So as to airSwer many valu 
able ends, by affuming innumerable fhapes 
hence weapons, armour, coin, and previous to 
thefe, all thofe tools, and instruments which 
empower thee to proceed to further ends.na©re 
excellent. 

To thee we owe whatever we derive from 
all the improvements of navigation. The feas N 
and waves are thus made fubfervient to man, 
hv thy aiftftance. The yielding element of 
water thou haft taught to bear us; and the 
rolling ocean henceforth promotes that inter- 
courfe of nations which ignorance would ima- 
gine it was deftined to intercept. 

Nor is the lubtle air lefs obedient to thy 
power. Whether thou willeft it to be a mi- 
nifter to our pleafure, or a hand-maid to our 
neceffity. At thy command it giveth birth to 
founds which charm the foul with all the pow- 
ers of harmony. It exports our fuperfluities 
to fupply the wants of others ; and it brings to 
our doors the riches, the dainties, and luxuries 
of afar. And when the great modern fcheme 
of aeroftatic failing is perfected, who can tell 
vhat innumerable benefits may ftill reSult from 
thy unwearied endeavours to direct, improve, 
and accommodate human life ? ' 



to Ther? h , the ^^ ag ° b >' S fudl l'on, cM»» 
to the reparation of having invented the «tS 
aerotaon, if we may bdieve ancient wre? 
fays a correspondent) that ingenious dift£S 
». by no means & t modern date ; but S be 
afenbed to a jeH.it ofBra/il, named B thleSmi 
de G uamo , wh p m : , ie made the Si 

loving experiment in prefence of John V tbl 
waole royal family, and a vail concour of p ! 
pie: he contrived a machine which, by means of 
aparucular kind of fire, produced 'by'an el bo- 
rate procefs he caufed to float in the air v! t 
any other Support than that element upon 1 
f'gnal g 1V en, it presently Surmounted the akkud» 
ol a 1 the circumjacent building,, and ' roSe to 
evel wKh the cornice of the pala ce ; to prevent 
he machine being carried above the clZl X 
the winds cords were attached to it, beinp held 
by people below,- but they not managing thefe 
cords according to the direction of the frtift , 
g.uft or w.nd forced it againfl the cornice of the 

forcer •! * f hu b , na S a P^tioncr in 



LONDON. 4^r 

. The invention of air balloons* is, we are 
affured, by accounts from Paris, likely to turn 
out of much more utility than it has hitherto 
been SuppoSed thoSe ingenious machines would 
nccompliflu M. Le Roy, of the Roval Ac ;i- 
demy of Belles Lettres, has for Some time paft 
been making experiments with them in the na- 
vigation of boats -and Small veffels, and has 
proved., to the Satisfaction of the Academicians, 
that a boat directed by a balloon is infinitely 
Safer from being overSet, than by any fails hi- 
therto made uSe of. , 



BALLOONS. 

The idea of constructing a machine, which sVould 
enable us to rise into, and sail through, the air, 
would seem to have occupied the human mind even 
in ancient times, but it was never realized till within 
the last fifty years. The first who appears to have 
speculated rationally upon the subject was the cele- 
brated Friar Bacon ; he flourished in the thirteenth 
century, and described a mac hine, con s isting of two j 
hollow globes of thin copper, exhausted of air, which 
answered the expectations of the inventor. 

About the year 1G30, Bishop Wilkins suggested 
the idea of constructing a chariot upon riiechaniial 
principles, in which it would be possible to traverse 
the regions of air. Cotemporary with him was 
Francis Lana, a Jesuit, who proposed a method 
similar to that of Bacon. 

In 1 709, Gusman, a Portuguese friar, constructed 
a machine in the form of a bird, with tubes and 
bellows to supply the wings with air ; the inventor 
was rewarded with a liberal pension, but his machine 
failed. Gusman, however, was not discouraged, for ' 
in 1736 he constructed a wicker basket, seven feet in 
diameter, and covered with paper, which rose to the 
height of two hundred feet in the air. The success 
of this experiment procured for him the reputation 
of being a sorcerer. Twenty years after this, how- 
ever, the science of Aerostation began to be studied 
upon philosophical principles. Among the first who 
wrote upon this subject was Joseph Gallien, of Avig- 
non, who, in 1755, published a treatise, in which he 
recommended the employment of a bag of cloth 
or leather, filled with air lighter than that of the 
atmosphere. The discovery of hydrogen gas, by 
Mr. Cavendish, in 1766, was, however, the nearest 
approach to success. Mr. Cavallo made trial ot 
this gas in 1782 ; and Messrs. Mongolher, in the 
same year, discovered the art of raising balloons by 
fire. 

The first public ascent of a fire-balloon took place 
at Annonay, in France, in June, 1783 ; and, encou- 
raged by the success of this experiment, Messrs. 
Robert constructed a balloon of thin silk, varnished 
with a solution of India rubber, which they filled 
with hydrogen gas ; its inflation occupied several 
days. When completed, it was conveyed by torch- 
light to the Champ de Mars, and, on the 27th of 
August, ascended, in the presence of an immense 
multitude of spectators ; after floating in air for three 
quarters of an hour, it descended in a field, fifteen 
miles from the place of its ascent. 




• tm-emir. 



'n'nJfg& (,:u{/,lcr//„.rj, /.:„•„,„,»/. 



BaéUnv 









UR BALLOOÎ 
invented /;? the last Century. 

PuHijlui h J.St», fU : ruhU/^'Mn;-/, rs,j 



/ 



Aeros tation. 







, iù. 






'ûrtr/? . 






/•„/■/,,/,, j, ,.,//, !,/,/„ -,/,,/,,„: in. "'/?»». h J.in/Â^ 



PLATE U. 



Tui.8. 



Tiff. 6. 




■h&lîAsiat 'JutJLct ,'w;,.<V:::^/ft^^:"/.'":"""" , * B^.^aterno^r low. 






^E. 



THE MIRROR. Af*±* ^ S f 



AEROSTATION. 

UPON THE APPLICATION OF DALLOONS. 

The subjoined extracts, fro ta Mémoires sin- 
ks aerostats, par Meunier, Membre tie l'Académie 
des Sciences, may amuse our readers who take 
an interest in aerostation. Dr. Franklin, on 
the appearance of the first balloons, observed 
that this new offspring of the sciences should 
be carefully watched in its infancy, in the ex- 
pectation of deriving advantage from it in a 
state of maturity. It is looked upon at the 
present day with indifference, and considered 
only as an object of curiosity, reserved for the 
pomp of fêtes. That, however, was not tho 
view taken when the first aerostatic experi- 
ments were made. The memoir of Meunier 
upon this subject was never printed, but Col. 
Coutelle, an old officer, who had the manage- 
ment of the military balloons during the Re- 
publican revolution of France, gave che public, 
in 1826, an analysis of it. A notice appeared 
in the Revue Encyclopédique, from which we 
extract the following remarks: — "Meunier, in 
his researches respecting balloons, proposed 
nothing less than to make these machines ca- 
pable of accomplishing long and distant voyages ; 
he therefore calculated the best means of mak- 
ing them strong enough to stand the shock of 
various currents which agitate the atmosphere. 
He projected the power of throwing out an- 
chors, of rising to the elevation which might 
be necessary, of moving through the air in a 
tranquil state, and of modifying the direction 
and velocity of the machine. As the envelopes 
which formed balloons could not be made im- 
penetrable to hydrogen, it became necessary to 
find the means of preserving the gas, and of 
supplying the deficiency occasioned by its 
escape. " After finding satisfactory answers to 
his scientific inquiries, it remained to ascer- 
tain the form and dimensions of a balloon 
capable of transporting, in addition to its rig- 
ging, a crew for the necessary manœuvres, the 
navigators, and their instruments, and a quan- 
tity of provisions proportioned to the duration 
of a long navigation through regions in which 
nothing could be found for the support of the 
travellers. In short, he projected the construc- 
tion of an air-balloon with the power required. 
This able mechanic overcame nearly all the diffi- 
culties in his way by the invention of a second 
envelope to his balloon. This addition pro- 
cured him. the means of resisting the violence 
of winds, the facility of mounting and descend- 
ing, and of keeping at the desired elevation : 
in D short, he avoided the loss of hydrogen gas, 
or rendered the effect of so little importance, 
that it might be neglected without inconve- 
nience. These results, so important, were 
entirely dependent on the managers of the 
balloon. 

"The hydrogen," says the author, "is con- 
tained in a balloon of silk, plastered with caoul- 
chouc (gum elasic) This envelope must be as 
IMit as possible, and greater than the volume. 
of o-as it is to contain. The second envelope 
isatso of silk more expansive than the balloon, 
and fortified upon the exterior by a net. It 
should be impenetrable-, to the compresser! 
; atmospheric air, because it is well known that 



BALLOONS IN 1648. 

Letter written from Warsovia, by a gentle- 
man of that city, concerning a proposition 
made unto the king of Poland, about the 

, rare invention of 

FLYING IN THE AIR* 

Noble Sir, — Did I not know full how 
. earnest you are after finding out of rare in- 
ventions, and other curious things worthy of 
a noble and heroic spirit, I should not be so 
ready to impart to you any thing that cometh 
to my knowledge worthy of your. observation, 
and also knowing your many and great em- 
ployments, yet do now make bold to represent 
unto you, the strangest and never heard of 
before invention of flying in the air, which I 
doubt not, will, for its curiosity, and fine- 
ness of conceit, be a matter of delight and 
pleasure unto those who are learned, espe- 
cially who have studied the mathematics; 
and although this subject may be a matter of 
laughter, and be despised amongst them, 
being a rule among the vulgar, as not to be- 
lieve any thing whatsoever, any further than 
they can apprehend the same, never consi- 
dering what likelihood or probability there is 
for the effecting thereof. The thing is thus : — 
There is at present in this court, a certain 
man come from Arabia, who is come hither 
to the King of Poland, to whom he proffeieth 
his head for security of that which he pro- 
pounded, which is, that he hath brought 
from that country the invention of a machine, 
being airy, and of a construction so light, ne- 
vertheless so sound and firm, that the same 
is able to bear two men, and hold them up in 
the air, and one of them shall be able to 
sleep, while the other maketh the machine to 
move, which thing is much after the same 
manner as you see represented in the old 
tapestry hangings, the dragons flying, 
whereof this same takes its name : I do give 
you them for pattern, or model of this in- 
vention, being a thing much in question, and 
to be doubted concerning these flying dragons, 
whether any be alive; likewise, it is ques- 
tioned by many of the truth of there being 
any unicorns, griffins, phoenix, and many 
Other like things, which by many wise un- 
derstanding men, are deemed to have little or 
no reality in them, but all imaginary ; never- 
theless, we believe this upon the credit of 
antiquity, and the report of many who know 
more. There are ïew in this court but 
have got a pattern of this machiner, and do 
hope to send you one likewise, in case this 
project takes some good effect, and proves to 
be as true, as rare in its invention. The forms 
of it which he hath made, and after- 
wards presented, with the many reasons he 
gives to maintain his proposition, seems to 
be so strong, and so likely to be true, that 
great hopes are conceived thereof; and al- 
though he undertakes the celerity or swiftness 
of this airy post shall be far beyond that of 
our ordinary posts, seeing he promises to go 
with the same in twenty-four hours, forty 
leagues of this his country, which will make 
of English miles, near two hundred and 
forty, a thing which seemeth so strange to 
many, that therefore they fall off from him, 
and so give little credit to it. although he hath 
brought with him good certificates how it 
hath been approved by many in other places, 
where he hath made experiment thereof, to 
his great honour and credit, and the admira- 
tion and amazement of the beholders; be- 
sides, it may well be thought, that a man of ' 
honour as he seems to be, would not set so 
little by his life, as to lay it at stake about a 
business of that nature, except he had some 
good ground first, and had some experi- 
mental knowledge of the same, seeing he 
must hazard his life, two several ways, the 
one in case he did not make trial of what he 
had promised, and to be proved to have come 
hither as an impostor, to have cheated this 
court, who upon discoveries of like businesses, 
will not make it a jest, or a thing of small 
moment; and the other time of danger is, 
when he begins to take his flight, which he 
is to do, above the highest towers or steeples 
that are, and without his dexterity and certain 
knowledge therein, would run into an utter 
ruin and destruction. 

Whether it be true or no, there are com- 
missioners appointed, who are to examine 
the business, and so according as they find it, 
to make their report, and he is appointed to 
make au essay, and show a piece of his skill in 
their presence, before he is to be suffered to act 
it publicly, that if in case his business doth 
not prove according to expectation, they who 
have given credit to it, and him, may not be 
exposed to open shame and derision, even as 
it happened once in the city of Paris, where 
a stranger having gathered near the Louvre 
many thousands of spectators, in whose sight, 
as a man void of sense and reason, having 
taken his flight from the top of the highest 
tower thereabouts, which is between the 
Louvre and the Seine, this miserable wretch 
fell to the ground, broke his neck, and his 
body torn in pieces. 

Whilst every one is expecting the issue of 

this, there are many great wagers laid about 

- it, yet take this by the way, there hath been 



several great consultations made with the 
mathematicians, who have all declared, the 
putting it into operation is very difficult, but 
for the thing itself, do not count it impossible, 
and to this purpose, there was a true infor- 
mation brought of a prisoner, who having 
tied very fast about his collar, and under his 
arms, a long cloak, whereunto was made fast 
a hoop, to keep the spread out and round, 
casting himself from the top of a high tower, 
he thought to have fallen into a small river 
which ran at the foot thereof, but it hap- 
pened otherwise, for he was carried on the 
further side of the water, safe and sound ; the 
cloak which stood instead of a sail, did>ear 
up the weight of his body, and so parted the 
air by degrees, that he had time to descend 
easily to the ground, without receiving anv 
hurt by the fall. 

Not to bring here the fabulous history of 
Dedalus, Archites Tarentin, the most famous 
artist of his time, made a wooden pigeon, 
which fled very high into the air ; as also, at 
Nuremberg, at the great and magnificent 
reception made by that city unto Maximilian 
the emperor, an artificial eagle, although both 
of them were much heavier, and yet not so 
big as a child's bauble, these two things were 
raised into the air, being held only with a 
packthread ; but another engineer had not 
so good success; for having raised himself 
into the air, by means of an engine, much 
like to this we speak of, the wires broke be- 
fore he had raised himself so high as he 
intended, whereby he fell to the ground sooner 
than he was willing, and by the fall broke his 
thigh, and was in great danger of his life ; 
yet by this, thus much may be gathered— the 
thing may possibly be done : moreover, ex- 
perience daily shews us, nothing is impos- 
sible to man, but that through labour and 
industry, the most difficult things may at 
length be obtained ; only in this point con- 
cerning the possibility, or impossibility of 
things, wise men do seem to be most slow in 
giving their opinion about it; there are also 
examples of birds, and those that swim, 
whereby we may judge by their swiftness, 
that the air may do the same operation upon 
other subjects, according as the artist can ac- 
commodate itself to it. 



• The Moderate, a weekly newspaper ; December 
12—19, 1648 ; King's Pamphlets, vol. 401, in Museo. 



/ vi4 p or tne L on d on Chronicle. 

A Hint for the Improvement of the Air 
Balloon. 

THIS aeroftatic globe, by the laws of mo- 
tion, being quite paffive to every external 
action arifing from the atmofphere,it muft con- 
fequentlybe wafted, at all times, in the fame 
direction, and nearly with the fame velocity, as 
that of the element in which it floats. Hence it 
is manifeft that, relatively to the wind, the bal- 
loon will always be in a ftate of reft, or in a 
dead calm ; and hence, though we defire ever fo 
much to fteer a courfe different from the wind, 
any fort of rigging, after the manner of fails, 
muft be unavailing. For in vain would we 
fpread out (ilk or canvafs to the breeze, whilft 
moving onward with equal fpeed, and when on 
that account no breath can overtake us. 

In fine weather, when weafcend as a fpectacle 
to the admiring world below, and when a bright 
fun and the gentle rummer's breeze entice us to 
the eagle's flight, the action of oars or wings 
may indeed make the floating globe in fome 
meafure obedient to our will; but without fome 
means of fleering our courfe far more effectu- 
ally, by which human art can dare the more 
formidable gale, and can acquire dominion over 
it to the ends of the earth, this new faculty of 
foaring in the atmofphere will fail to ferve man- 
kind in the point, of all others, the molt im- 
portant. 

This is not faid with any view of îeffening the 
merit of an invention, which, though it fheuld 
never be fo perfected, may yet juftly be deemed 
one of the moft curious that modern times can 
boaft of. No difcovery has ever had a more 
rapid advancement, or a higher claim to the 
foftering care of philofophers. It is their pro- 
vince to explore every known principle, which 
promifes a farther improvement of it, and which 
may eventually enlarge our powers in fo emi- 
nent a degree. 

Of all the expedients which the Writer of 
thefe obfervations has been able to imagine, the 
following is the only one which feems at all 
fitted to give us fome government of the mo- 
tion of a balloon. 

It is Well known, that at different elevations 
from the furface of the earth, the wind moves 
frequently, if not always, with different rates 
of velocity, and fometimes in different di- 
rections; inftead, therefore, of one balloon, 
fuppofe that two, connected with a long tackle, 
, and fo loaded as to keep afunder, were raifed in 
the air, it is evident, that when they came to 
be entangled with ftrata of air in unequal mo- 
tion, the relative reft of both, in regard to the 
refpeclive currents, would no longer take place, 
and that of courfe the wind would blow or aft 
upon them. If the upper current, for txample, 
Were the quickeft, the balloon then would be 
retarded by the one below, whilft this, in its 
turn, would be accelerated by the other above % 
thus the wind would overtake the higher balloon 
and meet the lower one. The breeze being 
brought in this manner into our fervice, it re- 
mains with philofophers fo to meet it with 
oblique ftirfaces, as to enable the aerial navi- 
gators to fhape their courfe fide- ways, and gra- 
dually to wear towards the place of their defti 
nation. Two balloons, fo depending upon one 
another, when involved in currents of air where 
both the velocity and direction are different, 
would afford (till a greater fcope for confpin'ng 
manœuvres in the way of failing. Perhaps, 
even in the ordinary way of parading in the 
air, a parcel of fmaller balloons, connected to- 
gether, might be more fafe and eligible than 
one of enormous fize, upon which folely we 
have to depend. 

As to the materials of which balloons may be 
conftructed, perhaps it will be found that Ca- 
houtchu, in fubftance, is the fifteft that 
nature or art can afford. The vaft elafticity of 
this wonderful refin, and its property of being 
pieced together with fuch perfect adhefion by 

preffure alone, deferve to be well confidered. 
Upon the banks of the Amazon, where it 
diftills fo plenteoufly from the tree, could not 
ways be fallen upon to form it into large fheets 
or gores, of fufficient thinnefs for the fabric of 
the balloon ? X. 

Glafgow, Sept. 27. • . 



HOLT'S MAGAZINE. 



this fluid is confined with less difficulty than 
the hydrogen. It is plastered like the bal- 
loon, and capable of resisting the more weighty 
pressure of air. They leave between the°two 
envelopes a space, for the use we shall 
describe. A tube made of the same sort of 
silk, is made to communicate from this enve- 
lope with a pump in the gondola or car. By 
the means of this pump, they can condense the 
air between the two envelopes, and diminish 
the volume of hydrogen, and also augment the 
specific gravity of the fluid in the balloon. 
Thus, when the aeronauts are at a great height 
in order to descend they have only to Work^the' 
pump. The atmospheric air introduced be- 
tween the envelopes finds its way into the 
balloon, which, in that process, can only main- 
tain its equilibrium in a denser atmosphere, 
and consequently it descends. By this process 
the gas is secured, which can only serve once 
if let out to descend. If they wish to rise 
again, they have only to open a valve and let 
out the atmospheric air detained between the 
two envelopes. To descend, they recommence 
the compression of air. To move horizontally 
in tranquil air, Meunier employed no other 
force than the arms of the crew. The author 
of the Mémoire invented oars inclined like the 
sails of a windmill, fixed to an horizontal axis, 
which the crew turned. This mechanism pro 
cured but a slow movement, something less 
than a league an hour. It could be of little 
use unless it became the means of directing 
the balloon during its ascensional process into 
a current of air which would carry the aero- 
nauts towards the point of destination. He 
had no project for carrying the balloon to the 
place of destination by the action of oars alone. 
We see in this attempt that the mechanist 
began his task upon the principles of geometry. 
His object was to give stability to the balloon, 
and make all the parts of the machine capable 
of meeting the difficulties it had to resist in 
moving through the air." 

Monge, another mathematician, taking ad- 
vantage of the means projected by Meunier, 
for mounting and descending with great rapi- 
dity, conceived the possibility of drawing from 
a vertical movement, that of horizontal trans- 
lation. Meunier, like our countryman Green, 
employed only one balloon for transporting all 
his travellers. Monge divided them in no less 
thnn twenty-five small balloons, each retaining 
a spherical figure instead of the elliptical form 
chosen by Meunier. Monge attached his bal- 
loons one to the other, so that in mounting, 
they presented a flexible assemblage, sus- 
ceptible of being developed in a right line or 
curve. This system of globes rising and de- 
scending, with the rapidity which the aero- 
nauts calculated upon, would have imitated in 
the air the movement of the serpent or eel in 
the water. It is a subject of regret that this 
illustrious geometrician did not try experiments 
founded upon his first ideas, and submit his 
plan to calculation. 

The rest of Meunier's Memoir is devoted to 
details of execution and calculation of ex- 
penses, matters which do not excite the curiosity 
of the reader, but which, in fact, often cost the 
author more labour than all the rest of his plan. 
The balloons proposed by Meunier would have 
been expensive, but that might have been over- 
looked. They are dear articles at the present 
day, consequently in the first experiments for 
the establishment of an invention of high im- 
portance, a little expense could not be said to 
be useless. In some matters of public utility 
it may be necessary to shut our eyes and open 
our purses. 

BALLOON TELEGIIAPHS. 

After the violent storms of the revolution had 
ceased, and learned men were no longer in 
dread of being dragged to the scaffold, they 
began to breathe ; hope revived, and they saw 
an opening in the future. They calculated the 
time when France might be happy and free, 



r 



but liberty was only to be gamed by victory. 
Europe in arms denied the French nntion 
those rights which they claimed, and which be- 
longed to the people. The organization of the 
army providing for its wants, concerting ope- 
rations, the establishment of safe and rapid cor- 
respondence, and, in short, all that could con- 
tribute to public safety, then occupied the mind 
of almost every Frenchman. Amongst other 
inventions, they proposed moveable telegraphic 
lines, and signals were stationed on points 
proper for the protection of the nation. Air 
balloons were considered the most effectual 
means of raising signals to an elevation at 
which they might be seen, notwithstanding the 
interposition of woods, and all the objects 
which intercept the view, in countries covered 
with high mountains; but they required per- 
sons to manœuvre, and make communications. 
The means employed, though simple, were per- 
haps not the best : they became useless in 
strong gales of wind, and by the failure of one 
signal post the whole télégraphique line was re- 
duced to silence. The telegraph used on the 
occasion was composed of seven cylinders or 
light drums, formed by dark cloth, fastened to 
hoops. They were suspended by a triangle of 
wood, consequently, the hoops were horizontal, 
and the axis of the drum vertical. A block 
and line from each drum enabled men below to 
work the machine, and suffer it to ascend or 
haul it down. The combination of places oc- 
cupied by these drums upon the telegraphic 
line, furnished more signals than they bad oc- 
casion for. The triangle, the cylinders, blocks, 
and ropes, to hold the telegraph, in short, the 
whole weight of the machine, was supported 
by a balloon of small diameter, and it was 
moved from one position to another with the 
greatest facility. 

The experiments made between Dammartm 
and Mendon succeeded very well. Long sen- 
tences were exchanged in less time than the 
same communications could be made by the 
telegraphs. Notwithstanding these advan- 
tages, air-balloon telegraphs were neglected 
under the government of Bonaparte, but there 
is ground to believe that the knowledge acquired 
by learned men who studied aerostation will 
not be lost; and that aeronauts will at no dis- 
tant period re-invent many things which pre- 
ceding generations knew very well. 



THE MIRROR. Û^U J^f 



BALLOONS IN 1648. 
Lktter written from Warsovia, by a gentle, 
rnan of that city concerning a proposition 

VLYING IN THE AIR* 

Noble SiR,_Did I not know full how 

• earnest you are after finding out of rare in- 

3T' Ti *^ Culious things worthy of 

a noble and heroic spirit, I should not be so 

St lm ? a !i t t0 y°V n y thi »S that cometh 
to my knowledge worthy of your. observation, 
and also knowing your ma „ y and great eml 
ployments, yet do now make bold to represent 
unto you, the strangest and never heard of 
before invention of flying in the air which j 
doubt not, wdl, for its curiosity, and fine- 
ness of conceit, be a matter of delight and 
pleasure unto those who are learned, espe- 
cially who have studied the mathematics; 
and a though this subject may be a matter of 
laughter, and be despised amongst them, 
being a rule among the vulgar, as not to be- 
lieve any th.ng whatsoever, any further than 
they can apprehend the same, never consi- 
dering what likelihood or probability there is 
for the effecting thereof. The thing is thus :— 
There is at present in this court, a certain 
man co.ne from Arabia, who is come hither 
to the King of Poland, to whom he proffereth 
his head for security of that which he pro- 
pounded, which is, that he hath brought 
from that country the invention of a machine 
being airy, and of a construction so light, ne- 
vertheless so sound and firm, that the same 
is able to bear two men, and hold them up in 
the air, and one of them shall be able to 
sleep, while the other maketh the machine to 
move, which thing is much after the same 
manner as you see represented in the old 
tapestry hangings, the dragons flyinir, 
whereof this same takes its name : I do give 
you them for pattern, or model of this in- 
vention, being a thing much in question, and 
to be doubted concerning these flying dragons, 
whether any be alive; likewise, it is ques- 
tioned by many of the truth of there beino- 
any unicorns, griffins, phcenix, and many 
other like things, which by many wise un- 
derstanding men, are deemed to have little or 
no reality in them, but all imaginary ; never- 
theless, we believe this upon the credit of 

moir V nd the report of ma "y wh '° know 
more. There are few in this court but 
have got a pattern of this machiner, and do 
hope to send you one likewise, in case this 
project takes some good effect, and proves to 
beas true as rare in its invention. The forms 
of it which he hath made, and after- 
wards presented, with the many reasons he 
gives to maintain his proposition, seems to 
be so strong, and so likely to be true, that 
great hopes are conceived thereof; and al- 
though he undertakes the celerity or swiftness 
ot this airy post shall be far beyond that of 
our ordinary posts, seeing he promises to go 
with the same in twenty-four hours, forty 
leagues of this his country, which will make 
of Jinghsh miles, near two hundred and 
lorry, a thing which seemeth so strange to 
many, that therefore they fall off from him, 
and so give little credit to it. although he hath 
brought with him good certificates how it 
nath been approved by many in other places, 
where he hath made experiment thereof, to 
Ins great honour and credit, and the admira- 
tion and amazement of the beholders; be- 
sides, it may well be thought, that a man of 
honour as he seems to be, would not set so 
little by his life, as to lay it at stake about a 
business of that nature, except he had some 
good ground first, and had some experi- 
mental knowledge of the same, seeing he 
must hazard his life, two several ways, the 
one in case he did not make trial of what he 
had promised, and to be proved to have come 
hither as an impostor, to have cheated this 
court, who upon discoveries of like businesses, 
will not make it a jest, or a thing of small 
moment; and the other time of danger is, 
when he begins to take his flight, which he 
is to do, above the highest towers or steeples 
[hat are, and without his dexterity and certain 
knowledge therein, would run into an utter 
ruin and destruction. 

Whether it be true or no, there are com- 
missioners appointed, who are to examine 
the business, and so according as they find it, 
to make their report, and he is appointed to 
make an essay, and show a piece of his skill in 
their presence, before he is to be suffered to act 
it publicly, that if in case his business doth 
not prove according to expectation, they who 
have given credit to it, and him, may not be 
exposed to open shame and derision, even as 
it happened once in the city of Paris, where 
a stranger having gathered near the Louvre 
many thousands of spectators, in whose sight, 
as a man void of sense and reason, having 
taken his flight from the top of the highest 
tower thereabouts, which is between the 
Louvre and the Seine, this miserable wretch 
fell to the ground, broke his neck, and his 
body torn in pieces. 

Whilst every one is expecting the issue of 
this, there are many great wagers laid about 
it, yet take this by the way, there hath been 



mXLSns^hol 10 " 8 TP W ' th tne 
putting it into onI h r W a " declared > the 
for theftinj Ssê Id V Ver y. diffic ^ but 
and to this\ , o e the ° Untlt im P ossib ^ 
mation broS of\ 3S a , ttue *«** 

tied very f as g ^ ou ; l - pns ° ner ' who havin S 

further side of the wate r ^t T^ J the 
cloak which «, 17 • *' f , and sound 5 the 

pm 

yet by this, thus much may be gathered-the 

SSSfST niendo seem t0 be most >iow h 

giving their opinion about it; there are «1 1 
examples of birds, and those that it 
whereby we may judge by their swif ness' 
that the air may do the same operation 2 
^SelK^-^-S 



19 # i r q le i^[S' le ^ te ', aweekl > r newspaper; December 
**- I». 1648; King s Pamphlets, vol. 401, in Museo. 



'J For the London Chronicle. 

A Hint for the Improvement of the Air 
Balloon. 

THIS aeroftatic globe, by the laws of mo- 
tion, being quite paflive to every external 
action arifing from the atmofphere,itmuft con- 
sequently be wafted, at all times, in the fame 
direction, and nearly with the fame velocity, as 
that of the element in which it floats. Hence it 
is manifeft that, relatively to the wind, the bal- 
loon will always be in a flate of reft, or in a 
dead calm ; and hence, though we defire ever fo 
much to fteer a courfe different from the wind, 
any fort of rigging, after the manner of fails,' 
muft be unavailing. For in vain would we 
ipread out filk or canvafs to the breeze, whilft 
moving onward with equal fpeed, and when on 
that account no breath can overtake us. 

In fine weather, when weafcend as a fpectacle 
to the admiring world below, and .vhen a bright 
fun and the gentle rummer's breeze entice us to 
the eagle's flight, the action of oars or wings 
may indeed make the floating globe in fome 
meafure obedient to our will; but without fome 
means of fleering our courfe far more effectu- 
ally, by which human art can dare the more 
formidable gale, and can acquire dominion over 
it to the ends of the earth, this new faculty of 
foaring in the atmofphere will fail to ferve man- 
kind in the point, of all others, the moll im- I 
portant. 

This is not faid with any view of lefTening the ' 
merit of an invention, which, though it fheuld 
never be fo perfected, may yet juftly be deemed 
one of the moft curious that modern times can 
boaft of. No difcovery has ever had a more 
rapid advancement, or a higher claim to the 
foftering care of philofophers. It is their pro- 
vince to explore every known principle, which 
promifes a farther improvement of it, and which 
may eventually enlarge our powers in fo emi- 
nent a degree. 

Of all the expedients which the Writer of 
thefe obfervations has been able to imagine, the 
following is the only one which feems at all 
fitted to give us fome government of the mo- 
tion of a balloon. 

It is well known, that at different elevations 
from the furface of the earth, the wind moves 
frequently, if not always, with different rates 
of velocity, and fometimes in different di- 
rections; inftead, therefore, of one balloon, 
fuppofe that two, connected with a long tackle, 
, and fo loaded as to keep afunder, were raifed in 
the air, it is evident, that when they carne to 
be entangled with ftrata of air in unequal mo- 
tion, the relative reft of both, in regard to the 
refpective currents, would no longer take place, 
and that of courfe the wind would blonu or aft 
upon them. If the upper current, for txample, 
were the quickeft, the balloon then would be 
retarded by the one below, whilft this, in its 
turn, would be accelerated by the other above ; 
thus the wind would overtake the higher balloon 
and meet the lower one. The breeze being 
brought in this manner into our fervice, it re- 
mains with philofophers fo to meet it with 
oblique furfaces, as to enable the aerial navi- 
gators to fhape their courfe fide- ways, and gra- 
dually to wear towards the place of their defti 
nation. Two balloons, fo depending upon one 
another, when involved in currents of air where 
both the velocity and direction are different, 
would afford ftill a greater fcope for confpiiing 
manœuvres in the way of failing. Perhaps, 
even in the ordinary way of parading in the 
air, a parcel of fmaller balloons, connected to- 
gether, might be more fafe and eligible than 
one of enormous fize, upon which folely we 
have to depend. 

As to the materials of which balloons may be 
cqnftructed, perhaps it will be found that Ca- 
houtchu, in fubftance, is the fitteft that 
nature or art can afford. The vaft elafticity of 
this wonderful rcfin, and its property of being 
pieced together with fuch perfect adhefion by 

preflure alone, deferve to be well confidered. 
Upon the banks of the Amazon, where it 
diftills fo plenteoufly from the tree, could not 
ways be fallen upon to form it into large fheets 
or gores, of fufficient thinnefs for the fabric of 
the balloon ? X. 

Glafgoiv, Sept. a 7. 



r 385 J 



Vol. LVI. 



I 







N»436 4 : 



From TUESDAY, October , 9 , to THURSDAY, October 2t, 1784. 




To the Printer VA? London Chronicle 
SIR, 

1 S balloons are now the cur- 
rent fubjeft of difcuffion, 
give me leave to enter a 
little into the merits of 
them ; for all that has hi- 
therto been done, amounts 
to no more than meer holi- 
.. day paftime! They are 
driven wherever the wind lifts. Mr. Lunardi, 
who I believe hoped to return to the Artillery- 
ground, was landed at Ware ; and Mr. Blan- 
chard, at Rumfey in Hampfhire; of courfe, 
nothing has been effefted, but to enable parti- 
cular men to boaft that they have been up with 
a balloon ; and to furnifh idle people* with 
exhibitions, raree-fhews, and ridiculous pro- 
venions ! Mr. Blanchard in his advertifement 
fixed an early hour for fetting off; adding that 
he mould be punctual to his time, becaufe, 
after certain manœuvres, he propofed to go as 
far as the length of the day would allow. 
Thefe manœuvres, by report, were to make a 
complete circuit round the metropolis; which 
would have diftinguifhed him as the firft go- 
vernor of the machine. But when the hour 
came, and the balloon rofe, no manœuvre 
whatever was performed but by the wind, 
\vhich, without the leaft ceremony, carried off 
this bold rival in a direft fteady courfe into 
Hampfhire! 

One trial would (hew as plainly as five 
hundred, that there is a kind of elaftic 
air, fo much fpecifically lighter than atmo- 
fpherical air, that heavy bodies may be carried 
off the ground by the difference between their 
refpeftive gravities; but this knowledge as 
yet, is abfolutely barren, notwithstanding all 
the pompous relations we have received of 
aerial voyages performed abroad; and all 
that we have feen at home. Let us not 
then lavifh any more money in brewing this 
noxious fluid; nor wantonly injure the Public, 
by every now and then depriving them of a 
day s labour of 100,000 working people, and 
ruining all the cultivated grounds in the neigh- 
bourhood of the exhibition ; before we ha°ve, 
by mature theory, endeavoured to render the 
difcovery fubfervient to fome ufeful purpofe. 
I will only add, that your Correfpondent X, 
p. 333> where he fays, " perhaps, even in the 
" ordinary way of parading in the air, a parcel 
c of fmaller balloons, connected together, 
" might be more fafe and eligible, than one of 
'* enormous fize, upon which folely we have 
*' to depend;" does not appear to advert to a 
circumftance, nevevthelefs fufficiently obvious, 
which is, that an equal quantity of inflammable 
air in one balloon, will perhaps raife four 
or ten times the weight it would if the contain- 
ing materials were multiplied. 

To ftimulate more able heads than mineto the 
talk of improvement, is the object of the pre- 
fent letter; in hopes that, by throwing out a 
few curfory hints, even my miftakes may be 
of ufe, by leading to more correft principles. 

I apprehend a bird is the model we 
ought to aim at as nearly as poffible, in 
conftrufting the apparatus to govern a bal- 
loon. If we examine the figure of a bird in 
the aft of flying, we fhall find his wings, the 
fuftaining power, very large in proportion to 
his body : If we examine a balloon, with fuch 
wings as we have hitherto feen, we mall find 



this proportion inverted ! A balloon will indeed 
float without wings; but this advantage is much 
more than meerly loft, when we attempt to 
give an additional weight to the balloon, and 
direct its courfe by wings ; owing to the vaft 
nze of the body oppofed to the refiftanceof the 
an-, which muft be powerfully counteracted by 
thofe wings. It muft alfo have a rudder corre- 
sponding with the tail of a bird ; and whoever 
has noted the flight of large birds, will perhaps 
conceive the head and neck of a bird to be no 
leis ufeful in directing its courfe before, than the 
tail behind. When art therefore is employed to 
imitate nature in like circumftxnees, no advan- 
tage whatever is to be overlooked. A loofe 
fcheme of what I mean, may greatly affift the 
Keader m conceiving my ideas, fave a multi- 
tude of words, and facilitate his own re- 
flections. 




In the above rude outline, I fuppofe a rudder 
made of hlk or canvas, ftretched in a light 
wooden frame, under the balloon, to be conti- 
nued acrofs, and projecting before, like the 
head and neck of a bird, balanced by a 
lath at the top, but fuftained and made to be 
turned eafily below. The floating balloon will 
I am perfuaded, conform to the central direction 
given to it, and the wings will then work 
according to the defircd courfe. But as 
the tails of molt birds are flat, and lie hori- 
zontally, it may deferve confideration, whether 
the rudder, where it expands behind, fhould 
not lie horizontally alfo ; and whether a power 
of railing or depreffing it vertically, would not 
influence the courfe of the balloon in riling or 
finking ? Or whether, as I proceed on the fup- 
pohtion of two navigators, one to work the 
wings, and another to aft as fteerfman, this 
purpofe may not be more readily accomplifhed 
by the gallery being lengthened like a boat? 
The fteerfman in that cafe, by removing him- 
felf fore or aft, might by his weight raife or 
deprefs the head of the machine, and thus 
difpofe it to foar, move level, or incline down- 
ward A pair of large wings framed with 
whalebone (which there is not room to add to 
the figure) fhould be fixed ftrongly in an ho- 
rizontal pofition to the fides of the gallery, and 
be worked by a windlafs within. When the tips 1 
of the wings are brought down by a cord, to a 

[Price Threepence.] 



For the London Chronicle. 
On theDireiïion <?/ AIR-BALLOONS. 

IT will be allowed to be a thing impoffible to 
direct the Balloon in the manner of a fhip, 
by employing fails, if the following circum- 
ftances are attended to : — That a fhip under 
fail, going upon a different direction from the 
wind, receives a motion which is generated 
between two elements ; for every feamari 
knows, that a fhip will not lye up to the wind» 
as it is termed, without having a proper hold 
of water ; hence it is, that a flat-bottomed 
Dutch veffel muft let down her lee-boards t«> 
prevent the wind driving her to leeward. 
Therefore, as a Balloon moves but in one ele- 
ment, it muft be obvious that fails cannot alter 
its courfe. 

Whilft there is no wind, oars may be em- 
ployed to fome advantage ; but as they bear 
no proportion to the fize of the Balloon, they 
can have as little power over it, as a fmall boat 
dragging through the water a large fhip ; and , 
as every thing refpecting the two elements are 
analogous, it muft appear a thing impoffible 
for a Balloon to move againft a current of air, 
going at the rate of 20 miles in the hour- 
Oars may, however, be employed in railing or 
lowering a Balloon ; for, as it floats nearly 
upon an equilibrium, little force is required 
to raife or deprefs it. The power raoft effec- 
tual to fteer the Balloon in any direction, would 
be to make ufe of wings; but thefe, it is to 
be apprehended, cannot be employed upon a 
great fcale, without ufing fuch machinery as 
will be found too weighty for a balloon to take 
up. However, though an aeroftatical machine 
cannot be employed as a vehicle for travelling 
through the air, yet it is probable it may be 
found ufeful in extending fcience. Great light, 
perhaps, may be thrown upon that fublime part 
of phyfics, the doftrine of attraction, by a 
ftrift attention at different heights in theat- 
mofphere, to the barometer, and the ofcilla- 
tions of the pendulum, and the caufe of the 
various phenomena in the upper regions, it is 
probable, will be explained upon more cleaif 
principles than has yet been offered. 



proper degree of depreffion, the cord being 
let flip, the wings will fpring back to their 
horizontal extenfion: a mechanical head will 
eafily apprehend my meaning, without my 
labouring at minute explanation. Thus, by 
the help of a rudder, I conceive the poflibility 
of fleering a direft courfe, of turning that 
courfe into another direftion, or of making a 
circular fweep like a pigeon ; and by elevatinsr 
or depreffing the head or front of the gallery! 
of foanng or tending toward the earth, with- 
out carrying a, load of ballaft to be parted 
with, or unneceflarily diminifhing the more 
valuable contents of the balloon. If thefe loofe 
thoughts fhould be convertible to any practical 
ufe, my purpofe will be anfwered ; for until 
fome actual, improvement is attempted, going; 
up with balloons is meer philofophical trifline, 
and ought always to be met by Englifhmen 
with the interrogation CUI BONO? 








" fm 



PLAN/^ dlreaiHg an AIR-BALLOON. 

In order to give a horizontal... dire&ion to an 
Air Balloon, it feems abfolutely neceflary that 
fome force "fhould be found, which may aft on 
the Balloon in the fame /plane with the wind ; 
and from reflecting on this necefnty, the thought 
.occurred or applying to this purpofe the repul- 
iive force of gunpowder. That it fhould be 
adequate to the defired effect, can fcarcely be 
doubted by any body, who contiders the violence 
with which a cannon recoils, or the rapidity 
with which a fey- rocket mounts in fo fliort a 
time to fo prodigious a height. The velocity 
of the rocket's Sight, and the weight of the 
cannon, fhew this force to be immenfe. What 
then fhould be its effect on a Balloon, which, 
-notwithftanding all the abfolnte weight of its 
appendages, being fiill relatively lighter than a 
feather in the air, would not oppofe any the 
leaft weight whatever to he overcome? It may 
be faid, perhaps, that it would be dangerous in 
the application ; but befi'des that the Balloon 
might be eafily fortified againft all rifque, it 
mult be recollected that this force being repul- 
five, would 'be conftantly and rapidly driving 
the Balloon from, the -fparks, and out of the 
reach of danger. In order to procure a con 
fiant fucceffion of fofce, one might avail onefelf 
of an imitation of ei her of the machines be- 
low- defcrib'ed. 

There is in the arfcnal at BruiTels the modell 
(or perhaps it may be the original) of a piece 
of artillery, which belonged formerly to the 
Emperor Charles V. It conflits of one folid: 
piece, but has- feven touch, holes, and as many 
bores, which are fo contrived that you may dii- 
'charge each feparately, ac what 'intervals you. 
., pieafe, or, by applying the match at one par- 
ticular touch hole, let them off all together. 

The other piece wa? invented in the finie of 
Lewis the Fourteenth, for the purpofe of bom- 
barding St. Ma'.oes, and the model of it is how 
fhewn at the Palais Royal at Paris. It confifls 
of a confiderabie number -of cannon, (as well as 
bombs) v/hich diverge from a point in which 
ail their butts meet : the match being once ap- 
plied, they all go off in fucceflion, and by 
means of the machinery on which they are 
placed, each cannon, before it is discharged, is 
brought into the dùsctian of the one which pre- 
ceded it. 

It is now mo- e than a year lince this thought 
was firft conceived, and it has been communi- 
cated from time to time to a few individuals 
only; but ars yet it h-as' never yet been- tried. 



l2*Sl 



Vol. LVI. 




N04364; 



From TUESDAY, October , 9 , to THURSDAY, October 21, 1784. 



* 




To the Printer «/^London Chr'onJcu:. 
SIR, 

l S balloons are now the cur- 
rent fubject of difcuffion, 
give me leave to enter a 
little into the merits of 
them ; for all that has hi- 
therto been done, amounts 
to no more than meer holi- 
~ day paftime! They are 
-driven wherever the wind lifts. Mr. Lunardi, 
who I believe hoped to return to the Artillery- 
ground, was landed at Ware ; and Mr. Blan- 
chard, at Rumfey in Hampfhire: of courfe, 
nothing has been effected, but to enable parti- 
cular men to boaft that they have been up with 
a balloon ; and to furnifh idle people* with 
exhibitions, raree-lhews, and ridiculous pro- 
«effions ! Mr. Blanchard in his advertifement 
fixed an early hour for fetting off; adding that 
he fhould be pundual to his time, becaufe, 
after certain manœuvres, he propofed to go as 
gr as the length of the day would allow. 
Thefe manoeuvres, by report, were to make a 
complete circuit round the metropolis ; which 
would have diftinguifhed him as the firft go- 
vernor of the machine. But when the hour 
came, and the balloon rofe, no manœuvre 
whatever was performed but by the wind, 
which, without the leaft ceremony, carried off 
this bold rival in a direct fteady courfe into 



this proportion inverted ! A balloon will indeed 
float without wings; but this advantage is much 
more than meerly loft, when we attempt to 
give an additional weight to the balloon, and 
direct its courfe by wings ; owing to the vaft 
hze of the body oppofed to the refinance of the 
m Which muft be powerfully counteracted by 
thofe wings. It muft alfo have a rudder corre- 
i iponding with the tail of a bird ; and whoever 
has noted the flight of large birds, will perhaps 
conceive the head and neck of a bird to be no 
left ufelul in directing its courfe before, than the 
tail behind. When art therefore is employed to 
imitate nature in like circumftsmces, no advan- 
tage whatever is to be overlooked. A loofe 
icheme of what I mean, may greatly affift the 
Reader in conceiving my ideas, fave a multi- 
tude of words, and facilitate his own re- 
flections. 





M. Blanchard came down in Lord Palmer- 
(tone s park; h.s Lordfhip was âbfodt, aid hê 
was elegantly entertained by the Rev. Mr Pen 
ton brother to Mr Penton the Member. TheV 
made their firft defcent near Sunburyotr Pe7 
cemng that they loft their air, which thev" 
difcovered by finding that a bit of fi kVhich 
w7 th I e T ? ut L . afc ™ded inftead of finki,7 
When at their higheft elevation Mr. Bl c S 
d.fpatched a pigeon with a mefTagc; th b\ d 
flew out , but the med} of the aiV was ton 
thin and light to fupport its weight, Tn d ^ 
animal fluttered in great pain, and with rreat 
nT *"? ? fficuIt > made its way back to the 

7â ' "^ / h / Unk . Under the ** *her e Mr 
Sheldon had fat. But when the machine camé 
'" & SSr' fhe pigeon, when again thrown 
out, darted along, and brought the meflaee t« 
Oxford-fireet all the way from Hampfi, ^h? 
Majeftyh.d fent a meffage to Mr. Blanchard 
the mon.ng of the experiment, to exprefs hh 
defire that he might if poffible directs /^ 
towards Wmdfor. Mr. Blanchard, wS 
ga lantry of a Frenchman, was exe édinllt 
dehrons to obey the Monarch, andwien^ 

Cm^lT thCh6& ? he conceiv ed that" the 
Çaftle could be no other than that of Windfor 
th : refidençe -of the Monarch, and he w ote ' 
letter which he fattened to a bladdtT anrf 
fent down directed-^ MonfeTrk Jot 

S^SShS^ 8 ? 7 ^ rarified at ^ofpherefhat 
the bladder burft and made a loud report -. 

Ê^r\ h \ gh ^ devation the wi "d made na 
found whatever. At Rumfev Mr -ruTu j 

faw himfelf very near the }L and he I"* 
forea juft before him, which" JuL <Mr*Z 
come down where he did • h.,» £ 
Mte« from' n&^XoIlg 
the people who came up to him ïïh? T 
-the eve of inching V^T^l^l 



For the London Chronicle. 
On the Diredion of AIR-BALLOONS. 

IT will be allowed to be a thing impoffible to 
direcl: the Balloon in the manner of a fhip, 
by employing fails, if the following circum- 
ftances are attended to : — That a fhip under 
fail, going upon a different diredion from the 
wind, receives a motion which is generated 
between two elements ; for every feamanv 
knows, that a fhip will not lye up to the wind» 
as it is termed, without having a proper hold 
of water ; hence it is, that a flat-bottomed 
Dutch vefTel muft let down her lee-boards t» 
prevent the wind driving her to leeward. 
Therefore, as a Balloon moves but in one ele- 
ment, it muft be obvious that fails cannot alter 
its courfe. 

Whilft there is no wind, oars may be em- 
ployed to fome advantage; but as they bear 
no proportion to the fize of the Balloon, they 
can have as little power over it, as a fmall boat 
dragging through the water a large fhip ; and , 
as every thing refpecling the two elements are 
analogous, it muft appear a thing impoffible 
for a Balloon to move againft a current of air, 
going at the rate of %o miles in the hour. 
Oars may, however, be employed in railing or 
lowering a Balloon ; for, as it floats nearly 
upon an equilibrium, little force is required 
to raife or deprefs it. The power moft effec- 
tual to fteer the Balloon in any direction, would 
be to make ufe of wings ; but thefe, it is to 
be apprehended, cannot be employed upon a: 
great fcale, without ufing fuch machinery as 
will be found too weighty for a balloon to take 
up. However, though an aeroftatical machine 
cannot be employed as a vehicle for travelling 
through the air, yet it is probable it may be 
found ufeful in extending fcience. Great light, 
perhaps, may be thrown upon that fublime part 
of phyfics, the doctrine of attraction, by a 
ftrict attention at different heights in theat- 
mofphere, to the barometer, and the ofcilla- 
tions of the pendulum, and the caufe of the 
various phenomena in the upper regions, it is 
probable, will be explained upon more clear 
principles than has yet been offered. 



proper degree of depreflion, the cord being 
let flip, the wings will fpring back to then- 
horizontal extenfion: a mechanical head will 
eafily apprehend my meaning, without my 
labouring at minute explanation. Thus, by 
the help of a rudder, I conceive the poflibility 
of fteenng a direct courfe, of turning that 
courfe into another direflion, or of making a 
circular fweep like a pigeon ; and by elevating 
ordepreffing the head or front of the gallery, 
of foanng or tending toward the earth, with! 
out carrying a, load of ballaft to be parted 
with, or unneceflarily diminifhing the more 
valuable contents of the balloon. If thefe loofe 
thoughts fhould be convertible to any practical 
ufe, my purpofe will be anfwered ; for until 
fome actual improvement is attempted, going 
up with balloons is meer philofophical trifling 
and ought always to be met by Englifhmerl 
with the interrogation CUI BONO > 







PLAN;/*»- iireaing an AIR-BALLOON. 

In order to give a horizontal direction to an 
'Air Balloon, it feems abfolutely neceffary that 
fome force" fhould be found, which may act on 
the Balloon m the fame plane with the wind ; 
and from reflecting on this necefiuy, the thought 
.occurred or applying to this purpofe the repul- 
live force of gunpowder. That it fhould be 
adequate to the defired effect, can fcarcely be 
doubted by any body, who confiders the violence 
with which a cannon recoils, or the rapidity 
with which a fky-rocket mounts in fo fhort a 
time 10 fo prodigious a height. The velocity 
of the rocket's flight, and the weight of the 
cannon, fhew this force to be immenfe. What 
then fhould be its effect on a Balloon, which, 
'notwithttanding all .the abfolute weight of its 
appendages, being fiiïl relatively lighter than a 
feather in the air, would not oppofe any the 
leafl weight whatever to be overcome? It may 
befaid, perhaps, that it would be dangerous in 
the application ; but befides that the° Balloon 
might be eafily fortified againft all rifque, it 
muft be recollected that this force being repul- 
five, would be conftantly and rapidly driving 
the Balloon from the fparks, and out of the!; 
reach. of danger. In order to procure a con 
(tant fucceffion of force, one might avail onefelf 
of an imitation of e\ her of the machines be- 
low-defcribcd. 

There is in the àrfénal at Pruffels the model" 
(or perhaps it may be the original) of a piece 
of artillery, which belonged formerly to the 
Emperor Charles V. it con nils of one folid! 
piece, but has feven touch holes, and as many 
bores, , which are fo contrived that you may dis- 
charge each Separately, at what intervals you. 
• pleafe, or, by applying the match at one par- 
ticular touch hole, let them off all together. 

The other piece was invented in the time of 
Lewis the Fourteenth, for the purpofe of bom- 
barding St. Ma'oes, and the model of it is bow 
(hewn at the Palais Royal at Paris. It con fills 
of a confidence number -of cannon, (as well as 
bombs) which diverge from a point in which 
all their butts meet : the match being «nee ap- 
plied, they all go off in fucceffion, and by 
...means cf the machinery on which thev are 
placed, each cannon, before it is difcfcafged; is 
brought into the di^&fcri of the one which pre- 
ceded it. 

It is now m.ve than a year fince this tHoughi 
was firft conceived, and it has been communi- 
cated from time to time to a few individuals 
only; but as yet it haf nev-r yet been- tried. 



4 E 




Su?. 1783, 



N T 



FOR 



I783. 



AIR BALLOONS. 

1 

THERE is nothing new under 
the fun, not even air balloons .• 
above four-fcore years ago, a French- 
man, of the name of Voiture, (but 
not the celebrated writer) and of fome 
family, had committed many out- 
rageous actions, for which he had re- 
ceived the king's pardon ; but having 
in a fit of paflion (hot his coachman, 
as he was returning from a journey ; 
all his interelr. could not procure for- 
givenefs for the murder, and he made 
his efcape to Bruflels. Voiture there 
became acquainted with a very in- 
ventive genius of a philofopher, who 
promifed to obtain the king's mercy, 
provided Voiture would go to his 
majefty at St. Germains, in a ma- 
chine, which he, (the philofopher) 
had contrived ; and allured him, that 
the king feeing him travel with lb ex- 
traordinary an equipage, would cer- 
tainly grant his requeft. 

Infatuated with this romantic idea, 
and the hope of pardon, Voiture con- 
fented : the philofopher and he {hut 
themfelves up in a garret, till the 
areojiatical machine was conftrucled ; 
the globe was filled with a very light 
or inflammable air, with an append- 
age to it, not unlike the tail of a kite, 
where Voiture was placed, to direct 
it through the atmofphere; the air, 
it was pretended would fuflain it; 



and by the means of the wind, and 
the affiftance of the rudder, it was to 
go wherever its conductor pleafed. 

When this new offspring of folly 
was finifhed, Voiture took leave of 
his friends, and made a breach in the 
fide of the garret, through which it 
was to be launched; but jufl as he 
was on the point of fetting forth into 
the open air, he bethought himfelf, 
that the gl©be was too light, and the 
wind would carry it too high into the 
air, he therefore filled his pockets 
with a confxderable quantity of lead, 
and then took his place in the peer- 
age. 

\ At the moment of his out-fef, a 
breeze of wind fprung up, which 
conveyed the balloon to the diftance 
of almoft an hundred yards, when 
fuddenly burning, Voiture was fet 
free, and had a precipitate defcent 
upon the houfe of the Count de 
Dilles. 

The Countefs de Dilles was a very 
ancient lady, who kept a beautiful 
grifette, in quality of fille de cha?nlre^ 
but who likewife ferved the Count, a 
very amorous nobleman, in another 
capacity. The Count and the fille de 
chambre were at this minute in each 
other's arms. 

The velocity of Voiture's down- 
ward flight, carried him entirely 
through tb# roof of the houfe, and 
placed him aftride on the back of the 

Qjl q Count, 



For the lViOHiNiNiL» &JK,KALJL), 
Mr. E d 1 tor, -T)<?eL j //V?-4 

^O improve the art of travelling in variou s 
regions of the atmofphere, is at prefent 
the occupation of. a number of ingenious per 
fens in feveral counties of Europe, and the 
journals of aerial voyagers, which are the ex- 
periments: made with the view of cultivating 
this arri or of exciting the admiration of man- 
kind, are the favorite fubjcSs of reading and 
converfation k A method of obtaining inflam- 
mable gas at a fin all expence, is a great defide- 
raium'y<\ the Aeroaftic art. I beg feave then to 
acquaint your readers with the following eafy 
and cheap nxmner of procuring this Instance. 
- It was diicoveied by Lavoiiica, while he was 
attempting to change water into inflammable 
gas and dephiogifticated air ; zmd, again, in- 
flammable gas and dephlogiilicated air into 
water. * 

Take n very ftrong, thick tube of iron, the 
bore of which is of a modi-rate width ; put 
therein a quantity of iron turnings, {o as to 
neariy fill it : expofe it to heat, !ill it is wh.-t- 
hett , then join w it ano.dvgr tube, and pour wa- 
ter into the'heated tube (but not in fuch quan- 
tity as to cool it confiJerably) upon which an 
inflammable fleam, with vapour, will be found 
to ifliie through the cold tube, which burns upon 
approaching a lighted candle near the err. . of 
it. This vapour .may be eafily collected, for the 
purpofc of filling' balloons, &c. 

Dec. 10, tySx. L. M. N. • 
s ~ — — 



THE LONDON CHRONICLE for 1784; Oa.tg^tl 



AEROSTATION. 

OUR Readers may wifh, in the prefent rage 
for balloons, to have a fhort and accurate 
account of the different aeroftatic voyages which 
have been made fince Mr. Montgolfier's dif- 
covery. We arc enabled, through the intel- 
ligence of M. de la Lande, the valuable Editor 
of the Journal des Scavans, to prefent them ' 
with the following correct catalogue : 

ift Experiment. 2,1ft November 1783, the 
Marquis d Arjandes \ and M. Pilatre de Rozier 
afcended in a Montgolfier, or balloon filled 
with rarefied air, from the Muette, at 54 mi- 
nutes paft one o'clock, and their voyage lafted 
from 20 to 25 minutes. 

ad. The firft aeroftat filled with inflamma- 
ble air afcended from the Thuilleries on the ift 
of December 1783, at 40 minutes paft one, 
and the ingenious difcoverers, a8 well as ad- 
venturers, were, MefTrs. Charles and Robert. 

Their voyage lafted two hours and five mi- 
nutes. The fame day M. Charles mounted 
alone, and continued aloft 3s minutes. 

3d. The grand Montgolfier of Lyons was 
elevated at Lyons on the 19th of January 1784; 
and the travellers were Men". Jofeph Montgol- 
fier, Pilatre de Rozier, the Comte de Lau- 
raucin, the Compte de Dampiere, the Prince 
de Ligne, the Compte de la Porte, and M. 
Fontaine. The immenfe machine took fire, 
but they defcended without injury in about 15 
minutes. 

4th. At Milan, on the 25th of February, 
the Compte Andreani, MefT. Auguftin Gerli, 
and Ch. Jof. Gerli, afcended, and continued in 
the air about 20 minutes. 

5th. Mr. Blanchard made his firft experi- 
ment, and afcended from the Champ de Mars, 
near Paris, on the ad of March, at half paft 
32 o'clock, and continued an hour and 15 
minutes in his voyage. 

6th, On the 13th of March the Compte An- 
dreani and two companions, afcended again 
at Milan, to the heighth of 850 .toifes, and 
travelled feven miles. 

7th. At Dijon, on the ajth of April, MefT. 
de Morveau and Bertrand afcended at 48 mi- 
nutes paft four, and were one hour and 37 
minutes in the air. 

8th. At Marfeilles, on the 8th of May, Meff. 
Bonin and Maret were elevated in an aeroftat 
fifty feet in diameter, named le Marfeillois ; 
they were only feven minutes in the air, and 
travelled a mile and a half. 

9 th. At Strafbnurg, on the 15th of May, a 
balloon was raifed with two perfons ; but the 
voyage did not fucceed. 

ioth. At Rouen, on the 23d of May, M. 
Blanchard made his fécond voyage ; he tra- 
velled one hour. 

nth. At Marfeilles, on the 29th of May, 
MefT. Maret and Bremond went up again in 
the Marfeillois. It went rather higher than be- 
fore, but it took fire, and they efcaped with 
great difficulty. •-,, . . 

12th. At Lyons, on the 4th of June, in the 
prefence of the King of Sweden, M. Fleurant 
and Madame Tible afcended in a Montgolfier 
feventy feet in diameter. This was the hrft 
lady who afcended. Their journey lafted 
forty-fiye minutes, and they travelled about 
two miles. _ _ 

1 3th. In Spain, on the jth of June, M. 
Bouche, a young French painter, afcended in 
a Montgolfier made by order of the Infant Don 
Gabriel? It tofck fire, and he efcaped with 

^h! At U Dijon, on the i.th of June Monf. 
de Morveau and de Virly afcended, and made 
a voyage of one hour and two '« es ; 

i Ah The Suffrein was raifed trom the Oi- 

phan-houfe at Nantes, on the 13th of June, at 

+ The Marquis d'Arlandes, one of the- two firft 

Wwho ever adventured in a balloon to the 
S r -gtiêf the atmofphere, was broke in the 
Kft of the late war en a charge of coward.ee. 



ten minutes paft fix o'clock ; the travellers were 
Meff. Conftard, de Maffi, and Mouchet. They 
were fifty-eight minutes. 

16th. At Bourdeaux, on the 16th of June, 
Meff. Darbelet, des Granges, and Chalfour, 
afcended, and were up one hour and fourteen 
minutes. 

17th. A grand Montgolfier was elevated at 
Verfailles on the 23d of June, at forty-five 
minutes paft four o'clock. The voyagers were 
Meff. Pilatre de Rozier and Prouft. They 
were up forty-feven minutes. 

It may be mentioned in this recital, that on 
the nth of July, Meffrs. Miollan and Janinet 
failed in their public experiment, though oh a 
previous trial their machine had elevated nine 
perfons with 700 pounds of ballaft. 

1 8th. The Meff. Roberts, and the Duke de 
Chartres, afcended from St. Cloud on the 15th 
of July, and their continued about forty-five 
minutes. 

19th. Meff. Blanchard and Boby afcended at 
Rouen on the 18th of July, and were up two 
hours and fifty-five minutes. 

aoth. The fame Gentlemen afcended at 
Bourdeaux on the 26th of July, and traverfed 
the Garonne, and the Dordogne. 
. 21ft. On the 6th of Auguft, Meff. Carny 
and Louchet afcended from Rhodes, and were 
up thirty-five minutes. 

22d. On the 6th of September the Suffrein 
afcended again from the Orphan-houfe at 
Nantes. Meff. Couftard, de Maffy, and De- 
laynes, were the voyagers. It was up two* 
hours and thirty-two minutes. 

7,3d. At London, on the 15th of Septem- 
ber, Mr. Lunadi, an Italian, afcended, and 
continued in the atmofphere three hours and 20 
minutes, in which time he travelled 25 miles. 

24th, The brothers Robert, and M. Hulin, 
afcended at Paris on the 19th of Sept. from the 
Thuilleries, and in fix hours and 40 minutes 
travelled 150 miles, which is as yet the longeft 
journey performed by aeroftation, and in every 
particular the moft complete. 

Thus far we have from M. de la Lande ; but 
there are to be added one or two to the above 
which have . taken place "fince the date of his 
Journal. 

There is fome doubt whether Mr. Sadlier 
afcended at Oxford on the 4th of October ; it 
being afferted pretty roundly, that he was 
neither feen in his affent or defcent. 

25th. Meff. Blanchard and Sheldon afcended 
at Chelfea, near London, on the 16th of OcL 
at eight minutes paft 12 ; Mr. Sheldon alighted 
at Sunbury, and Mr. Blanchard continued his 
voyage to Rumfey, diftance 73 miles from 
London, which he performed in lefs than four 
hours. 

Mr. Carnet alfo raifed himfelf at Philadelphia 
in a balloon ; but the voyage was fhort, owing 
to its catching fire *. 

* From this, and every one of the experiments 
which have been made with the Montgolfier, or 
balloon inflated with rarefied air, it is evident, that 
for purpofes of ufe they can never be depended on. 
They are fo fubjeft to accidents, and at the fame 
time fo unwieldy, that they will hardly beufed, ex- 
cept of a fmall (its for entertainment. 






am 



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4S2 



Marriage Cérémonie 



Count, wbo was atfùaïfy in one of 
thofe critical moments fo feelingly 
mentioned by Dr. Graham. Whether 
the a6tion of Voiture gave energy to 
' thtjrokc, we are really unable to de- 
termine. 

The Count was enraged, and Voi- 
ture not lefs fo, though from different 
caufes ; the Count threatened to have 
Voiture apprehended as a thief; while 
he promiied 'to difcover the tete-a-tete 
to the Countefs, and the World. The 
bufinefs was therefore fettled without 
the interference of judicial authority. 
The whim of aerial expeditions has 
fince (probably from the foregoing 
adventure) been refumed _ by_ Dr. 
Prieflly, in fome of his multitudinous 
wntings, and carried into practice by 
the French, and probably when the. 
lives of half a dozen wretches have 
been facrificed to this new play-thing, 
the bubble will burft, and fink into 
annihilation. 



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•Î%L\ Mng 






ORIGIN OF BALLOONS. 






A àcslrc to. fly has prevailed in alltiges, and most 
(children have a whh to imitate the birds. RÔÛTÊ& 
Bacon, tora at llrhestcr, in Somersetshire, in the 
t>e«nnmW «>f the 1 3th century, was the first that is 
known to bavé conceived the idea of rising in the 
sur; supported by exhausted balls of thin copper» 
He was 'ignorant of the existence oi* light air, en- 
dowed with as great an elastic force as common air, 
afcl therefore, though his example of light balls was 
the same as that on\vhich Balloons are now made, 
it was impracticable : but wc find that Dr. Black, 
of Edinburgh, is the first person who is known to 
have suggested the possibility of enclosing inthan- 
mifcblc air so as to render it capable of raising a ves- 
sel into the atmosphere, which was done in his lec- 
tures in 1767 and 17b q ; and Mr. CaVaLLO, in 
1/92, first made experiments upon the subject, but 
V. was unable to retain the air in any material light 
en ough for the purpose, except a thick solution of j 
s*mp, "which the practice of children Wad shewn 
woukltscend even with respired air rarefied by heat. 
In the sanv 5 year, Stephen and John- Mont;oi,- 
fiER, Paper jVianuaoturers, of Annonay, about ten 
kagues from Lyons, filled a silken bag rarefied toy 
buminf paper, which rose, first in a room, and af- 
ter va; a?, to the height of 70 feet, in the open air. 
Several repetitions of the experiment were made, in 
the ensuing year, and finally, dry straw arid caopjiecl 
wool were consumed instead of paper. One of their 
Balloons, about 13 feet in diameter; rose to the 
height of 3000 feet in two minutes. 

At length, on the 1Mb of October, 1733, M. ?i- 
utre de jIoziere rose from the garden of the 
Fan?: bourg St. Antoine at Fans, in a wicker galkry 
about three feet broad, attached to an oval Balloon 
of 74 feet hy 4M, which hud been made by Munt- 
col-f n:R, and which also earned up à brarier, cr 
grate, for the purpose of continuing at pleasure the 

inditiou of the B.dloou by afire of straw ami' wool.-! 
,Tne weight of this machine was 1 (>00 poiuidsv On) J 
tkat day it was permitted to rise no higher tlb'.n 84 
feet, but on the 19th, when M. Giraud tve/VTil- 
lEtte ascended with him, they rose to' the height 
of 332 feet, being prevented, from farther ascent only 
by ropes. In November of the same year, M. P. ihsf 
Roziere and the Marquis D'Arlandes first trust- 
ed a Balloon to the elements, 'who, after rising to the 
height of 3000 feet, descended about five, miles 
from the place of their ascent.. 

About the same tirm, Count Zambecca iu sen}' 
up from the Artillery G round, in London, a smrJ.l- 
gilt Balloon, filled with infLmimtble air, v$iich in 
two hours and a half reached a spit m-rr PeJLwôfth, 
/ in $ùssek r and. would not then have fallen ha '.! it not 
burst-. The discovery was now nearly as complete 
as iu its present state*. Inflammable Vir, produced; 
by iron filings and vitriolic acid, was soon used iu \ 
the inflation of larger Balloons, and by one of %7\ 
feet iu diameter, M. Chajlks and M.Ko&Kïtïs 
rose in December from the garden of tEe Thui'le- 
ries in Paris, and in an hoar and a'half descended 
27 mile* from that city. In this voyage, the thei> 
monster fell from 47 to 31, from which d/i-'nni the 
B.Moon was supposed to have reached the height of 
3509 feet. — Subsequent experiments may rather be 
enumerated than described. The adventurers in 
them were — 

M. $-. Montgolfkr, who, in 1 7 S 4 , a<~endj4, Wttl} six otner 
poisons, from Lyoni, by àballoon 131 foot high, an;' 104 
broad. 
M. Blanchard, in March of thosamu yostr, rose to an altitude, 
•which is calculate at &5QÔ féet, an t descended in an hour 
and a quarter, having experienced, heat, cold, huHg3r,aud 
a n e :< case i re d fwMa «s . . 
M. Bertrand, in.Apwi, rose fvofn ,Pijon to th« height of 

1-J,0>>0 feet, and in an hoar arid a quarter sailed 18 m.Jïag. 
Madame Thible, who vni< the hr;t fomale adventurer, a*- 
ct-ndvd in Juin? from Lycos, with M."F!au,-.mt, in the pre- 
SéBCtt of the lato King wf kwaaen, and reached tilts height 
of 8500 feet. 
M. Moucht-t, in the «me month, asoerided fi-om Nau!s,and 

travaux! 27 mile-:, in 58 minutes. 
M. Kuzi^T, in anther expriment, reached the height of 
11,7(50 foîfj and found thr" t«/mparatur'o <?fthj aie reduced 
to b degrees T>dow the fre-.'id&g point. 
The Duke <k- Charts (Orleans) ascended in July from the 

park of .Vt. Cloud, With three o';her persons. 
V^ieait Lunardi, in September 15, rose from the Artillery 
ground, by a balloon 33 feet in diameter. Li his ascent 
the u.-rmorneti-r f./U to 2-9, and some drops of water round 
his balloon wens kozent 
M. Roberts and Hullin, in thesame month, sailed from Paris 

to Arras, hi sis hours and a half. 
Mr. Sadler, who was the first Englishm." n thaï ase-ended with 

a balloon, rose in October, from Oxford. 
Mr. Sheldon ascended from Cheisea in the same month. 
M. Blanehavd and Dr. Jewries, on the 7th of J arum ry, 1785, 
croîseù the channel betvy.eein Dover and C-aiais, by moans 
of a bal](»on, buthad such difficulty to keop it above the 
w.iter, that they were obliged to throw overboard every 
thing they had with t!*em. 
Mr. CtsosMe ascetitUsd ftom Dublin, in the same month, with 
such rapidity tluvt he wxx completely out <sf sight in threw 
Biiau-fes. 
r Count Zambeccari and Admiral Sir E. Vwnnn, in March, 
sailed from London to Horsham, 3.5 tajlQ»} in les* tlian an 
hour. 
I Mr. Windfr'm and Mr. Sadler, ascended from MoTilsey 
Hurst In May, and descended at Ûis cunUueiice of the 
Tham&s and Midway. 
Mr. M'Guire, in the same month, having ascended from 
Dublin, was taken! up in the Channel by a boat, when on 
the point of «xpirimj with fathnic, 
M. M. P. De Rosier kid Romain ascended fmrs "Esulogn.fi, 
on the 15th of July, with the intention of croesnng the 
Channel, but their balloon, being a M'Uitgo'f.er, took fire 
at the heigh! of 1200 yards, and. they were dashed to pieces 
by the fall, 
Mr. Croibie, who again ascended from Dablin; aVi Major 
Monev, ï'ro.oi Norvrich, in the same month, both felikito 
thi s sa, and were with gr< at (.'iîhcMUy saved. 
M.Blanchard, in Aii^ust, sailed from Lisle to a distance of 
£00 refles, before be dcsfendiptf. 



For the MORNING HERALD. 

Philosophical Observations onthe Air 
and Balloons. /iJ)/j 
Mr. Editor, 

THE indulgence of honoring the Laurel 
Sprig, with a corner of your paper, has 
. inducftd him to continue his communications ; 
I at leaft, if his principles are not philofophic, 
they will be found under the government of mi- 
nute obfervation, arifing from the nature and 
exigence, and operation of a deliberative know- 
ledge. He will therefore confider th R ee things, 
which the Balloonilb have never attended to. 

I ft. Whether the air is not more humid in the 
fécond ngion, than on the earth, or above that 
humid region, and how much more ficcofc that 
fuperior region is than on the earth. The high- 
eft region, as I formerly noticed, is not influen- 
ced by the fun, more than the lower regions of 
frejb water % and that it is very cold, and th« 
air almoft in a ftagnated ftate, but it neither can 
be below 33 degrees, nor become putrid. It is 
drier, and lefs moiit than the region below, and 
whenever there is collected any denfer particles 
of air, they will fall into the medium or moift 
atmofphere. But notwithstanding the ferenity 
of that fuperior region, no obfervation, how- 
ever high a balloon may afcend, can be taken of 
the planets, fo diflinclly as on the earth, becaufe 
the compa/s will not point ; becaufe a time piece 
will not keep diitinft and accurate ; becaufe they 
cannot know what latitudes or longitudes they 
may be in ; and therefore they cannot difcover 
the hour, longitude, latitude, and altitude, in 
which, to obferve the planet, even fuppofing 
the balloon to flop for the purpofe ; but princi 
pally, becaufe there can be no reflection of any 
fixed ftar on the balloon, as on water on the 
earth, or on the earth itfelf, which ads as a re- 
flector to thefe luminant bodies. 

2d. Whether the middle region is not always 
moift and drizzles, and is rendered apparently 
colder, than the fuperior region, on account of 
the humidity. A cloud mutt contain wet, how- 
ever thin and light, as well as a phlogifton : — 
That region receiv s the denfer particles from 
the higher regions, as well as the moilture and 
exhalations from the earth, with the phlogifton 
arifing from the reflection of, and metals, mine- 
rals, fulphur, acids, and falines in the earth, 
and fea ; fuch a region or atmofphere mull al- 
ways have imprégnant materials, to burft into 
thunder, on a furcharge, even without the ac- 
tion of the fun. To evince this^ I have known 
fome claps of thunder in December, with a 
Sduth wind ; bin the fun'i influence agitating 
the whole mafs, the thunder oftener burfts in 
Summer. In America, at the falls of the Mif- 
fiflippi river, it thunders always, from this 
caufe ; that the fall is very high, the air it paf- 
fes through carries off part, and forms an im- 
pendant cloud over it, and thatincreafe of moif- 
ture and phlogifton is continually poured out in 
thunder and rain. ' It is in that middle atmof- 
phere, the clouds are collected and denfified, 
though fome times a ftream of air, intercepts the 
one body from the other ; hence, we fometimes 
fee, the cloudb driven different ways. This 
denfificaticn contains a body of water impregna- 
ted with phlogifton, and fwims along, on the 
thick atmofphere, fpreid over the earth- 
Mountains bring thefe clouds in contact, hence 
it rains oftener in mountaneous and hilly coun- 
tries than in plains ; ijlands have an air altoge- 
ther unequal, on account of the fea ; and that 
they are lefs of a focus for the fun ; hence it 
rains oftener, and is colder,, and the air more 
various in ifUnds, than on continents ; and for 
this reafon, that continents have the effect of a 
focus, and the air more equal, it is warmer in 
Summer, further North, than in this ifland, 
and their rains are periodical ;_ f or which, I.fhall 
a- a future period affign rhe caufe ;• therefore a 
balloon in England, and on the continent, will 
have a different motion ; en tne continent it 
will be equal, here it will rife and fall, go fait 
and flow, according to the mediums of air it 
\< j^ets into. If a balloon comes in contact with a 
; thick cloud, it will attract the water, and they 
will be certain of being overborn by the ftream, 
and tumble in confulion ; Hghjnjng will alfo.., 
fpring forth, and that will be followed with 
thunder. They cannot penetrate, it would be 
as eafy to force the balloon down fome fathoms 
in frefh water, as operate a projeftion above 
fuch a cloud: Thofe in the gondola mufl be 
drowned or fuffocatéd ; the goadola filled *vith 
water, and nothing could prevent the burftmg 
of the balloon, but that it is sot wholly filled ; 
but, if the balloon mould be in that fituation, 
it could not efcape the lightning, notwithftand- 
ing'its conductorial ftile. I may evince this by 
firing a cannon ; at the mouth, when the mot 
is discharged, every object, within fome feet at 
leaft of circumference is Tinged, perhaps deftroy 
ed : the flafh from a cannon is not the hundredth , 
part fo large, as that from a cloud, before a clap 
of thunder, and the balloon's being immediate- | 
ly in contaa, muft fail a wreck to iu immediate 
power, and though a conductor, it would not m 
the leaft avail. 



3d, That the atmofphere, neareft the earth, 
is that which the wind paffes immediately 
along, becaufe comprefled between the region 
of the clouds and the earth. It affects the 
earth from another caufe, becaufe it flies always 
horizontally, and falls down till refuted by the 
earth, where it fcours along with noife and im- 
petuofity, proportioned to its obftructions. On 
the fea the fame caufe is affignable, becaufe it is 
gibbofe, and throws many obftructions in the 
way as well on that account as the 1 urges, forc- 
ed by the compreffion of the wind.— -The waves 
run not along, as we fuppofe, but are as many 
columns of water which fall and rife. The 
fame wind will affeft them differently, accord- 
ing to the depth or fhallownefs, fluxes, rocks, 
or fuch circumftances. The fea is not agitated 
very deep, but acts in a regular body, by an im- 
perceptible motion, fuch as we fuppofe the 
earth, but her motions are Litnar, and give rife to 
the tides. The balloon, in this atmofphere near- 
eft the earth, will rife and be fupported with 
eafe, but I am fully perfuaded cannot be carried 
beyond it, becaufe if it gets out of that air, in 
a clear day, it will come into an air too thin, 
nearer approaching to its own levity, and there 
it cannot fwim, and it muft remain and be car- 
ried along the fame atmofphere according to the 
furface of the earth, the air in that region will 
be different. In the vicinity of mountains a 
balloon will not eafily rife or fwim ; from the top 
of a mountain it would not go off"; between 
mountains it would be hurled impetuoufly 
along. On a plain, either marfhy or woody, 
it would be long buoyed up and go gently. It 
will not make its courfe to mountains, becaufe 
<he wind often, in all directions, blow from 
them. It will keep its direction on plains or 
great rivers, becaufe the air is denfe and more 
^qual. Eut it has not been afcertained by the 
ravellers, at what rate, equal or unequal, the 
Walloon goes. They cannot meafure its diffe- 

nt actions by any known instrument ; that has 

ly been done on earth. 



The Air-Balloon, fays a correfpondent, is not 
a modern invention. The firft who ventured to> 
ride the air, according to Milton, Was the Devil. 
And the attempt and fuccels are thus defcribed : 

— — • His fail-broad vans /yrfA 

He fpread for flight, and in the furgîng fmokî 
Uplifted fpurn'd the ground ; thence many a league. 
As i» a cloudy, chair, afcending rode 
Audacious; but that feat foon failing, met 
A vaft vacuity : All unawares 
Fluttering his pennons vain, plumb down he dropt. 



On the art of navigating the air, even the 
learned Frankly» has acknowledged his ig- 
norance : he called bajlpon^lymg, " A 
child that would become mature T" The 
cognofcenti of France, however, fpeak of 
efforts made, before the prefent century, to 
approach the atmofphere. It appears in 
. the Memoirs of the French Royal Academy 
of Sciences, that one De Lana contrived an 
areonantic engine for navigating the air, ; 
and that the famous Roger Bacon contrived 
fomething of the kind. But it does not ap- 
pear that either De Lana or Bacon, ven- 
tured to rife up in their machines, as Blan- 
chard and Lunardi. * £ J~ - /7^ . 



The invention of navigation is varioufly attri- 
buted to various caufes or accidents : The poets 
have given the honor to Janus, Jafon, Hercules, 
Neptune/ &c. whilft hiltory aferibes it to the 
Phoenicians, Tyrians, and the ancient inhabi- 
tants of Britain ; and facred writ refers bs to the 
ark of Noah ! But 'tis the prefent age which has 
the honor of inventing balloon flying! And as 
the machine of Lunardi, when high jn the air, 
appeared obviouily to depend, as to its courfe, 
on the oar or oars which he had, ir is impoffible 
to fay to what perfection this fublime mode of 
travelling may be brought. Whether it Pnould 
ever be of any ufe or not, it is worthy of en- 
couragement and applaufe, if genius be defer- 
ving of patronage. #£&£ 

The invention of balloons is by no means a 
codera difcovery ; for fo early as the reign of 
Edward the Fir<, the great Roger Bacon, (who 
died A.D. 123a.) afferts-that he ** was exceed- 
*■•* ingly well acquainted with a very prudent 
e< man, who had invented the whole artifice of 
Si flying." Again he fays, that "itisnotim- 
** poffible to make engines for flying, a man fit- 
c< ting in the midit whereof, by turning about 
*' an inftroment with artificial wings, made to 

" beat the air."- -—He afterwards obferves, 

" fuch engines as thefe were of old, and are 
'* made even in cur days. The fame great man 
clearly difcovered gunpowder, "a very com- 
* f petent quantity of matter (fays he) rightly 
*/ prepared (the bignefs of one's thumb) will 
*i make a m oft hideous noife and corrufca'ion, 
« e this may be done feveral ways, by which a 
"* city or army may be overcome." — bacon's 

Difcovery of Miracles.. This fublime philo 

{bpher was accufed of diabolical magic before 
Pope Clement the 4th, and was imprifoned on 
that accountfor fome confiderable time. 



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fat, eé+j *>A*~ 3^, ^7 ^C *- &*/*, 

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5C&U /fc» *>*Sf ***** *2 toùfr^+^L. 

%.& Jr /^ ^^ /" "/*/*". 
fâi <rO~£ J~"r *y~^ ***-*, 

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*S,A^L>ç jut r- — & X"'*- * 1 i 1 

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HpHE AIR BALLOON, or FLYING MUR- 
' Jt '• TAL. A POEM-, //cO/f 

,To be had at Mr-Macklew's, in the Hay-market," asd at all 
the other Pamphlet Shops Irf London» 
Shalt Albion's Sons for Fame, for Arts,"renown'd, 
Confent to crawl like reptiles on the ground? 
Nor from- this globe, this fpot, affav to rife, 
Whilt France and Italv-afoend the Skies ! 
Rouie! Britor.s Roufe ! a-id emulous of name, 
In every Stary Realm, afl'ert your Claim. 



• >"T§ PO £M on the .Wc\ BALLOON. 

By' Colonel £ R S K J N E. jygf 

Q W.-ET keep us a' f, M *h'ac's no right, 
k^ t ua w.t.-rK.r.ft arts or Va: ,cks wight : 
i'ur iouks arc now g up out p' fight 
A bon the y i id 5 
Up gets the Gilp'ms wî' a flight 

Like ony bird. 
Sic faillies ne'er were reen before 
'Mang a' the pauky oris o' y >re, 
Th©' they «ad girncra fcs mony a fcore, 

Yfcl .eel wot I 
They ne'er fan' out ti/e gate to bote 
Up cnro' thefky. 
But fpite o' a' their weel tald wordre.s, 
Trio' fouk had wings upon their girdles, 
Ye t they're o'for ftark an- ,ut the hurdiee— y ' 

O'er dreign ahin', 
To gae to flee like bl s o' ourdies— 

■An' that they'll fir.'. 
I'd war the price o* twa gude Ihoon, 
To fee this fam trick fairly done ; 
But whan they're-Jikin' to the moon 
Wi' glee and fan, 
Wow, firs, they'll fley tips birds aboon 

As fure's a gun. 
Tho' I war fure o* na mifchanter, 
My dizzy pnw I wadnae venture 
To fail iae htigh aboon the centre 

In He a car, 
Or See on ocy/nad advencure, 

The Lord kens whar. 
To gae to flee w* de'il ae it «her ! 
An» climb tne air without" a l.uher !— 
Eh ! t>y my ia&l^'d ha'e a tether 

To (top my drift, 
Whan hablin' at a big blawn blather, 
Up thru' the lift. 
A tipfy buk wad yoke it fine, 
Whaiepow is dais'd wi' midnight wire, 
" JJem me (be.'dcry) let's have a fhin«,'* 
An' aff he'd five» 
Till fate might land hip foon or fyne 

In i'umè. ïiiu'zet. 
In France ilk' ane has his balfo ,*_ 
They're fwarrnin there in ilka town, 
Like pyets happin up an' down ; 

But mooy a ana 
Has f a'en an gotten a 'cracket crown 
Or broken bane. 
Balloons are rife enough at hame, 
Our ,is<? riorum s are the fame, 
V V noddle^ toomer far than them 

, TlijSjj if rut the eaufey, 
At mony a leeklei's airy u-heme, 

Bait'ii proud an' faucy» 

There's Watt ct, wh; - 'but.ferhycar ram' 
Wi'pliidin' coat isos the plmich tram, 
Whaglour'd as ooil'd as tiny ram, 

Scetf. e . e [ trow, 
He keeps a fhop, and that naefham — f— — 

Ke.tk at him now ! 
His pou wi' creiih an* i\ ent is fockft j 
F.aé tap to rae he's newly ftocket ; 
Wi' baith his hafTets wffilj docket 

He 'truts aw ft* ; 
An' eh fas heigh's' his nofei s cocker.— 

Gude guide us a*! 
O' prrde he has an unco /kair, 
Kor g'ies a nod to «ne that's bare-, 
Butiike balloons flic& thro' the air 

Wi' fky failrhjgin*; 

Ay mony a caftre he has there 

O' his ain biggi^'. 

Poor doited ghaift ! he difna think , 
That you h is hut a bony blink, 
Whiikflie'y fteals him \> the brink 

O' blirtyeiid, 
Whar his balloon fo:r e day maun fink 

An' finch the field. 



■The AIR BALLOON. 

ËY iand, le: them travel, as many as lift, ^ 

And by fia, thofe who like the hard fare; 
In an airy Balloon, whiîft 1 (it at my eafe, 
And ph-fantly glide thro' the air ! 

Round jfcft glob;, is lie farther! they ever can reach, 
Let them; travel night, morning, and noon ; 

Suche-vcuruoosaj thefe, are but mere bagareUs, 
When compar'd with a trip to the moon ! 

In ray chariot aerial, how pj_eaf.mt to go, 

To fee all my friends in the ftars i&» 
Takc-à Èteakèift with Mtit&y, and dine if I pl ea fe, 

V i:o Jupiter, Sjturti, or Mars ! 

Aa.) feouldl fatigued, or wravifome prove, 
VVhiia from planet to planet, I'm dodging ; 

\' to I'cmis, I'm welcome to tarry all night, 
Where on earth can you find fuch a Udging ? ' 

E. T. P. 



? O E T R Y. 

S O N. G. 

TAFFETY AIR-B ALLOO.N, 

By- Sir THOMAS' G :_, Ban. 

TetbtTiintof Galloping Dreary Duk. 

CARRIAGE I have, and 'tis one of my own, 
Xafety tfr Balloon, 
And what is the wonder, 'twill go all alone, 
With its haily, gcviiy, gambo, rally, 
.Giggling, niggling, fluttering tiffany, 
Tafity Air Balkan. 

I mounted the thing, fo gay and fo fair, 

Taff'ty J ir Balloon; 
And I fiU'd the machine with inSammatle air, 
Vvith my haily, Sec. 

I flew in an inftant, up fo very high, 

Taffdy Air. Balkan, 
That every one thought 1 was loft in the iky, 
With my haily, &c. 

Of the Kîan in the Moon I enquired the. wsy, 

Taffeiy Air Balloon ; , ' . 

Odzooks ! quoth the wight, you've quite gone affray, - 
With your hailey, &c. 

I fcudded along, and 'ere it was morn, 

isfitty Air Balloon, 
I four-.d myfi-'lf ftuck upon laurui'i horn, 
With iny haily, arc. 

The tenirVd. fign tofs'd me off with a bound,.. 

'Ttfftty Air Batlo»n, 
And I found rnyfeli landed on Irijh ground, 
With my haily, fatly, gstr.bo rally, 

Tatf -Air B rlhtn'i 

• "" • . ' .1 1— — — — — — 1 



The favourite Balloon $><mG,fu?zg by Mr. 
ArroWsmith at Vauxhall. Set by Mr. 
Arne. Written by Mr. Pillon. /?S'f~ 

YE high and low-flyers, of all ranks attend, 
And council receive from an Aeronaut 
friend ; 
Your coaches and chariots henceforth lay afide, 
Prepare in balloons thro' the fkies all to ride, 
With duft of vile wads who'd be choak'd or be 

blind, 
Like witches on brooms you may poft on the 

wind, 
O'er valleys, high hills, and wide feas you may 

fvveep, 
And into the moon, your own fphere, take a 

peep. 
The Belle, who for titles in vain heaves the figh, 
Can't fail of a ftar, there's enough in the Iky ; 
In moons made of honey, fond hufbands at 

peace, 
Shall ne'er know when horns do begin or in- 

creafe ; 
Whilft the poet who ftarv'd here below all his 

life, 
A fortune fliall get in the clouds with a wife, 
And fed vvith pure aether, Cameleon's light fare, 
Our bard fhall poffefs a fine cattle in air. 

The holder of ttock too, when up he afcends, 
In the Bull and the Bear, fhall find Alley friends; 
Phyficians alfo, to the fkies fhou'd they rove, 
Shall meet many friends they themfelves fent 

above, 
And fee'd by Old Nick to untune all the fpheres, 
Good lawyers might fet fun and moon by the 

ears; 
But in pity to Earth wou'd England's Queen fly 
She'd bring down Aftrea once more from the Iky 



POETRY. 

The BALLOON.HAT, 

SEEST thou yon hat, whofe dancing plume 
O'er Celia's treffes cafts a gloom, 
And /hadee her lovely face ? 
From Gallia's fire-fraught Ai» BAtiao» 
This feather'd monfter *f the town 

Its lineage dares to trace. 
Nor ill deiîn'd its name, I ween s 
Adapted to the fickle mien 

And nature of a woman——* 
For are not fome who figure in it, 
The flying Cynthians of a minute, 
Than air more light and common ? 

E P H E B U S. 



BALLOONIST S. 

OK ' happy nation, great in arts and arms, 
Whole Milliners the love of gloty warms, 
Whole Admirals farfske the fweiting tide, 
*? High on the wings of mighty winds to ride ;" 
Wh a fe .Surgeons leave their patients to their fate, 
To whiik about the ait in full blown fUte. 

Cctild Bacon, Boyle, or mighty Newton fee 
Such wretched (pawn of new philofophy, 
Mere, children, of their air-blown bubbles proud, 
6?d aim but to delight the gaping crowd, 
jut h mr.re men mmikies in a mortal fhape, 
♦' They'd view thef» heroes as we view the aoe" 



SONNET. 



Va an AIR BALLOON. 
By Mrs. POZZI. 
ÏN empty space, behold me hurl'd, 
The sport and wonder of the World; 
With eager gaac, while I aspire, 
Expanded with aerial fire ! 
And since Man's selfish race demands, 
Mpre -empire than the Sea's or Land's ; 
F.ov him, my Courage mounts- the Skiss^ 
Invoking Nature while I rise ! 
Mother of all ! if thus refin'd, 
My flights can benefit Mankind ; 
Let them by Me, new realms prepare, 
And take possession of the- Air. 
jBut if to II î, s alone I laed,— 
Quickly, oh quick, let Me recede ! 
Oe blaze, a splendid exh.bitlon, 
A Beacon, for their wai Ambition t /7^ 






j/si 



AIR-EAtLOO N. 
Negafa Tentât Iter Via. 



N vain,.fince haplefs mortals try 

To ihoa th' unerring ihafts.of.JD.eath j 
.Since all that creep, v and all that fl.yv .. 
•Mult, -Icon, or late,..reiign their i^rqath 1 

Why fliculd xiç fear V improve the|Jay ? 

The fleeting 'day From darkhefs given:! 
And, ivhera-brigln Science -points- the way 

To range the land, the fea., the heaven ! 

Then freely mount th' expanfe above, 
i?ond Mar. ! p.or dread the ebon rod ; 

On wings of. wind fublimely rove, 
^\ great, a momentary God ! 

Eeliolds he mounts ! and deems it fable 
By gloomy Jews contriv'd of old, 

Tha^thofe who rais'd the Tower of Babel 
Wwft'fejj tVte Almighty's hand controul'd. 

No more the Eternal rules in ire, 

His wondrous love is round difplay'raA 

Kefmiies to fee weak' man afpire, 

Pleas'd with the worm his breath has made ! 

And thou who cleav'fl: the azure fky, 
Like him, with pity (hall look down ! 

Shall view, like him, with equal eye, 
Th- Shepherd's Crook, the Monarch's Crown ! 



Speedily will be publifhed, in Three Vols, iî'mo, 

THE A I R - B A L L 00 N? 
A N O V E L. 

în this my Novel Air-Balloon, 
I mean vz party to the Moon ; 
Confult the planets, and the fiars, 
And chat with Mercury and Mars, 
Learn all the pretty thefts above,' 
As hints below, For thofe in love ; 
Then take a trip to tonijlx France, 
View Sweden, Italy, and D.antz ; • 
Pais o'er to Germany, and, Spain, 
And paya boiu d'ye to the Dajne ;. \ .«) 

Next pafs the Alps, and vifit Rome, ,: 
To drop a tear at Virgil's tomb ; 
From thence for India and Peru, ~) 

In i'earch of what is rare and new, *"■':/ 
T'enrkh the plan, I have in view, J 

Through Flanders next I mean to (beer, 
And take a ivbij' with Tatu Mynheer ; 
Then heigh for England's happy ifle, 
Where all the Loves and Graces fmrle j 
There burfting from my airy fhell, 
Thefecrets of my frifan tell, 
In hopes each reader to delight, 
In what my fancy fhall indite, 
Drawn from the cuftoms, manners, lives, 
Of men, their miftreffes, and wives ; * 

Whether from home, or foreign Court, 
Each fliall be made your laugh and fport. 
By the Author of 
N. B. FASHIONABLE FOLLIES ; a Novel ; in two 
volumes, with an elegant characteriftie defign by the ce- 
lebrated Mr. de Loutherbourgh, and engraved by that 
eminent artifr. Mr, C. Ruotte, may be had at Mr. R. Dod- 
fley's, Pall-mall, where the above new Novel will be pub- 
lifhed, and timely notice given. ,7^«./. //s~4 



for the Public Advertifer. 
W* AIRBALLOON. 

IN Air Balloon, as in a rapid Car, 
From Earth, as from my Barrier, I fet 
out, 
How fwift I mount ! Ditninim'd " Earth" 

recedes j , 
I pafs the ** Moon j" and from her farther 

Side, 
Pierce HeavVs bine Curtain j ftrike into 

" Remote j" 
Where, with his lifted Tube, the fubtle Sage 
His artificial, airy Journey takes, 
And to " Celeltial" lengthens "Human" 

Sight. 
I paufeatev'ry '«« Planet" on my Road, 
And aik for " Him" who gives their Orbs 

to roll, 
Their Foreheads fair to mine. From " Sa- 
turn's" Ring 
With the bold "Comet," take my bolder 

Flight, 
Amid thole " fovereign" Glories of the Skies, 
Of independent, native Luftre proud ; 
The Souls of Syftems ! and the Lords of Life, 
Through their wide Empires '.—What behold 

I '? now ?" 
A Wilderflefs of Wonders burning round ; 
Where " larger" Suns inhabit «.« higher" 

Spheres j 
Perhaps the ** Villas" Of defcending Gods! 
Paui'e chert; and, fora Moment here refpire, 
If Human Thought can keep its Station here. 
Where am I ? Where is Earch ? Nay, where 

art thou, 
O ! Sun ?— Is the Sun turn'd Reclufe ? And 

are 
« His" boafted Expeditions fhort to " miner" 
To " mine" how fhort ! On Nature's Alps 1 

«and, 
And fee a Thoufand Firmaments beneath ! 
A Thoufand Syftems! as a Thoufand Grains! 






/ 

#H.tL ùy <f€tc, SA#*e wAe AAie. SA* Aas-etj:*,-* , 
<Z/t*A / / tAu**/*L7tA&> ^/Atfe fA ?-<?'/&£ #Sr. 

ZJet~ /Ae?f2. /rave/ szjaAï, rrtw't-t'if &* of &****■ ', 

AtrfLt'i. caw/tccr 'a£ wtA. a. fa/6 £ /Ac Aftwrt. , r 
J 
J*. »+y I Ann*/- a*r-i*^, Aex^ /lA*^a**<?- /ej* f 

\Â/l/A yenu^ Sr,z. ks+Jcctti*. Ao A#.rry aAl m'a /A 
A+**AyA^,UU A^,/0. çrc*4 . 



crz-y: ^ j&A>y*£r JL^ ^^-^ & ^ a^a2^cs> 

</#;j£~ Cfft* o-"^ ^^/^ ^'^ jL~~<-s ■ 

%>,/// /f^-* HtJ^ ^'^/- /érz?'/^ *™^ " ^ ^ 

ù/ao/^- b i>>^# ^ A,'^ ~ */ i#jj£&^ ^/i-'iy/; <*r^c/AJ p, &r^ n^ r ^^^//'-/ *&£, 

A. 
% ^A^>- -- ^ w~~- €**JC<£* ^^^^^A^ 

J?aL f<.<^& -/ *£-« ^^À,AcJ*/~J£ 

&f^k >?fsj*y"- 'jft-iv ^^a£> &-Alu£s4~-e^- 

&»*<t s*J~-^+ ->- ^= V*rt*~K ^<?J%y jC^^. 

(A £ 

a- .^ /^ /- ^^ '•****'■ '7'^ ~ 







AERSOSTATIC ADVICE from BEDLAM 
to boib Universities. / J)e^-' t 

/7#b • 

TT AOR (name, \e Oxoni.ns ! whar, fliaiik be faid, 
J/ That yjur padry-cook mounted' before ye f 
Ail ye then of (uch rapid afceHt lb afraid ? 
Are ye dead to ambition, ami glory ? 

HasOx:rd, no genius, t* foaring inclined ? 

I wonder, your priJe has not dung ye ! 
Since, bald, airy flights, have been, time out of mind, 

Both famous, and frequent among ye. 

Now tke Poets of Grub-ftreet outdo Ids' fens, 
E'en the Blue-ftocking-'club will furpafs us : 

Then mount the Balloon — I advife for this once j 
Ye may chance get a fight of Parnaffus. 

Has Cambridge no Pegafus ready to foar high ? 

If fhe had — (he has none to fit thereon : 
For the Gegmagog hills, are the fceneof her glory j 

On the hacks, of my friend* Jocky Barpp. 

Ye frnug, catch -weight Divines, cas'd in leather fo tight, 
Quit the turf — nor heed your groom's laughter : 

Tew'rds the ftandard of Heav'n, make a match to take 
flight ; 
Ye may ne'er be Co near it hereafter. 



Cray's fire, indeed, lately lit up the page ; 

Then to imitate him take the trouble : 
What — have we a genius but ince in an a^e ? 

Alas ! Pegafus won't cany donble. 

Ah ! Helicon's fprlngs do not flow as before : 
This, onr L— r — te, knows t» his cod. 

Read M — '— — , a^d H— yl — y, and five hundred more, 
You'll begin to believe the fpiing loft. 

A Balloon, like their Poems, is turgid I wean, 
You may look long, and find nothing there : 

Jn M— « — — you'll fmcll, it's not me'ant to be leen, 
A great deal of inflammable air, 

We Poets ourfelves, fo far like a Balloon, 

What becomes of us no one can fay j 
We are worth very little — out of fight very foon, 

And are omy ihe fport of the day. 

PHKXNETICUS 

* A Li-very Stable keeper. 



FOB T R Y, 

PROLOGUE 

f fl t he nenjj Farce of Aerostatîok, ferfo rmed 
left F riday night for the frjl time at the Tbiairs- 
Royal, Cuvent -Garden. / /$A 

Spoken by Mr. W I L S 6 N, 

J r *f"" ,, NIGHT's Adventurer with awe looks round, 
jfc_ And news the peril» wnich hi3 bark furround j. 

Three years arc pad iince on this coaft he came, 

Bound on* a dang'rou voyage, in quçît of fames. 

Your unites he'll deem prcpitious beams that rife, 

Circling the ftar that lights his pr lar fkks ; 

And near approaching that magnetic part, 

He feels the needle trembling a c h 2 heart. 

But of our bard enough «erhaps j've faid, 

"VVher, greater cares are UVring 3t ray head» 
I make no doubt to e*tertai;j fou (ôoti 

With a ne*- theatre in a Sta^-e Balloon 5 

No more in garret high dull root:, fit, 

V/i.h rival fphlers fpinning cobweb wit. j 

Like ancient Barons future bards lhail fa'rǤ. 

In their own caftles built up in the air j 

Duil poets then behind a Cloud fhall day, 

Whild fancy, darting to the fouica- of day, 

Bold as an eagle, her career iha'l run, 

And with drong pinions fan the blazing- fun. 

But ere we raifc cur play; houfe in 'he jkiss, 

As Wit's Prime Minifier I'll raife fup plies \ 

For, fad to tell! above, as here below, 

*T:s only money makes the mare to go 5 

Bubbles lhail then be tax'd of every kind ; 

Why tax the light, and leave imtax'd the wind f" 

Firft, far Pinetti's fake, of high resown, 

Wh-i'll (leal the /hirt oft' any man in town, 

A heavy tax on common fenfe (hail fall ; 

Nay, you may fmile, but it affeéts you aft : 

Italian op'ras, like aliens, I've devis'd 

Shall pay a poll-tax to be nat'raliz'd. 

Farce, daac?, and pantomime, with fprites a^d dragon J 

Shall pay a carriage-tax of fcroad-wheePd waggons j 

And as for tragedy of modern date, 

Let it contribute at Quack med'cirie rate. 

A tax too we enac~t new pieces pay, 

Apollo's civil lift expences to defray j 

Living or dead, henceforward we decree, 

Damn'd, or ftill-born, no author fhall be free 3 

Genius ihall pay for being born to fame, 

And duinefs for the burial of its name» 

Thus, if our ways and means the ftate you find, ' 
' I bop* thefe aids Will meet the Houfe's mind. 
On you the ftage reds all her rifing fate, 
You give our wit both currency and weight j 
From hence like gold in circulation brought, 
By all the world it eagerly is fought. 
If criticscome not on the mintage 'night, 
To cap the fterlirsg, and then call it ljg'f t, 
Afiertour wifiVts, grant the meed we claim, 
Praife that in ('pires, and fmiles that guard our fame ! 

EPILOGUE to DECEPTION, 

Written for M& FARRENj by E. TOPHAM, Efq. 

& S drowfy fentries, whom no. thanks reward* 
JUk To yawning Comrades yield the nightly guard, 
Sa one fad comedy relieves another, 
And dullnefs kindly finds as dull a brother. 
Condemn'd to wade thro' all the ftedium paft, 
I— your old epilogue— furvive the Jaft— 
And here am left— poor pleader to atone 
As well for other's errors—as my own. 
For late you felt— aor long remov'd the time, 
How foon from rhyme in profe— I pros'd in rhyme. 
The metred mufe — each paffion chim'd fo par,' 
Sir tag'd out this, and Madam jingled that ; 
«' 'Twas, pray Mr. whac's your name, how do you io > 
" Pretty well Sir, 1 thank you -..-and pray how do you ? 
** A touch of your fnuff-box— my charming Mifs Fyncb\ 
" To be fure, Sir, I'm always your friend at a pinch." 

And yet, fedue'd by Haymarket flirtation, 
Methinks I owe my friends fome reparation, 
For have I not, with ftrange unbridled fury, 
Storm'd the mock tragedy of antient Drury ? 
Laugh'd at her weeping heroes, boxing chiefs, 
Her mournful pleafantry and joyous griefs, 
Made Lords and Ladies all unpitied die, 
Who wept, and fought, and bled— they knew not why ? 

Yes :— but unfullied by this cafual Main, 
Again fliall rife the powers of D(ury-Iane } 
Th' eternal handkerchief be hous'd hereafter, 
And tragedy no more provoke your laughter. 

But why thus dweii on fubhinary things, 
On paile-board fceptreg, and «*n phiyhoufe Kiegi? 
Fancy with airy flights my rtoddle crouds, 
I'm like the nation; -vholiy in the clouds} 
Nothing for them too ■high-.. for me too hardy— 
Giv ejne.a fe cond trip with SJeur Luna»»] ! 
There mounting dauStirfTtQ the %^s"i3'cÎ3*iiîoo», 
find out at lad— that cats way die too fco» ; 
Then (purn at dread of elemental wars, 
To orink. Madeira, and Sake hands with Rarsj 
Jodie the hawks and eagles as I go, 
And leave the gaping « pigeons" far below. 
*--Belosv-- where fattening on Artillery fare, 
Peers, Chemiftî, Aldermen, and Princes ftaje, 
Such fare as makes all martial glory prouder, 
— Store of ftuff'd beef U-tmt not a %ràt* of pd-wd» ï 
Soldiers enfur'd !--and did I wifli for pelf, v 
Vi under-write the garrifon myfelf. 

O what a grand difpiay fuch fcience yields, 
leaux from Pye-Corner— -Belles from Spital-Field* ! 
Jews, dogs, and duft-carts nobly inservtne, 
And Minifters on fcafiolds ciofe the fcene ! 

By puffs inflammable and favouring fkies, 
Jay then, to night fhall cur Balkan ariie ? 
Or, weight and ballaft b.ffling each endeavour, 
Shall it jjift curt'fey, and thea fink for ever? 



p 


o 


■E 


T 


R 


y: 






For the 


General Advert! fer. 






ïie following Verses 


were 


fent up -with 


a- 



Air-Ballook-w tft^A 

A S I M I L E. 

TAN, fince firft his breath he drew, 

Was always pleas'd with fomethiflg néW"! 

And every age fets up prétendons, 

Above all others,- for inventions î 

In our wife times, th' ingenious elf 

Invents a fabric like himfelf; 

For vrt, in Air-UaHoôns, may trace 

Frail emblems of the human race» 

At firft, the languid balls, with eafe, 

Are mov v d about juft where you pleafei 

ïîut, when fermeuting firei begin, 

And the fierce fpirit works within, 
AH fordid Natares they expel, 

And foon th' important baubles fwel'l ; 
Out 4read their fides, and, full of 'foul, 
They grow impatient of controu! j 
Ambitious puff's ! with empty date, 
You hurry on yûur dubious fate 5 
The cords are cut 5 and, freedom found* 
Yea fearlcfs quit the fleady ground", 
And give th' uncertain winds their prey, 
That bears you, as they lid, away. 

Some, feeble and but little w rthj 

Can fcarce'y quit the fertile earth j 

Some, flruggiini; through the dénier air* 

Often are. -b^ndTed here and- thefe-, .. 

Before the mountain they can Crowd, 

By many a fide^wind beaten down j 

Others their gilded forms difpiay, 

And fmoothly win their eaf'y way ; 
Buoyant, their fpirits lift (hem high, 

And urge them to a purer fky ; 
And now, th' etherial regions won, 

The fabrics Acfat fublimely on s 

Still infecure ! for, even here, 

Storms often meet their mid career, 

Soon overcome their feeble might, 

And dafli them from their towering height. 

Others, when dreary Night hath fpitud 

Her duflcy mantle over head, 

In the dark fky their ftations fix, 

And feem among the dars to mix ; 

There, while th' unwonted blaze they fljow, 

Amazement fills the croud below I 

Vain forms ! that wonder can cifpenfe, 

How tranfient is your confequenKe ! 

Tho' favouring gales blow fmooth and ftrorig, 

To bear your radiant forms along ; 

Thb* mortals, as they view from far, 

Fancy they fee a blazing ftar 5, 

Soon fhall your ardent fpirits faif, 

And Languor o'er your frames prevail, 

Which, tho'efcap'd the dorm and blaft, 

Down to the earth fhaïl fink at lad. 

Whers is the Wight, who does n:t fee 
How aptly fii3 the Simile ? 

Mortals, to Air-Balloons aily'd, 
Move not, at firft, without a guice | 
Hapiefs îhrough years they live, and dill 
Are fubjéct to another's will ; 
We mould their pliant forms with eafe* 
' And make them take what road we pleafe ; 
But when, by working paffions preiVd, 
When wild Ambition fweils the bread, 
The reins of prudence they difdain, 
And ftruggle with the galling chain j 
'Till, free, their growing ftrength they try, 
Out-fprtad the wings of Liberty, 
And every ffiather is unfurl'd, 
To bear them on a ftoras-y world. 

And now, the wifh'd-for freedom got, 

Ah ; how uncertain is your lot ! 
' Feeble, the force that fome wiH'trufr, 

Sftarce lifts them from their kindred daft ; 

Awhile they flutter to afpire, 

Their wings dill labouring in the mire ; 

Others with bolder fpiriti fwell'd, 

Thro' all obdrucYtons are impell'd ; 

Tho' clouds upon their efforts frown, 

And fide- blows often beat them down, 

Undaunted they purfue their way, 

And druggie to a brighter clay's 

Others, in gilded plumage drefs'd, 
'With high and potent fpirits blefs'd, 

Ruih forward in a bold career, 

And try to gain t'r». loftied fphera j 

Succefs attends their daring flight, 

And foon they reach Ambition's height ; 

Confpicuous in the glare of day, 

Tbcti gorgeous forms they wide difpiay « 

A purer air they d-em to breathe, 

And fcorn the wondering world bene- 



P O E T R y^ 

PITT's BALLOON; 

A PARODY. 9?j5'/t 

AS Zvcifer no long time finee- 
Was fporting in the air, 
And that he's there a fov'reign Prince^ 

Th* Apodle does o#lare ; 
A carriage he, aerial, met, 
With patfengers a croud ; 
ffaggle, duggle, ha, hi, ha * 
"-Tfte Devil laugh'a aloud ! 

Halloo, quoth $ehibuh, I crave" 

Your names, who boldly dare 
The Terra- Jehni thu-s to leave, 

And fly- in open air ! 
$rri Cure the Devil bid ye all 

Attempt this wicked cruize : 
Huggle, duggle, ha, ha, ha ! 

Now pay my airy dues ! 

A, heavy tax »n each isullopn 

With paffèngers I've hidj 
That flying dares to fcale the moon. 

And thefe my realms invade !: 
AUho' P— —garive does claim 

With me, of Hell a (hare* 
Huggle, duggle, ha, ha, ha !' 

Yet I'm fole monarch here I 

May't pleafe your Devilfhip, quoth P;>/, 

I, and my colleagues heie, 
Beg that this once you will permit 

Our-journey thro' the air ! 
We're all fprung fsom behind ths^Th— to* 
A, mod obfequiaus croud j 
. juggle, duggie,. ha, ha, ha -!■' 
The Devil Iaugh?d aloud ! 

Said Sût-jn, \velJ, as you v re a friend^ 

Ai:d T— pie too it here, < 

You in the Houfe I'll iVfll attend 

Altho' 1 don't appear : 
I, at your elbows always ft/Jod,. 
'And whifper'd what to fayj 
Huggle, du^le, ha, ha, ha ! 
And well you- did obey ! 

A'nd tho r your half-fledg'd pinionsTa^,, 

Your Tory fcheraes purfus ; 
Continue diil at F<,x to rail, 

And his adherents too ; 
By fecret influence undermine 

The freedom oi the land ! ; 
Hu£$!e, duggle, ha, hai ha-ï 
. For that h my- command- ! 

Çtefpifing all that honeft tongues 

In either Houfe edn C»y, 
There's one, to whom high pow'r belongs, 

Shall point yoa out the way ; 
He'll find- you air inflammable, 

A /all you nefd not fear ; 
Huggle, dug^Ie, ha, ha, ha ! 

'.Twill fe*ve you- half the yeîr !' 

JV *•*•*** himfelf- the pUottmake,- 

JtXd Ti— to fl»all afil'ft,. 
Add ft ; s/V Duke a part ihdl take, 

Anà S—ney lend a fid ;; 
And fquinting jfjck fhall hold the firing,. 

For hemp, him well becomes ; 
Jfuggle, «tussle, ha^ ha, ha ! 

Now found your rattling, drum* ! 

But angry jfovj fent Metearf 

Ti^ flop this proud balloon } 
*« Jiy Styx, that bcardlefs boy, faid Iic r 

" Afpires to rale the. Moon ! 
** Tell them that Fox and Portland are 

**• Thcfav'rite» here absve : 
** And Freedora's firmi built fabric, far 

<« Beyond their ftrength to move !" 

« That Pitt has made a pit, that hail. 

" Their own deftrucYion wrought, 
* p And brought nponthem alW^wratW 

** That thry for others fought :" 
This tke, thfn dick your winged ftaff 

Into their airy ball—- 
*tht:n haggle, duggle, ha, ha, ha-T 

The world fhall fee the» fail-. 1 ' 

Pat Ihould fly Msrc'ry dnnce tacarcrr 
I Them, 'ere they reach the Moon J- 
y T/f'.' dr.-ad.-'-d orders to difpa'rrh', 

And ftaj their Air Balloon y 
Oid Lucifer detenr.hies, yet 

To hold fuperior fway, 
He ('wears he'U catch tïiem ia his net, 

And cany them away ! 




T ;■„; ,m «ruTrH HP YESTERDAY ACCOMPLISHED THE FIRST 'CROSS CHANNEL 
"UGHT^BY 1, A^hSSiSSSSS- /LcH SLt^ FUGHT AY r R OM BARAQUES. NEAR CALAIS. TO DOVER 
UGHT BY A HEAVIERTHAN-A1K ^^p^ TWENTY . TH REE MINUTES. ^ 






THE DAILY GRAPHIC, MOJS'DAY, JULY 26, 1909. 



SKIPPING. 



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MUSIC from 11 a.m to 11 p.m. 

BY FAMOUS MILITARY BANDS. 

ILLUMINATIONS BY 1,000.000 ELECTRIC LIGHTS. 

THE GREAT ATTRACTIONS including 
MOUNTAIN RAILWAY, FLIP-FLAP SCENIC 
RAILWAY, SPIRAL, TOBOGGAN, WIGGLE-WOGGLB, 
ARCTIC REGIONS, SUBMARINE RAILWAY IRE?-»* 
VILLAGE. SCOTTISH VILLAGE, DAHOMEY VLLLAGB, 
KALMUCK CAMP, MOTOR RACE TRACES, SPEAKINU 
PICTURES, etc. 

PAIN'S SUPERB FIREWORKS DISPLAY 
EVERY THURSDAY AND SATURDAY at the STADIUM. 

ADAME TUSSAUD'S EXHlBÎTKLN^Litelike 
Portrait Models of H.M. THE QUEEN OF HOL- 
LAND, Admiral Lord Charles Beresford. Realistic Tableau 
representing the Destruction of Messina, etc. Dclignttul 
Music. Altenioon Teas. 



RAILWAYS. 

SOUTH EASTERN AND CHATHAM RAILWAY. 

AUGUST BANK "HOLIDAY. 
CHEAP TICKETS will be issued from certain 

London Stations as follows : — 



DESTINATION. 


Days 
valid. 


Return Fares. 


1st CI. 


2nd Cl. 


3rd Cl. 


I'aiis (via Calais or Boulogne) 

Boulogne 

Do 

Brussels (via Calais or Boulogne). 

Do. (via Ostend) 


14 
3 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
3 
8 

14 
8 
5 


s. d. 
58 4 
il 

30 
48 3 
38 
37 1 
32 10 
22 6 

31 6 
81 
28 9 
34 9 


s. d. 

37 6 

25 
33 6 

26 7 

25 6 
22 5 

26 6 
55 6 
i0 3 
£8 7 


s. d. 
30 
12 6 
17 10 


Amsterdam (via 1 lushing) 

The Hague ivia Flushing) 

Calais 


1T0 


I)o 


20 6 


Nancy (for the Exhibition) 

Ustend 

Le Touquet (Paris Piage) 


37 6 
13 8 
21 5 



WEEK-END TICKETS AVAILABLE BY ANY TRAIN 
(Mail and Boat Expresses excepted) will be issued from 
LONDON and certain Suburban Stations to the undermen- 
tioned SEASIDE, etc., RESORTS on July 30th, 31st, and 
August 1st, available for return on August 1st, 2nd, 3rd 
and 4th. 





Rktubn Fares. 




Return F 


1RES. 




101. 


2 01. 


3 Oi. 




101. 


2 01. 


3 Cl 




s. d. 


s. d. 


s.d. 




s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


Ash ford 


14 


9 


7 


Lirtlestone. . 


16 


120 


9 


Le.xhil) 


14 


10 6 


8 


Margate 


16 


12 


8 


Birchington. 


16 


12 U 


8 


Hamsgate .. 


16 


32 


80 


Broadstairs . 


16 


12 


8 


St. Leonards. 


14 


10 6 


80 


Canterbury . 


14 


10 6 


8 Û 


Sandg:ite 


17 6 


12 6 


90 


Deal 


18 6 


12 6 


9 


Sandwich . . 


18 6 


12 6 


9 


Dover 


17 6 


12 6 


9 


Shornciiffe . . 


17 6 


12 6 


9 


Folkestone. . 


17 6 


12 6 


90 


Tun. Wells.. 


8 6 


5 6 


4 6 


Hastings 


14 


10 6 


8 


Walmer .... 


18 6 


32 6 


9 OJ 


Heme Bay.. 


14 


10 


7 


YV estgate 


16 


1? n 


8 


llythe 


17 6 


12 6 


9 


WhitsfbleTn 


14 


10 


7 



CHEAP DAY EXCURSIONS on BANK HOLIDAY from 
the principal LONDON STATIONS to Aldershot, Ashford, 
Bctonwortn, BexJiill, Birchington, Box Hill, Broadstairs, 
Canterbury, Oaterham, Chilworth, Deal, Dorking, Dover, 
Folkestone, Gomshall, Qravesend, Hastings, Heme Bay, 
Hythe, Margate, Bamrgate, Red Hill, Reigate, Sandgate', 
Tunbridge Wells, \v ratable, etc.; and on Sunday, August 1st, 
Half -Day Excursion to Whitstable and Heme Bay. 

CRYSTAL PALACE (HIGH LEVEL) on BANK HOLI- 
DAY. Cheap Return Tickets (including admission) will be 
issued from London. 

For full particulars of the above Continental and Home 
Excursions, Alterations in Train Services, etc., see special 
Holiday Programme and Bills. 

VINCENT W. HILL. General Manager. 

LONDON TILBURY AND SOUTHEND RAIL- 
WAY. 

AUGUST BANK HOLIDAY. 

SOUTHEND-ON-SEA, WESTCLIFF and 

LETGH-ON-SEA. 

On FRIDAY and SATURDAY, July 30th and 31st 

WEEK-END TICKETS will be issued from PENCHURCH 

STREET, ST. PANCRAS, and MARK LANE [District 

Railway). For Times of Trains see Public Bills 

SOUTHEND-ON-SEA Cheap Friday or Saturday to Wed- 
nesday Return Tickets to Southend and Westcliff-on-Sea— 
Fares, 3s. 6d. Third-class; 6s. First-class. 

Day Excursion Tickets, Third-class 2s. 6d.. bv Morn in" 
Trains. 

SUNDAY, AUGUST 1st, and MONDAY 
ATTGfTST 2nd. 

!D. SOUTHEND-ON-SEA OS. £D 

and Back, Tnird-elass. jÙ 



2 s - 6 1 



6 1 



— — ctuvA JJC*.I1, X mi U-C1USS. Jad 

lurst-ekiss, 5s. ; by the Tilbury and Southend Company's 
Sp'-eial and Ordinary Trains from FENCE V R\ 'M 1 STK («Mi T 
ST PANCRAS. and Liverpool Street StattonsTfîom Stations 
on tne North London Line between Chalk Farm and Bow- 
also from Mark Lane Aldgate East, St. Mary's, Whiterhapel' 
Stepney Green, Mile End, and Bow Ri id Stations 
MONDAY. BANK HOLIDAY 

gOUTHEND-ON-SEA and BACK, oft np. 

Fast Trains leave FENCHURCH ST. about everv 15 
minutes, or as often as required up to 12 noon, commencing 

Special Fast Through Trains from ST. PANCRAS (Midland 
Railway) and by Ordinary Trains from Liverpool S t -t 
Station at 8.6. 9.19, 10.33 a.m., and 12 6 r, m ;U i V Y 
LINK TkketS " a L0ND °N. MLBUR P Y m and SOUTHEND 

Cheap Excursion Tickets from Stations on t^p DTCTPTnT 
AxND METROPOLITAN UAIISwMTl\ovmm^I 
SEA - «• BULLOCK, Manager 



LONDON BRIGHTON AND SOUTH COAST 1 RATTWAv 
(^OODWOOD RACES—PAST TRAINS MON ' 
VT DAY, JULY 26th, FROM VICTORIA to Pwt 

CHESTER. 10.25 and 11.37 a.m., 1 4C > 3 52 and 4 « n I- 
To ARUNDEL and BOGNOR, 1.43 and 4 10 p m Tn M,n 
HURST and SINGLETON. 1.40 and 4 10 n in To Pml^ 
MOUTH and ISLE OF WIGHT 5 [19 »„,?,, )8T, " i " 
1.35, 3.55, 4.53 and 6.15 v.m., Ind from Londo I L\^ Vu' 
10.25 and 11.35 a.m., 1.50" , 4.6 and 4.50 pm Bnt " e ' 6 ' 55 ' 



RACK TRAINS. 
Julv 27ih, 23' h, 
29th and 3Jth. 



A 

3 Class. 



From 

Victoria 

( llsphsm Janction 

♦Kensington 

London H ridge 



a.m. 

8 40 
8 46 



B 

1&2C1. 




ICI. 
only. 



a.m. 

9 55 

* Addi- 
son 

Road. 



A— To Siiigfi)- 
ton, Return 
Fate, 10s. 8d. 
B-To Drayton 
andohiclipster, 
Return Fares, 
'7s 10d..l?s.2,l. 
C-To Drayton 
and Chichester, 
25s. 



Details of Supt. of the Line. London Bridge Terminus" 



SVIOMEY, 

THOSE IN WANT OF CASH ARE RECOM- 
MENDED to apply to 
the oldest-established Company 
THE MUTUAL LOAN FUND ASSOCIATION, Limited 
Lancaster Place, Waterloo Bridge, London, W.O. 



Established 1850. 



WEDDING P3VSSENTS 

^EGRETTI Af-D ZAMBRA'S 

BAROMETERS, BINOCULARS, eto. 

Useful and Ornamental. 

One Guinea and Upwards 

Illustrated price lists free by post to all parts of tha 

World. 

38, HOLBORN VIADUCT, LONDON, E.O. 

Branches— 45, COBNHILL, and 122, REGENT STREET, 

£eiss and oilier Prism Glasses .Stocked. 



84G 



EXHIBITIONS 

EARL'S COURT. 
THE GOLDEN WEST EXHIBITION. 

Products and Inventions. 

THE RED MAN 

By permission of UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 

The RED INDIANS appearDAIIiX. 

THE LAST TIME IN EUROPE 

SEE THE BLACK HAWK M A b s „ACKfc. 

Great Arenic Spectacle, 3.30, 7.30 and 9.30 p.m. 



RED INDIAN CAMP 



Ad. 



REDSKIN v. WHITE MAN 

5-mile Foot Race, Saturday, «St. 
Herbert Wolledge v. Willie Chase-in-Winter, 

RACE at 6 p.m. FREE 
Band of H.M. Royal Marine Light gantry. 
John Coughlin's 12th Regt. N.G.B. New lork Band. 
The Volendam Lassies' Orchestra. 



OLYMPIA. — TRAVEL EXHIBITION— Da ni&li 
Folk Dancers, 3 p.m. The Greatest Atdractum in 
London. Animated Pictures of Danish Royal Bal It ljuce 
Daily, 2.50 and 7. Hundreds of attractions. All shows fiee. 
10 to 10. Admission Is. 



VARIETY THEATRES. 

A LH AMBRA. LEONORA and BRITTA in 

J\. PSYCHE. STEIDL, SALERNO, Franco Piper, 
ON THE SQUARE, Coram, Jury's Pictwea^eto. 

Tel e. 5065 Gerr. M anagin g Director, ALFR E D MOUL. 

PALACE.— AMBLlXlBLNGÎÏÂM, THE FOUR 
vo-ROS ARTHUR PRINCE, MERIAN'S MARVEL- 
LOUS 1 dogI, olarice Vance: bebt jot, naval 

REVIEW on BIOSCOPE, etc. EVENINGS, at 8.0. 
MATINEE, FULL PROGRAMME, SATURDAYS at 2.0. 
SPECIAL MAUD ALLAN MATINEE WEDNESDAY, at 3. 
—Managing Director, Mr. ALFRED^ BUTT. 

T~ IVOhl. MARIE GEORGE, at 10.15. 

RUTLAND BARRINGTON and YORKE STEPHENS, 
T E DUNVILLE — Jay Laurier — CLARICE MA A NE, 
FRED EMNEY and HARRY GRATTAN, Aimie Roberts, 
Jules Charmettes, H. La Martine, MABEL BERRA, I rank 
llarwood, Violet Loraine, The Piccolo Midgets. 
Open 7.40. SATURDA Y MATINEES ( Reduced Prices). 

E"^plRK ADELINE GENEE 

in ROBERTO IL DIAVOLO. 
A DAY IN PARIS, VASCO, etc. 
Evenings, at 8.0. Manager, Mr. H. J. Hitchins. 

ONDON HIPPODROME— RE-OPENS AUG. 2, 

DAILY, at 2 and 8. 3 Schwestern Wiesenthal, Chas. 

Hawtrey and Co., Fannie Ward and Co., M. and Mdrae. X. de 

Paris , and all Star Co. Is. to 7s. 61. 'Phone 4015 Ger. 

AMUSEMENTS. 

CRYSTAL PALACE."" " INVASION." 

\J To-night! To-night!! To-night!!! 

"INVASION OF ENGLAND." 

Peaceful Villaee. Hanriv Scene of Rural Life. 

INVASION OF ENGLAND." To-n'gM. 

Scene Changes to War. 
To-night. Betrayed by a Spy. 

Attack from the Sky. To-night. 

INVASION OF ENGLAND." Crystal Palace. 
Remarkable Sight. Absolute Novelty. 

Nothing like it ever seen before. 
Thousands of covered seats, from 6d. 
Every Saturday, 011 Grand Terrace, 
BROCK'S GREAT FIREWORK DISPLAY. 
Dreadnought Battle. Living Fireworks, etc. 

LIEUTENANT SHACKLETON 

Planting the Union Jack Farthest South. 

CRYSTAL PALACE. CRYSTAL PALACE. 

Entertainments all day long. 

GRAND BANK HOLIDAY r PROGRAMME. 

OOLOGICAL SOCIETY'S GARDENS.— OPEN 

DAILY, from nine a.m. until sunset. Admission on 

Sundays. Fellows and Fellows' orders only. Monday, 6d ; 

other days. Is. : Children. 6d. A Military Band will perform 

every Saturday from 3 50 to 6 o'clock p.m. until further notice. 



HOTELS AND HYDROS. 

LLANGAMMARCH. — Lake Hotel. — Barium 
springs; near golf links; electric light. Bungalow Hotel. 
—Splendid scenery, every convenience; near golf links. 



ART GALLERIES. 



ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS. Lash Week. 

BUMMER EXHIBITION. 

Open 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Admision Is. Catalogue Is 
Open in the Evening from 7.30 to 10.30 11.111., from Monday 

July 26th, to Saturday, July 31st. and on Bank Holiday 

August 2nd from 8 a.m. to 10.30 p.m. Admission oil 

Catalogue 6d. 
The Exhibition will Close on the 

August 2nd. 



evening of Monday, 



THE FORD MADOX BROWN EXHIBITION. 
And Exhibition of Paintings by BOUDIN and LEPINF 

10 till 6. Admission is 
THE LEICESTER GALLERIES, Leicester Square. 

MEDICAL. 

ALCOHOLIC EXCESS AND DRUG HABIT 
cured at home by the recognised Turvey Treatment 
"Truth " says-" Has had really good results.» " A rem!r£ 
able success. ' vide " Daily Chronicle. "-Write for TrSa 
(free) or call Medical Superintendent, Turvey Treatment 
Company, 2, Keith House. 133 and 135. Regent Street London 



TELEPHONES. 

npELEPHONES .by monthly payments throughout 

J. the United Kingdom; same terms for renewals— Par- 

T^ Iar ^ D ^-, Q Tr^' *%!*"»» Instalment System Co 
Ltd., 244, High Holborn. London. W.O. > otc "* ^o-. 



EDUCATION. 

T3EDFORD ELSTOW~SCHOOL (recently called 
±J . Bedford County School), for 200 Boarders. Professional 
engineering and mercantile sides. Special facilities and fees 
for young boys Fees moderate and inclus ve Grounds 23 
acres.-Rev. O. F. Farrar, M.A., Headmaster urounas *> 



ONE HOUR from Piccadilly Circus— A Firsfc. 
. class School for Elder Girls. B First-class School f n , 
quite little girls. Large conntr/ houses. Set "WliTtehaU 
Review" for July -Miss Boyer-Brown, Miss AnseS.Sonthgate ?N. 

QTRAND SCHOOL, King's College, gives a modern 

lp . education suitable for Commerce, Professions Civil 



HOLTOAY_gEASON. 

THE «DAILY GRAPHIC," will be sent 
post free, for 9d. a week to any part of 
the United Kingdom, or for Is. a week 
to any part of the Continent, payable 
m advance P.O. or Stamps. Publishing 
Office: Milford House, Milford Lane, 
Strand f 



NÊWjssUc, 

CORPORATION OF LONDON 
PER CENT. STOCK i 



^e?le O ?ci? 40 '°, 00 STOCK 



Authorised under the -City 




Trustees are authorised bv the r^ , . 
1875 to invest in' thil stock °°^ 
by the instrument creating [tie ft 




The Sîoch will bc^cu Hut i, V 
the Sewers and ConsohdatTR^V? 1 ' 
Corporation in the City of i> lr i ' '" V1 

redeemed at par by means ot "V"" 1 Ll1 
bj the Local Loans 1 Art 1875 JZA^T 
at the expiration of 69 years tt* 1 (l 

The proceeds of the Issue win . t: ",' : 
of existing temporary advanm in i,1 ' l ' ll " i 
ing of the New Central Criminal r' 

The Rateable Value of the^Ditv n f °T ,rt Hl 
1909 was £5,503.755, and a rat/ 0/ ™° ndM 
produces about £22,932 uue ïeni 

The existing Loans char^ahi-, 
to £1,602,000. but in coSft^ t tlw K 
are Sinking Funds amounting w£ t * LV,l " 
net Lability of £855,282, which wîl 
by the present issue. m be l «'ri 

The Books of the Stoelr will v , , , 
where all aBsi^ntTndttS^^B.,*^ 

Transfers will be free of Stan,» r, T 11 ' 

Dividends will be paid halfwSi "Î 7 - 
on the 1st February and the 1st a? " '^ }! ^ ol 
will be transmitted by post u " Ust - ' 

A full six months' dividend „„ 1, 
of the. Stock will be payable it*^ 1 ^' 1 "OBim 

Applications, which m s h " . , Jst ^ v ' 
£5 Per cent., will be receive d at ' "!"' 
Bank of England, Threadueed o % 
of partial allotment the b'h " .^Vi"' J 



making "v 



;!ll . v mffl ■ 



Should "there be'V'surulua 
surplus will be refunded bv c^on,, 

Applications, which "may be f ,-' + 
issue, must be for multiples of Sinn 
be made of a less amount t'.,n ? 

On Tuesdav' the W t " ^ 1 m « r 
but the instalments 1 roatv ^m^ er ' m > ?M 
10th August, under dkcoun Ti^ u "' °" 1 
annum. In case oi : default ir^ rtle ^ 



(ÎPI'osit and iàstS 






■ will he i 



at its proper dab 
will be liable to forfeit 
Scrip Certificates to 

the provisional receipts 

The Stock will be inserihf 
the 14th September. 1909 but R-riS "'! : ' 
tion, may be inscribed forthwith l ] '" 

Applications must be o L„j . 
obtained at the Chief Ca"hier' a nl f ° JI11 
at any of the Branches of t '«, ^ J' ■ 
Mullens, Marshall and Co v7 i t ] % l 'f hw] - 

24th July, 1909. 



PERSONAL 



pRIDAY.-Tliankful wi re - w h 
-*- to-morrow— brave BP.— 



isp CXJ) 



M 



ATJD.— Darling received your kind 
Longing for you my Love always Ada 



TVTOTICE.-The CHARGE for AD* 

FIVE M ^TTT C rVr I a ETHS ' ^™kGVZ, „ cd 
I-1VE SHILLINGS per Insertion. Pavraew 
announcements must be made by P.O. Order or { 



BÏRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DE 



BIRTHS 

BENN.— On the 21st July, at Bahia, Brazil, 1! 

Hugh Benn, of a daughter. 
HAMPTON.— On Wedm daj V> 21st insi il B 

tage, Ashtead, the wife of Edward 11. ll;wi;>tii:i, 
HANDLEY-DERRY.-On the 23rd inst 

residence. Hurstleigh, 42, Arkwright Ennd, 1 

N.W., Mrs. H. F. Handley-Eerry, of a son. <$ 

please copy. 
HARCOURT WILLIAMS.-Oa the 22nd 

borough House, Northumberland Street, . 

E. G. Harcourt Williams, of a son. 
HODGSON.— On the 22nd inst., at Gammadn 

Ceylon, the wiie of John Christopher B 

[By cable.) 
MARTIN.— On the 21st inst., at The Firs, Norton, 

the wife of Stapleiou Martin, of a dans 
PATERSON.— On the 20th inst., at View* ri 

the wife of M. Hope Paterson, of a soli! 
PHILLIPS.— On the 23rd inst., at Holland 1 

Maida Vale, YV"., tne wife of L. Stanley Ptilliiw, 

MARRIAGES. 

CAMPBELL— TRAILL— On the 22nd July, at 1 
Church, Marlow, by the Rev. W. Hume OaiflMB 
by the Rev. S. Winter, Rector, Chirlcs Ihnvaa 
son of the late Rev. Colin Caniphcll, of \\tfm : < 
to Eve Mary Traill, third daughter oi Archil 
Traill, of Sydney. 

EVANS— NEWBOTJRNE.-O11 the 22nd July, at 
dral, Cape Town, by the Arclibisliop ol 
Murland Evans, Bart., to Evangeline m>: 
late Major and Mrs. Charles Newbouruc. oi a 

DEATHS. 

BROWN.— On the 22nd July, at ChicLoster : 
Mary Brown, widow of the luce Joliu 
seventy-eighth year. No flowers. 

BUCHANAN.— On the 23rd July, al 
bury, N.. Jane Eliza Buchanan, wio-v. - - 
James Buchanan, aged sixty-six. 

CARVER.— On the 25th inst., at Ly nnhurst, sir 
mon, the Rev. Alfred James Carver, 1MB 
three, late Head Master of Diilwr h v.oll . ; 
Canon of Rochester. First par 
the College Chapel, Dulwieh, at 2 i0 i.nf, w 
the 28th of July; interment at Wes! JNW" U 
at 3 p.m. the same day. „ 

EDWARDS.-On the 23rd July, 1909 a M n 
London, W., Elizabeth Theresa, the m» w 
Edwards. , c „. t 

FOOTE.-On the 21st inst. at Bexhi 
son of the late Admiral Henry B. 

HAMILTON.-On the 22nd July, at 1 Ubjm 
Barbara Hamilton, of 48 Carlisle Jt ; ; ' ; 
of John Hamilton, of Sundruni, Ayr, offKi «* 
flowers, by request. , „ 

HANKIN.-On the 21st July, at BwteMfl 
ham, Frederick Hanlun, aged sixty-four, 
needle Street, and "The Baltic. 

HAT.-On the 23rd. July, at ff^^ im \ 
Hay. Marine Superintendent at Sou 
Castle Line, in nhs sixty-eiK^u y ear ' 



TRON AND WOOD BITTLDINGS- 
X Bungalows, School Rooms. vM a. 
Stables; expert orders quickly execnted, 
and estimates; buy from THE nianui « 
Goïerameat Contractor, 237, Huwmer^t' 



In spîteoftiie ihterestf'^njfr wÇicn^ffie^prepara- 
tions to fly the English Channel have been watched 
and the admiration evoked by M. Latham's 
plucky attempt, the news that at last the feat has 
been accomplished will come to most English- 
men as a shock. We are a cautious race, 
sceptical of all innovation, and not a few 
have at heart disbelieved the probability 
of success, at least for many years. But 
here it is ; conjecture and theorising are 
at an end : this country not only can be, but has 
been, reached by mechanical flight. The first 
thought must be that of admiration for M. 
Blériot, and everyone will be ready to join in the 
enthusiastic congratulations of those who were 
able to greet him in Dover. We publish a 
full account of the flight from Baraques 
to the landing place in the fields behind 
Dover. So rapid was the journey through the air 
that although the intention to make the flight ! 
and the actual start were signalled by 
wireless telegraphy to Dover the preparations 
which had been made to notify the townspeople 
could not be used, and before warning was 
given the attempt had already been crowned 
with success. While fully and freely con- 
gratulating M. Blériot, it is impossible not to 
feel a touch of jealousy that this historic achieve- 
ment has not fallen to the lot of an 
Englishman, the more so when it is realised 
that M. Bl^riot's success is due not to 
personal prowess alone but to the fact that his 
countrymen had been working without stint of 
time, money, or enthusiasm to perfect the instru- 
ments which have made his triumph possible. If 
the problem of flight was of scientific interest or 
even of commercial utility alone this country 
could afford to look with equanimity at the 
progress other nations are making, but 
since at the present time the practical 
aspect of flight which absorbs attention 
and completely overshadows all others is the 
use of flying machines in timeofwar, no nation, and 
least of all the United Kingdom, can afford to be one 
whit behind the foremost of its competitors. It 
is difficult for the ordinary citizen to realise that 
the progress made in flight during the last year alone 
is revolutionising many of the accepted ideas of 
warfare, and threatening the traditional safeguards 
upon which this island has relied in the past. 
While in other countries the sight of an airship 
steering a deliberate course from point to point is 
rapidly becoming too commonplace to need com- 
ment, here such a spectacle is not merely rare ; few 
believe it possible. In so far as the crossing of the 
Channel comes as a surprise to the Englishman it 
is because he lacks the opportunity to appreciate 
the meaning of flight which is given to the popu- 
lation of . foreign capitals. Many Londoners 
have in the last week realised more about 
the Navy than ever in their Jives before, 
simply because they have been able 
to see the ships of which they have so often read. 
The Navy holds its place secure in immemorial 
tradition ; the necessity for its supremacy is 
recognised, but if this new need of a new form 
of fighting machine and of a new expenditure is 
to find its true place in the national mind the 
ordinary man must be roused by the sight of air- 
ships, and .must be roused at once. The idea 
that any country can wait and watch foreign 
developments is a perilous one, for progress if. so 
rapid. Only a year ago flights of a few minutes 
duration were startling and almost incredible. 
To-day the Channel is crossed. Just as the 
flights of the Wrights in America were dis- 
believed in this country so the progress and 
achievements of the dirigible balloons with 
which France and Germany are equipped 
receive only a cursory and half - sceptical 
attention. They rather than the heavier-than- 
air machines are the craft which must be accepted 
as a vital part of the preparation for national 
defence. For many years it is improbable that 
any form of aeroplane will be developed far 
enough to carry the equipment of men, 
armament, and wireless telegraphic apparatus 
which will make them formidable engines of war, 
but the dirigible is already established as a 
potent military machine. Every month great 
advances are made, and 
increases the danger, 
must bring home with 
thoughtful man the. 
educating this country. 
received by the National Airship Fund provides 
the means. It is seeing that is believing, 
and it may be hoped that soon every important 
town in the c- i-ntr will have had the chance 
of believing in the necessity for the energetic 
construction of military airships because it has 
itself seen a modern dirigible. 



every month of delay 
Yesterday's success 
new force to every 
pressing need for 
The continued support